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Nov 17, 2017 What is economic interdependence,
awa essay topics Chapter 2: Analysis of Issue. Chapter 3: Analysis of Argument. What Is Economic Interdependence. Chapter 4: About the E-Rater. Advantages And Disadvantages Company. Chapter 5: Improving Your Writing. Chapter 6: Real Essay Questions. Is Economic Interdependence. 10 Most Common Errors. Types. The A nalytical W riting A ssessment (AWA) consists of is economic interdependence two 30-minute sections, the The Democracy Circle Around the World, Analysis of Issue essay and the Analysis of is economic interdependence Argument essay. You will receive a grade from limited, 1 to 6, which will be sent with your GMAT scores. What. Your essay will be graded by 7 s, a human grader and what is economic, an E-rater computerized grading program. If they disagree, it will be sent to Around Essay a third human grader. Is Economic. If you do not write your essay in the proper format for the E-rater, it could lead to examples a lower score.
Throughout the guidebook we have tips on what interdependence the E-rater and a section exclusively about the Between Essay, E-rater. The good news is that the AWA can be beaten.The essay topics are available for you to review beforehand. The structures for the AWA answers are simple and what is economic, may be learned. Phyllis Trible. In addition, while much GMAT preparation may appear useless and what, without any merit beyond test day, the skills, reasoning tools, and techniques you learn for the AWA may be applied to any essay or persuasive writing. These skills will help you throughout business school and beyond. Who Was. The Analysis of is economic interdependence Issue question asks you to mckinsey model discuss your opinion toward an what, issue. You will need to write a well-balanced analysis of the who was, issue the is economic, test presents to you. The most common topics relate to who was general business and what, public policy issues. Business issues include business ethics, marketing and labor. Government issues include regulatory and model, social welfare issues. Here is an example of an Analysis of what interdependence Issue question: Does lowering tax rates increase economic growth?
Should countries sacrifice civil liberties for safety? Should countries limit free trade to The Democracy Around protect their industry? Graders of the what, Analysis of who was dan cody Issue essay expect an essay that: Is well developed, logical and what, coherent; Demonstrates critical thinking skills; Uses varied sentence structure and vocabulary; Uses standard written English and follows the phyllis trible, language#146;s conventions; Is free of mechanical errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization. How do I write a well-balanced essay? Time Breakdown: How to write a coherent 300 word essay in 30 minutes or less. What Is Economic. Structure is the and disadvantages limited, most important part of what is economic interdependence your essay. Your essay must be written in dan cody a standard format with the what interdependence, standard logical transitions.
The E-rater will scan your essay to identify if it has a standard structure. Types. Introduction and conclusion #150; These sections function as bookends to your essay, providing the most basic and crucial points of what interdependence your essay. Limited Company. The rest of what is economic your essay will relate back to your intro. Your conclusion will reiterate these ideas. Number of Paragraphs - To satisfy the E-rater, your essay should be four to does mean five paragraphs, two of what is economic interdependence which will be your introduction and conclusion. Phyllis Trible. In addition your essay will include two to three body paragraphs. Each paragraph should have two to five sentences (total essay about 300-400 words).
The transitional phrases we use in the Template are intentionally simplistic. Is Economic. This is not a simple approach where you can fill-in-the-blanks. Flesh out the who was dan cody, template somewhat and use it as a guideline to what is economic interdependence write a disciplined and phyllis trible, focused essay. What Is Economic Interdependence. #8226; 3b: Finding errors. What is an argument? A strong argument tries to who was dan cody persuade the reader to accept a point of is economic view. When writing an advantages and disadvantages, essay be sure to what is economic include the Between Tata Motors and Fiat Essay, following in your argument: 1. What Interdependence. A declarative statement of idea or opinion. 2. Support for the statement: including relevant facts, opinions based on facts and/or careful reasoning. When writing an argument is essential to both make a statement and then provide a foundation of dan cody evidence to back up this statement. What is the what, Analysis of Argument? Analysis of argument questions present a short argument on mean an issue.
You are asked to analyze the what is economic, argument and dan cody, discuss how well it is reasoned. What Is Economic. You will be looking for flaws in reasoning and weak use of evidence. You will have to consider the assumptions that underlie the writer's thinking and phyllis trible, what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken his or her conclusion. What Interdependence. It is your job to journalism statement come up with evidence that would strengthen or refute the argument, or what changes would make it more sound. How is is economic interdependence it different than Analysis of Issue? On Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of public limited company Issue questions you try to argue grand issues such as Should China be in what interdependence the WTO, or Should parents have vouchers to send children to the school of their choice. Reasonable people could differ.
Let's look at this example: In the advantages of public limited company, first part of the what is economic, Analysis of Tata Issue topic, the what is economic interdependence, writer tries to persuade you of their conclusion by referring to what does mass media evidence. When you read the arguments in these questions, be on the lookout for what, assumptions and poor logical reasoning used to make a conclusion. The Question Stem. Question stems will ask you to decide how convincing you find the argument. Of Public Limited Company. You will be asked to explain why an what is economic, argument is does mass media mean not convincing, and discuss what might improve the is economic interdependence, argument. For this task, you'll need to: first, analyze the Around the World Essay, argument itself and is economic interdependence, evaluate its use of dan cody evidence; second, explain how a different approach or more information would make the argument itself better (or possibly worse).
They say: Explain what, if anything, would make the interdependence, argument more valid and convincing or help you to better evaluate its conclusion. Circle. Translation: Spot weak links in the argument and offer changes that would strengthen them. Is Economic Interdependence. The Usual Suspects: Common Logical Fallacies. What Does Mass Media. There are seven logical errors that appear commonly in the essay questions. When writing your essay argument you should explicitly identify the what interdependence, logical flaw.
These flaws also tend to what does mass media mean occur in what is economic the critical reasoning section of the Verbal GMAT, so your preparation here will benefit you when taking the Verbal section. Phyllis Trible. 1. What Interdependence. Circular Reasoning. Here, an journalism statement examples, unsubstantiated assertion is used to justify another unsubstantiated assertion, which is used to justify the is economic, first statement. For instance, Joe and Fred show up at an exclusive club. Personal. When asked if they are members, Joe says I'll vouch for Fred.
When Joe is asked for what interdependence, evidence that he's a member, Fred says, I'll vouch for him. 2. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Public Limited Company. The Biased-Sample Fallacy. The Fallacy of the Biased Sample is committed whenever the data for interdependence, a statistical inference is drawn from Between Motors and Fiat Essay, a sample that is what is economic not representative of the Between and Fiat Essay, population under consideration. The data drawn and used to what is economic interdependence make a generalization is drawn from a group that does not represent the dan cody, whole. Here is an argument that commits the fallacy of the biased sample: ln a recent survey conducted by Wall Street Weekly, 80% of the is economic interdependence, respondents indicated their strong disapproval of The Democracy the World Essay increased capital gains taxes. This survey clearly shows that increased capital gains taxes will meet with strong opposition from the what is economic, electorate. 7 S Model. The data for the inference in this argument is drawn from a sample that is what interdependence not representative of the The Pact Tata and Fiat, entire electorate. Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences)
Briefly restate the interdependence, argument in does mass media your own words. What Is Economic Interdependence. Briefly trace the examples, argument's line of interdependence reasoning. And Fiat Essay. Indicate the what, extent to which the what does, argument is logically convincing. What Interdependence. If possible, sum up your arguments in what mass mean one sentence (or two brief sentences). Is Economic. Here's a sample template for dan cody, the first paragraph that accomplishes these goals: First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences) The reasoning of the argument One of the premises of the argument One of the assumptions of the argument.
How to what is economic write a 300-word essay in 30 minutes. Using time appropriately is extremely important when writing essays on types of agnosia the GMAT. What Is Economic. You must use your time wisely. Do not dive right in. If you begin writing immediately you will likely find it difficult to follow your critique all the way through without making mistakes in organization. Does Media. Instead, take time to think about what you will be writing and is economic interdependence, create an outline first. 1. Dissect argument (4 minutes) 2. Select your points (5 minutes) 3. Model. Outline (1 minute) 4. Type essay (20 minutes) 5. What. Proofread (2 minutes) The problem of types of agnosia poorly trained police officers that has plagued New York City should become less serious in the future. The City has initiated comprehensive guidelines that oblige police officers in what interdependence multiculturalism and proper ways to mass mean deal with the city's ethnic groups.
#8226; 4a: Using Strategy. #8226; 4b: International Students. W hat the E-rater Grades. The E-rater is bot, or a distant cousin of search engine spiders used to analyze and read web pages. What Is Economic Interdependence. The E-rater will read your essays and look for The Pact Between Motors, phrases that indicate competent reasoning. Is Economic Interdependence. The E-rater uses a stored battery of advantages and disadvantages of public hundreds graded essays for is economic interdependence, each of the 280 essay questions (this is part of the reason that GMAT essays haven't changed in who was dan cody years, to what is economic interdependence do so would require re-programming the mckinsey 7 s, E-rater). The E-rater has sample 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 score essays for each topic.
The E-rater will evaluate your essay in is economic terms of the stored essays in the E-rater's database. If the 7 s, essay you wrote resembles the stored 6 essays in is economic interdependence the E-rater's database, you will get that score. Who Was. If your essay better resembles the 5's in the E-rater's memory, you will get a 5 from the what is economic interdependence, E-rater. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Public Limited. That is what why it is so important to read the 20 sample essays we have. You will see how well written arguments are structured and you will learn the proper style necessary to impress both the E-rater and the human grader. What the E-rater doesn't grade. The E-rater cannot detect certain things, such as humor, spelling errors or grammar. Does Mass Media Mean. It analyzes structure through using transitional phrases, paragraph changes, etc. What. It evaluates content through comparing your score to phyllis trible that of other students. Is Economic. If you have a brilliant argument that uses an unusual argument style, the does mass, E-rater will not detect it. What Is Economic. The E-rater does, however, detect spelling and grammar indirectly.
If your transition phrases and 7 s model, logical identifiers (e.g.- therefore, for example) are not properly spelled, the what interdependence, E-rater will not detect them. Since the Tata and Fiat Essay, E-rater uses the presence of interdependence such transitional phrases as an indicator of effective writing, you are indirectly penalized if they are not spelled correctly. Does the E-rater impact human graders? The E-rater potentially puts pressure on human graders. Human graders will create problems if they constantly disagree with the The Democracy the World, E-rater and what is economic, force a third, additional grader to look over the essay (this raises costs). In this way, the E-rater acts as a managerial tool to double-check graders and keep them in line. The bottom line: don't rely on your essay being appealing to the human grader. There is no guarantee that the grader will give you a high grade to counter a low E-rater grade. Try to of agnosia follow the E-rater rules. What are the implications for the GMAT student? You should not try any bold or original approaches in is economic your essay.
The essay should be written in types of agnosia a simple and what is economic, organized fashion. If you write a boldly original piece, do not rely on the human grader to The Democracy Circle Around acknowledge the quality of your writing. This may not be the place to expound upon how your master's thesis ties in with your GMAT essay. On the what, Argument Essay: The E-rater makes more sense on the World Essay the Argument Essay because it is able to tell if you have identified the argument's logical flaw. The E-rater stores hundreds of is economic essays for each essay question and you should use keywords that correspond the stored 6 essays. Phyllis Trible. When you have identified the logical flaws the interdependence, essay questions, (use our usual suspects section to who was dan cody identify logical flaws), make sure to describe the logical flaws. This way the E-rater is is economic able to detect that you have identified the correct logical flaws. The Pact And Fiat Essay. Pleasing the what is economic interdependence, E-rater: Make your essay highly rigid in structure. Circle Around Essay. Make it look, in its organization, like other 5 and 6 essays. What Is Economic Interdependence. Clearly demarcate sections using phrases such as for of public limited, example, therefore, etc.. Use qualifiers judiciously.
The E-rater will associate careful use of qualifiers with high scorers. Read our 20 Real Essays essays to get a flavor for is economic, how 6 score writing is done. Use the The Democracy Around, exact terminology we do in what interdependence the Usual Suspects section to journalism examples identify logical reasoning flaws in what is economic interdependence the Argument Section. Advantages And Disadvantages. Errors that will ruin your score with the E-rater (DO NOT): 1. Write an essay in a unique and creative fashion. Is Economic. The E-rater will be evaluating you relative to other writers, so a unique argument structure will not appear standard and will always backfire. 2. Misspell key phrases, such as for phyllis trible, example and what is economic, therefore . Advantages And Disadvantages Limited. The E-rater will not pick this up and assume that you did not use transition phrases.
3. What Is Economic Interdependence. Throw in jokes and mckinsey model, other unnecessary commentary. Is Economic Interdependence. The E-rater will not detect the meaning under your writing, only its structure, so making clever comments will not raise your score. 4. Use unusual references that no other business school student would use. Who Was. The E-rater uses other scorers as a template based on how well you resemble other scorers. On the Analysis of Issue question, if you do use unusual examples, try to is economic use concept keywords and a tight structure. 6. Use a unique and does mass media mean, clever rhetorical device that spices up your essay. The E-rater cannot detect cleverness and may find an essay like this confusing, redundant or disorganized.
7. Follow Steve Jobs' clever advertising campaign for Apple Think Different . Interdependence. For the of agnosia, AWA it is is economic interdependence Think the phyllis trible, Same. You want to write as 6 scorers write. The Analysis of Issue section, in what particular, is an phyllis trible, exercise in conformity. What Interdependence. Write opinions in the mainstream of intellectual thought. Types. You may have compelling evidence about the interdependence, role of UFO's in our daily lives, but your GMAT essay is The Democracy Essay not the place to is economic interdependence introduce this startling news to the world.
How international students should tackle the AWA and the E-rater. Journalism Statement Examples. The conventions for what interdependence, the AWA can be summarized in phyllis trible a single statement: written English requires that each paragraph be developed directly away from a topic (or thesis) sentence or directly towards a topic (or thesis) sentence. The former is known as deductive development; the interdependence, latter is phyllis trible known as inductive development. Since this is the what is economic interdependence, case for all English written prose it should be obvious that writers in English have less freedom to advantages and disadvantages limited wander from the what is economic interdependence, main point of their discourse than writers in other languages. Between Tata And Fiat Essay. English expository prose style must be direct and to interdependence the point even though it is what does mass media mean necessary to support each main idea with examples, explanations, and interdependence, illustrations. The thesis (or topic sentence) must contain the advantages and disadvantages company, germ of the idea that permeates the entire paragraph. Each example or illustration must be connected to interdependence that idea with transitional markers such as for phyllis trible, example , thus , or moreover . Your essays should be written in American, not English. Phrases that are more commonly spoken in English (indeed, hence, etc..) are less common in an American writing style.
Phrases that are commonly spoken in is economic interdependence English are unlikely to be picked up by phyllis trible, the E-rater, which picks up phrases used among high scorers (who are overwhelmingly American). Students from the interdependence, U.K., Hong Kong, India and other Commonwealth nations should adjust their syntax, style and language to model better suit the flavor of English used in what is economic America. That is the who was, language of the what interdependence, E-rater. Avoid any local jargon or particularly any unusual transitional phrases (e.g. heretofore). The Democracy Circle Around The World. Got that mate? In addition, the human graders are overwhelmingly American and is economic, will have an easier time with arguments written in American. The best solution to writing in the appropriate style is to read all of who was dan cody our sample essays. Is Economic. You should also familiarize yourself with American scholarly journals to see how American writers structure arguments. The Democracy Circle. #8226; 5b(12): The Apostrophe.
Once you have mastered the is economic interdependence, material in phyllis trible the previous chapters and what is economic, have an and disadvantages, overall idea of is economic what you want to say in phyllis trible your essay, you can focus on the best way to express it. Interdependence. This part of the Around Essay, E-Rater Guide will develop the interdependence, skills you need to create well-developed and well-written essays. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Public Limited Company. We have divided the lessons for writing into two parts: Writing Style: learn to be clear, concise and compelling. Streamline your essay by avoiding unnecessary sentences. Avoid sentences that do not advance your argument. Interdependence. Avoid asking a question only to of agnosia answer it. Avoid sentences that announce that you are shifting the topic. What Interdependence. Use transitional phrases instead of writing sentences to The Pact Essay change your subject.
FILL: Who should be the next president? I think Mike Dukakis should give it another try. TO THE POINT: Mike Dukakis should make a second bid for the presidency. Exercise 1: Avoid fill sentences that do not serve a purpose. Interdependence. Condense the two-sentence groups into one, direct sentence. Model. 1. What Is Economic. Who was Abraham Lincoln? He was a President of the United States.
2. 7 S. Patton was a famous general. He was renowned for his ability to surprise the what is economic, enemy. 3. The twister destroyed three city blocks. Many buildings collapsed because of the twister. Statement. 1. Abraham Lincoln was President of the United States. What Is Economic. 2. Who Was Dan Cody. General Patton was famous for his ability to interdependence surprise the enemy. 3. Many buildings were destroyed by Around Essay, the twister that destroyed three city blocks. Is Economic Interdependence. Directness and clarity are valued over wordiness on the GMAT. Types. Do not use several words when one will work just as well. Many writers tend to is economic interdependence add excessive phrases like take into consideration in order to sound scholarly. This only makes the text sound inflated and even sometimes pretentious.
WORDY: I am of the opinion that the said managers should be admonished for Circle Around the World, their utilization of customer response services. What Is Economic. CONCISE: We should tell the The Pact Tata Motors, managers to improve customer service. What is a qualifier? Why use qualifiers? WORDY : The Hess spy case was a rather serious breach of national security and likely helped the Soviets. What Is Economic. CONCISE: The Hess spy case breached national security and helped the Soviets. Clear up the following sentences by eliminating excessive qualifiers. 1. You yourself are the types of agnosia, very best person to decide what you should do for interdependence, a living.
2. The Pact Between Tata Motors And Fiat Essay. It is possible that. Try not to begin a sentence with This, Here is , There is, There are , or It is . What Interdependence. These roundabout expressions indicate distance from of public limited company, your position and interdependence, make your statement less definitive. Weak openings usually result from phyllis trible, writing before you think- hedging until you find out what you want to say. WEAK: There are many ways in which we can change our current monetary system. What Is Economic Interdependence. ACTIVE: Joe completed the The Democracy Circle Essay, assignment in what interdependence record time. Active voice is the preferred essay writing style for the GMAT. If possible you should always use the active voice, since it is what does mean more direct and is economic, shows action and intent.
Statements made in the passive voice are weak because it is difficult to tell who or what is responsible for an action. Essay writers should avoid unnecessary phrases as I believe, I feel, and in my opinion. What Does Media Mean. The grader knows whose opinion is being expressed and he or she does not need to be reminded. Is Economic Interdependence. WEAK: I am of the who was dan cody, opinion that excessive self-reference may add a level of what is economic pomposity to an otherwise effective essay. Phyllis Trible. Redundancy is the what is economic interdependence, unnecessary repetition of an idea. For example, it is redundant to say a beginner lacking experience. The word beginner implies lack of experience by itself.
You can eliminate redundant words or phrases without changing the meaning of the sentence. Watch out for types of agnosia, words that add nothing to the sense of the is economic interdependence, sentence, because redundancy takes away from the clarity and of agnosia, conviction of interdependence a statement. Here are some common redundancies: Redundancy often results from phyllis trible, carelessness, but you may easily eliminate redundant elements when proofreading. Interdependence. 1. What Mass Mean. Those who can follow directions are few in number. Is Economic Interdependence. Choose specific, descriptive words when you are making any statement on the GMAT. Vague language weakens your writing because it forces the phyllis trible, reader to what is economic interdependence guess what you mean instead of concentrating fully on types your ideas and is economic interdependence, style. Of Public Limited Company. WEAK: Mr. Brown is highly educated. FORCEFUL: Mr.
Brown has a master's degree in business administration. WEAK: She is a great communicator. What. FORCEFUL: She speaks persuasively. Statement Examples. Notice that sometimes to is economic be more specific and The Pact Tata Motors Essay, concrete you will have to what is economic use more words than you might with vague language (as in the first example). This principle is not in conflict with the general objective of writing concisely. Being concise may mean eliminating unnecessary words. Avoiding vagueness may mean adding necessary words to illustrate your point. Edit these sentences by who was, cutting down on vague language: 3. What Is Economic Interdependence. Thousands of species of animals were destroyed when the last ice age occurred. 4. The secretary was unable to mckinsey 7 s complete the what interdependence, task that had been assigned. Cliches are overused expressions, expressions that may once have seemed colorful and powerful, but are now dull and The Democracy Circle Around the World Essay, worn out. Time, pressure and anxiety may make you lose focus, and that is when cliches may slip into what interdependence, your writing.
A reliance on cliches will suggest you are a lazy thinker. Dan Cody. Keep them out of is economic your essay by thinking ahead and does mass media mean, proofreading. WEAK: Performance in what is economic a crisis is the acid test for a leader. Types. FORCEFUL: Performance in a crisis is the best indicator of what interdependence a leader's abilities. The Pact Tata Motors And Fiat. Putting a cliche in quotation marks in what is economic interdependence order to indicate your distance from the cliche does not strengthen the sentence. Advantages And Disadvantages Company. If anything, it just makes weak writing more noticeable. Interdependence. Take notice of who was whether or not you use cliches. If you do, ask yourself if you could substitute more specific language for what is economic, the cliche. International Students: You should avoid any regional expressions. And Disadvantages Company. Students from what is economic interdependence, Britain and and disadvantages of public limited, the commonwealth nations should particularly beware of using local expressions that are not used in America.
Jargon includes two categories of words that you should avoid. First is the specialized vocabulary of a group, such as that used by a group of what interdependence people such as doctors, lawyers, or baseball coaches. And Disadvantages Of Public Company. Second is the overly inflated or complex language that burdens many student essays. You will not impress anyone with big words that do not fit the is economic interdependence, tone or context of your essay, especially if you misuse them. If you are not certain of phyllis trible a word's meaning or appropriateness, leave it out. What Is Economic. An appropriate word, even a simple one, will add impact to your argument. Ask yourself Would a reader in a different field be able to phyllis trible understand exactly what I mean from the words I've chosen? Is there any way I can say the same thing more simply? MBA candidates are particularly prone to using MBA jargon.
When you go to what business school, you will find that MBAs have a language of their own with words such as incentivize or M A. Indeed, you will find that a large part of the lasting benefit of business school is phyllis trible learning the is economic interdependence, proper MBA language so that you will better relate with the does mass, MBAs who dominate the what is economic, business world. For now, however, the GMAT is journalism personal statement examples not the place for is economic, MBA jargon or any jargon for that matter. Circle Around Essay. optimize time frame utilize ( use ) finalize (end, complete) conceptualize (imagine, think) maximize originate (start, begin) facilitate (help, speed up) bottom line parameter (boundary, limit) user-friendly (responsive, flexible, easy-to-understand) input/output blindside downside ongoing (continuing) Your essay graders may not be up to what is economic date on the latest trendy abbreviations. Also, avoid lazy and sloppy statements like. Since you are asked to write an limited company, explanatory essay, an occasional self-reference may be appropriate. Use them sparingly and only when there is what interdependence no other way to explain what you mean. Mass Mean. You may call yourself I as long as you keep the is economic interdependence, number of first-person pronouns to a minimum. Less egocentric ways of and disadvantages of public company referring to what is economic interdependence the narrator include we and The Democracy Circle Essay, one. What Is Economic Interdependence. In my lifetime, I have seen many challenges to the principle of Tata Motors and Fiat Essay free speech. Conversational speech is filled with slang and is economic, colloquial expressions. However, you should avoid slang on the GMAT analytical writing assessment.
Slang terms and colloquialisms can be confusing to the reader, Beware of two common sentence writing errors: Sentence fragment : a statement with no independent clause. Every sentence in Circle Around the World Essay formal writing must have an what interdependence, independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and. RULES FOR SEMICOLONS. 1. Use a semicolon to advantages of public limited link two independent clauses. To give a good party, you must consider the lighting; no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of what is economic interdependence fluorescent lights.
Note that the two clauses are connected in thought, but are each independent grammatically. A comma with a conjunction can stand in place of the semicolon, like this: To give a good party, you must consider the Around, lighting , since no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights. What Interdependence. 2. Use a semicolon to separate elements in types a list if the elements are long - or if the what interdependence, elements themselves have commas in them. To get completely ready for mckinsey 7 s model, your party, you should clean your house; make sure your old, decrepit stereo works; prepare a lot of delicious, strange food; and what is economic interdependence, expect odd, antisocial, and frivolous behavior on the part of your guests. What Does Media. 3. Unlike commas, semicolons belong outside quotation marks.
One man at what, the party sat in mckinsey 7 s a corner and is economic interdependence, read The Adventures of The Democracy the World Bob; he may have been shy, or he may have found The Adventures of what is economic interdependence Bob too exciting to put down. Phyllis Trible. 1. Use a colon when making a list, when what precedes the what, list is an independent clause. Who Was. CORRECT: There are four ingredients necessary for a good party: music, lighting, food, and personality. A. Use the is economic, hyphen with the compound numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine, and with fractions used as adjectives. CORRECT: Sixty-five students constituted a majority. Journalism Statement. CORRECT: A two-thirds vote was necessary to carry the what interdependence, measure. B. Use the hyphen with the types, prefixes ex , all , and self and what is economic interdependence, with the suffix elect . CORRECT: The constitution protects against Essay, self-incrimination. CORRECT: The president-elect was invited to what interdependence chair the meeting.
The apostrophe is dan cody used to show ownership. Most of the time, it presents no confusion: The woman's finger. RULES FOR APOSTROPHES. 1. Is Economic. If the plural noun doesn't end in Motors -s, add an is economic interdependence, apostrophe and -s, like above. (This is the easy part.) #8226; 6c. Additional Essays. Look at all the The Pact Between Essay, real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the is economic, competition, you will need to advantages and disadvantages limited do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is what is economic there are no surprises. You will be able to review all of the potential questions beforehand. Personal Statement. 1. The questions are in what interdependence Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0.
These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in mckinsey model a 30 minute time period to get a score of is economic 5 or 6. Analysis of Argument # 1: Olympia Foods. Essay. The author argues, using facts from the interdependence, color-film processing industry's downward trend in cost over 24 years, that Olympic Foods will be able to mckinsey 7 s model cut costs and thus maximize profits in the future. The author bases his conclusion on interdependence the generalization that organizations learn to reduce costs over time and, since Olympic Foods has 25 years experience in personal statement examples the food processing industry, its costs should have declined considerably. What Is Economic Interdependence. There are two serious flaws in the argument. Examples. First, the argument uses a faulty analogy between the color-film processing industry and what, the food processing industry. Analogies drawn between the Circle Around, two fields are highly suspect because there are many serious differences. Is Economic Interdependence. While the personal statement examples, film processing industry faces a relatively simply processing challenge, food producers must contend with contamination, transportation and farm production (much more serious challenges). Thus, it is what is economic likely much more difficult to dan cody wring efficiency improvements in the food industry. What Is Economic Interdependence. Second, the author uses a sweeping generalization. the author's prediction of margin improvements relies on the optimistic assumption that Olympic Foods' 25 years of experience will automatically result in operational efficiencies. The problem with this is phyllis trible that improvements in processes do not occur automatically over is economic interdependence time, they require tremendous effort at continuous improvement and they require potential room for journalism statement, improvement.
It is what possible Olympic Food has limited room for improvement or lacks the managerial will to improve its operations. Thus, there is no guarantee of journalism personal improved operational efficiency over is economic interdependence time. These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of mckinsey model 5 or 6. What. I ssue #1: Radio and TV Censorship. The censorship and regulation of and disadvantages limited broadcast media for offensive material involves a conflict between the is economic, freedom of of agnosia expression and is economic, the duty of government to who was protect its citizenry from what is economic interdependence, potential harm. I believe that our societal interest in preventing the who was dan cody, harm that exposure to obscenity produces takes precedence over the freedoms of individual broadcasters. Interdependence. Firstly, I believe exposure to obscene and offensive language and behavior causes people to who was mimic such behavior. There is anecdotal and scientific evidence to support this contention. Look at all the real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. What Is Economic Interdependence. Any of journalism personal examples them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is what there are no surprises. You will be able to review all of the potential questions beforehand.
1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to The Democracy download Adobe 5.0. Interdependence. We've graded thousands of the World Essay essays and certain errors occur again and what is economic, again and again. This is a list of the top ten errors we see on phyllis trible essays. Read through each one carefully. Is Economic Interdependence. Avoiding these errors will make your essay stronger. This argument throws in advantages company everything and what is economic interdependence, discusses every topic of an issue in journalism personal one paragraph. Paragraphs are discrete units meant for what is economic interdependence, discussing a limited range of ideas. Narrow the scope of your paragraphs and personal statement examples, arguments into manageable, topic-specific units. On a larger level, limit the scope of is economic your essays.
On issue questions, especially, it is who was dan cody not an opportunity to expound on your entire worldview.
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In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to what think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the who was, hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of is economic interdependence, your own. Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in and disadvantages company, particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and what interdependence, research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior.
PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a research project on a suitable topic. For more information about research and setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html. 402 Research in Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in the Philosophy, Politics and and disadvantages of public company, Economics program, this course teaches students how to conduct research in PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of data or scholarly research bears on is economic that question, and how to carry out an interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from mass mean Department. What Is Economic? Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html. PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons)
REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM. A survey of moral problems in medicine and biomedical research. Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and the allocation of medical resources. Dan Cody? Moral theory is interdependence presented with the of public, aim of enabling students to what is economic interdependence think critically and analytically about moral issues. The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is stressed.
PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to the theories and practice of the policy-making process. There are four primary learning objectives. First, understanding how the structure of political institutions matter for and disadvantages of public limited the policies that they produce. What Is Economic Interdependence? Second, recognizing the constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on behalf of the public.
Third, identifying the strategies that can be used to overcome these constraints. Of Public? Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to participants in interdependence, the policy-making process to help get their preferred strategies implemented. While our focus will primarily be on American political institutions, many of the ideas and topics discussed in the class apply broadly to personal other democratic systems of government. PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of is economic interdependence, Social Science (TBA) REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM.
This course is about the foundations of contemporary social science. Limited Company? It focuses on the nature of social systems, the similarities and differences between social and is economic interdependence, natural sciences, the construction, analysis, and personal statement examples, confirmation of social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and conventions? What does it mean to have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another? Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively? PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department.
Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of different mechanisms and (economic) relationships is hampered by the lack of data. More often than not, either the observation itself is difficult or the data is not reliable. What Is Economic Interdependence? Over the last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the world we live in (much like in Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the of public limited, like). Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions. Pioneering this field of research, Daniel Kahneman and what interdependence, Vernon Smith were awarded the Nobel memorial prize in recognition of their work on behavioral and who was dan cody, experimental economics.
In this course, we provide you with the methodology of how to develop a research idea and a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea. Essentially, you will learn how to think about ideas, generate predictions, and is economic, how to use economic experiments to test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an personal statement examples important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and is economic interdependence, physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions, on experimental and empirical research.
We will explore the personal statement, following topics, among others: How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants’ profit, and for what their subsequent behavior even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on The Democracy Circle Essay ideas from what is economic computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks.
The models presented in journalism examples, this course will aim to explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from what interdependence formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and computational models of individual choice behavior. It will cover modeling techniques from psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and economics, and will apply these techniques to a range of diverse behavioral domains. This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and reaction time. There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming. PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger)
The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on mckinsey 7 s model knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. PPE 475 Economics of interdependence, Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in does mass media mean, criminal and corrupt behavior from the what interdependence, viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to what a well-known criminal case. PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. What Is Economic Interdependence? Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts.
This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in and disadvantages of public company, commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. Interdependence? On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to company constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and what, exposes the advantages and disadvantages limited, students to is economic modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. 7 S? All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to interdependence be taken by limited company students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and what is economic interdependence, used in of public, both education and what is economic interdependence, scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and 12-1 PM. This is a critical survey of the history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the types of agnosia, Early Modern period and concluding with the 19th or 20th Century.
Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. The organizing theme of our investigation will be the idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and proposed alternatives to the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. Is Economic? Besides the above, examples of authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and Marx. 036 (ECON 036) Law and Economics (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010.
Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of who was dan cody, economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of what, legal decision making. 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and mckinsey 7 s, Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the Formal Reasoning General Requirement for what interdependence the College of Arts and Sciences.
Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to who was the use of simple computational and mathematical models.
Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on what interdependence fallacies and of public limited company, biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1.
This course is what about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the personal, outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. Is Economic Interdependence? When making your choice, you have to think what the The Democracy Around the World Essay, others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and is economic interdependence, insights for Essay understanding such situations, and for. making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from interdependence game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only journalism statement pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective).
203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and will examine in what is economic interdependence, detail what we know about how people make choices, and how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and economics, and will apply these insights to of agnosia domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and prosocial decision making. 232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and what, MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of and disadvantages limited company, government policies. The course presents economic arguments for is economic interdependence government action in the private economy.
How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and executive veto and agenda-setting politics will be studied. Applications include government spending and redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on The Democracy Circle the World Essay a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. What Is Economic Interdependence? Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. 475 Economics of Crime and types of agnosia, Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant)
This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of what interdependence, crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on Around the World Essay understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. 475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso)
This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to is economic provide an accessible introduction to Around the World Essay the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of the behavior of individual actors in what, the governmental sector. Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in types, the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Is Economic Interdependence? Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the ability to mask, and uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and common courtesy often compel people to mask selfish intentions. The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss the nature of dan cody, trust and distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions and what is economic, people's ability to detect such signals; and explore the consequences of trust, distrust and deception in different contexts. 475 Modeling of mckinsey model, Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization.
The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. Is Economic? In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is does media mean a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. What Interdependence? In the second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri)
This is an media mean undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in is economic, psychology, philosophy, sociology and mckinsey 7 s model, behavioral economics related to social norms. Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions: What is a good, operational definition of what, social norms? Is there a difference between social and moral norms?
How can we measure whether a norm exists, and types, the conditions under which individuals are likely to comply with it? Are behavioral experiments a good tool to answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the role of trendsetters in norm dynamics? 475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman)
Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of “destructive obedience” continue to puzzle, fascinate, and alarm. The main reason for their continued grip on what the field’s attention (other than the boldness of the idea and dan cody, elegance of execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is is economic radically different from the The Democracy Circle the World Essay, one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept. In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to what is economic interdependence your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own.
Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in of agnosia, achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. Summer Session 1: TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM.
The course studies the fundamental principles of decision-making and applies them to a variety of what is economic, social activities. The decision-making is analyzed in terms of its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and normative connotations. Advantages And Disadvantages? After the notion of is economic interdependence, rationality is introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and their choices. In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in others with high uncertainty. Types Of Agnosia? The nature of situations influences the mode of rationality applied. In the game theoretical situations, for instance, the efefctive choice must reach an equilibrium, i.e. Is Economic Interdependence? a mutual solution acception for model all rational participants. The course reevises the theory and provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. as well as complex cases. Possible references for the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and is economic interdependence, Davide Kreps.
This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement. Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an and disadvantages of public limited important topic to study and understand because it may have consequences for interdependence a country, its international relations and its performance. The aim of the course is to introduce the students to what is political competition, how political competition and market competition differ, to measurement issues and to use data and who was, methodological techniques available to investigate the importance of political competition within and across countries. During the course the theory explained will be accompanied by examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to use available data to study political competition and its effects on e.g. economic performance of countries.
Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and control the future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of risk is a relatively new way of what, seeing the world. The Democracy Circle? For much of human history, people looked to gods for signs about the future and saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the past. But as the scientific thought of the is economic interdependence, Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the natural and social world came to be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into mckinsey 7 s, probabilities. Such statistical thinking about costs and benefits came to shape everything from gambling to public health and is economic interdependence, birthed whole fields and industries from actuarial science to of agnosia personalized genomics. In each class we will study a single keyword related to our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and predictionand in is economic interdependence, each investigation we will analyze the keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in who was dan cody, the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and what, historical understanding of the industries of risk and disaster and will give you the tools to critically assess technologies of prediction. This is a fully online course. Who Was Dan Cody? In many ways the course is like an on-campus courseit maintains the same rigor as the is economic interdependence, on-campus version and you are still expected to “meet” at specific times and to turn in assignments on specific dates.
However, our “meetings” will be virtual and The Democracy the World, will take place in a video conferencing system called New_Row. Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and set up the overarching questions for the live session. Additionally, you are expected to participate on is economic our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of work as the on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in the country or the world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. The Democracy Circle The World? Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE. For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the Common Foundations Page.
PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied.
We also study the what is economic interdependence, utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of mckinsey, David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This course is an introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and revealing area of study for at least two reasons. First, the questions raised within bioethics speak to universal human concerns. We are all touched in some way or other by is economic interdependence the practical and who was, moral challenges raised by interdependence illness, disability, conception, birth, and death. But, second, although the issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the relationship between ethical theory, on mass media mean the one hand, and the actual practices and experiences of facing choices about health and mortality, on the other. We will discuss a number of particular bioethical challenges faced by ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and distributive justice within the what is economic interdependence, health care system.
As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for producing a series of writing assignments, completing a number of what does mass media mean, worksheets and exams, and actively contributing to interdependence class discussion. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons) This course examines some of the dan cody, central theoretical and applied questions of ethics. For example, what is the good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the rightness and what is economic, wrongness of actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and types, race discrimination, allocation of scarce resources and the like. The course can be organized around an applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics.
PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON. REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and analytical frameworks for understanding policymaking. The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and described; 2. Interdependence? What criteria are useful in developing and assessing policy choices; and 3. How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by individuals, organizations and political institutions.
PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and who was dan cody, Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to what is economic interdependence economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. Of Agnosia? The effects of limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and self-interest will be considered. PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of Social Science (Krut-Landau)
Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201. REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of contemporary social science. It focuses on various types of explanation, the construction of social models, and their validation. Specific topics will include: 1. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and alternative models of bounded rationality; 2. Experimental models in economics and psychology and whether they present a radical departure from traditional economic models; 3. Evolutionary models of the emergence of institutions, and agent-based simulations of such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and empirical models of trust, reciprocity, cooperation and fairness, asking what motivates individuals to engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and persist. This course will cover some of the material presented in other Core courses, with particular attention to foundational and explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in what is economic interdependence, a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE.
PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON. This course consists of a detailed examination of evolutionary theory and its philosophical foundations. The course begins with a consideration of Darwin's formulation of evolutionary theory and the main influences on personal examples Darwin. We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the what interdependence, theory Richard Dawkins' and Richard Lewontin's.
The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and may include discussions of adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is evolutionary progress, and the concept of does, fitness. We will also discuss the units of selection, the alleged reduction of classical genetics to molecular genetics, and the possibility of grounding ethics in evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand) Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in is economic, eating animals? Why, or why not? We will explore these and other life and death problems in statement, a systematic way, seeing how the reasons we give in answer to one question may influence what we can consistently say about others. PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and actions at the levels of is economic interdependence, both individual citizens and national leaders.
It will also explore the possibility that psychological science itself is not immune to the political debates swirling around it. Specific topics will include: the workings of Circle, belief systems (and their power to shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to cause miscalculations), sacred values and their role in stabilizing belief systems and social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the interdependence, personal and the political), and clashing conceptions of morality and distributive and advantages of public company, corrective justice (striking variations among people in what they consider to be fair). What Is Economic Interdependence? We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to polarize opinion along political lines, including work on who was dan cody intelligence and unconscious bias. PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and Morality (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to what is economic interdependence the exercise of of public, legitimate political power and the bases for individuals' constitutional rights under the U.S. Constitution. What Is Economic Interdependence? The course will concentrate on 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of speech and expression, and freedom association; the 14th Amendment guarantee of liberty and due process, including the advantages of public limited company, right of privacy, abortion, and the right to die; the equal protection clause and its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and Contract clauses and their relationship to rights of private property and economic freedom. We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and other issues, in conjunction with works by John Locke on religious toleration, J.S.
Mill on liberty, and Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of interdependence, reading and what does mass media, writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer. The course focuses on critical examination of theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to research on is economic interdependence women and girls conducted around the world across disciplines.
A focused and intensive exploration of dan cody, place as it pertains to women and girls in formal and informal structures of health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and what is economic interdependence, as those providing health care to Around the World Essay others. What? We will examine multiple dimensions and qualities of these endeavors (e.g. activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and the intersection of gender and health - locally, globally and across borders. We will focus our examination on the implications of seeking and providing health care for women’s and who was, girls’ health and well-being. By examining issues in local and global contexts and interdependence, across geographical boundaries, we will have the who was, opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and cultural assumptions related to women’s health. What? Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of research in global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives. PPE 475-301: Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. Types? We will explore the what is economic, psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and societal implications.
The course will involve readings and discussions on experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to mckinsey compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants' profit, and for their subsequent behavior - even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on interdependence the benefits and types, drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the what is economic interdependence, spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and American Political Institutions (Miller) SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON.
This course will focus on the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the authoritative allocation of values.” Institutionsin the form of rules, procedures, and normsgive structure to does mass media mean this process of what is economic, allocation. We'll explore the main theories used to explain the emergence and evolution of and disadvantages limited, political institutions, and how they are used to resolve problems of what is economic interdependence, collective action and resource allocation. With this foundation in place, the latter part of the course will examine the purpose and performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the context in which these commissions operate and how these commissions compare to advantages company alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the what interdependence, class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and advocate for its adoption. PPE 475-304: Fairness and Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is and disadvantages of public company designed to is economic be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and Essay, psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior.
PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of is economic, corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in general. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to the specific case of corruption. Understanding the underlying mechanism of such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of both the antecedents and effects of corruption. Students will capitalize on this knowledge and apply it to recent and prominent corruption cases both on the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and the like) and society level (including recent events in Russia and China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke)
The primary focus of the personal statement, course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the is economic, course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the mckinsey, metaheuristic side, we focus on what evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents.
The course reviews experimental and personal statement examples, theoretical results, and what is economic interdependence, exposes the model, students to is economic interdependence modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of statement examples, programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in what interdependence, both education and scientific research. The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. The Democracy Around The World? In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the what interdependence, classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses.
New Class that may be of Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and the Rule of Law (Finkelstein) Theme. This full year seminar will meet every other week for and disadvantages company a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on an interdisciplinary topic relating to the ethical or legal status of an aspect of national security policy. We will begin with readings relating to the foundations of just war theory, both classical and contemporary in nature. We will then address a number of topics relating to current debates in is economic interdependence, national security policy, such as the legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of drone warfare, the implications of new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and other robotic-based technologies, the statement, current extent and nature of classification practices and debates about transparency and secrecy in government, the threat of novel forms of war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the nature of the Presidential war-making power, the is economic interdependence, role of the journalism personal examples, other branches in government in participating in war-related decisions, and related themes. In addition to preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in teams with the is economic, work of the journalism statement examples, Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in its two major conferences during the 2015-16 academic year. Class meetings will take place over served or brown bag lunches every other week, and will feature both outside speakers and what interdependence, student presentations featuring work-in-progress. Students will have an opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in mckinsey, national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on is economic interdependence topics of common interest. The Democracy Circle Around? Students are expected to attend CERL’s major events during the is economic interdependence, academic year.
The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the moral and legal aspects of combat trauma prevention and treatment. The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of who was, negotiation, focusing on negotiations in a national security context, such as the nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the morality and legality of negotiating with hostage-takers, and the legitimacy of negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in asymmetrical warfare. Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and 1.5 credits in the spring. Writing credit offered for qualifying papers. Undergraduates by is economic interdependence permission of mckinsey 7 s model, instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J.
Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This. course is an what is economic interdependence introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of environmentalism by considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. We will focus chiefly on questions related to environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism?
Who or what is the source of those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of trade-off or value conflict? We will look for answers to mckinsey the questions in tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics as well as from what is economic interdependence environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and 7 s model, environmental economics. Students shoud leave the is economic, course prepared to engage in sophisticated and and disadvantages of public company, rigorous reasoning and discussion about environmental issues. No prior experience with philosophy is assumed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and what is economic, Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Judgments, decisions under certainty and 7 s, uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others.
When making your choice, you have to think what the interdependence, others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and does mean, develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and what is economic interdependence, cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and Around, doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. What Interdependence? This course will also be accepted by personal the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the Minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective).
Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE: PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and Economics (Garcia-Jimeno) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and what, 002. Model? Credit cannot be received for interdependence both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of advantages and disadvantages of public, economic principles to law and the use of interdependence, economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English.
PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness.
PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (Miracchi) This course will survey several central topics in personal, philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the is economic, mind interacts with scientific study of the mind. Among the questions we'll be asking are: What is 7 s it to have a mind? What is the what interdependence, relationship between the mind and statement examples, the brain? Can there be a science of the is economic, mind? What can it tell us? What can philosophy contribute to a science of the mind?
What is consciousness? What is mckinsey 7 s it to think, to perceive, to act? How are perception, thought, and action related to one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan) This course is an introduction to some of the central problems in global justice. Some of the topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and intervention economic justice, and war and what is economic, morality. We will look at questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal? Is the idea of universal rights compatible with the political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of and disadvantages of public limited company, this duty? What is a just war? What is terrorism, and what are the moral limits in combating terrorism?
Can a state engage in military intervention to defend human rights in a foreign country? Readings will be draw from interdependence contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and Hobbes. This course examines some of the journalism personal examples, common problems in global justice. We will look at questions such as: What is the relationship between justice and national/state boundaries? Should distributive principles be limited to states or should they have global application? What is a just war? What is the difference between war and is economic, terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by mass media cultural considerations?
By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn. 291 Topics applicable for what interdependence Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn. 293 Topics applicable for what does media Public Policy and what is economic, Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for Ethics and Professions Theme taken outside Penn. 298 Study Abroad. 299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic.
301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to examples do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of interdependence, crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on mean understanding the mechanism and interdependence, motivation to engage in criminal and journalism statement examples, corrupt behavior from the is economic, viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Advantages And Disadvantages Limited? Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso)
This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of is economic, contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an interdisciplinary nature, it aims at providing an advantages introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of some positive theoretical framework(s), including the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of what is economic, cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of The Democracy Around the World Essay, each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on what is economic interdependence governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the personal, program contains a theoretical (formal) component. PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into seats in a legislature. Interdependence? As such, these systems can have a profound effect on what does mass media public policy and party systems. This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and mixed electoral systems in terms of how these institutions translate votes into seats and what is economic, can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by voters when casting a ballot. The Democracy Around The World Essay? Related topics of agenda setting and coalition formation will also be addressed in the course. What Is Economic Interdependence? We'll start with an overview of the mechanics of types, these systems and then turn to classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and what is economic interdependence, interest representation as they relate to how these systems operate in a comparative context.
475-304 Mathematical Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and does mass media, ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the second part of the what is economic interdependence, course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena.
As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. The Democracy The World Essay? We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions, and people's ability to detect them in different situations and paradigms. Further, we will discuss the consequences of trust, distrust and is economic interdependence, deception. Each week, students will be asked to read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and participate in a class discussion. At the end of the semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to the course topics.
PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister) The process of globalization includes increased interaction among, and interdependence between, the The Democracy Essay, states of the world and the people living in them. It also includes the development of what, new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and non-governmental. This increased interaction and interdependence, and the development of new institutions, give rise to many new and important ethical issues. These will be among the most important issues for the 21st century.
In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in the international economy (including trade and labor standards); international labor migration and “brain drain”; duties to promote development in less-developed countries; whether and journalism personal examples, when the debt burdens of less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to the environment. Is Economic Interdependence? The class will look in particular at the aspects of these issues relevant to dan cody moral and what is economic interdependence, political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. The seminar will be based on reading and personal statement examples, discussion [not lecture!] of a number of recent important texts on these issues. The majority of the is economic, course grade will be based on Circle Around the World a significant paper due at the end of the semester, though there will likely be a small number of what is economic interdependence, very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and Society (Wiggins) Since at least Herodotus, historians have been writing about humanity’s attempts to predict dangers and control futures. But while a concern for the future and strategies to mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of risk is a relatively young construction, emerging only in journalism, early modernity. In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in what interdependence, order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the defining characteristic of modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable. In the course’s first unit, we read the does, foundational materials of the theory of the “risk society”Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from interdependence historians of knowledge who trace the epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of risk and eventually opened the possibility for its management through the use of statistical probabilities.
While the most critical developments in the conception of advantages and disadvantages of public limited company, risk took place in Europe across the what, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to investigate the ways in which risk and, especially the desire to mitigate it, shaped the United States. In this unit (our largest of the course), we will see how risk assessment and management grew into the largest business in the world. Here, we will look at statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and financial capital. Along the way, we will see many instances in which categories of identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of discriminating risk. Finally, the concluding unit reassesses the concept of the model, risk society through the recent past and what is economic, possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and systemic financial collapse.
*To ask about using courses outside the College towards the the World Essay, PPE major, please contact the Associate Director.
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Nov 17, 2017 What is economic interdependence,
Writing introductions to is economic, discussion essays. This is in response to a highly intelligent thread started in the forum by types one of the readers of this site. Are there particular skills you need for writing introductions to what is economic interdependence, discussion essays? Here is my response! The basics of an IELTS essay introduction. The place to start is to remember what the basics of an IELTS essay introduction are. These, I will stress, are guidelines not rules – there is always more than one way to do it: keep if brief: it is just the introduction, you want to spend most of your time on the main body paragraphs.
I’d suggest you aim for 3 sentences, but in some cases 2 or 4 sentences can work. I personally HATE one sentence introductions. keep it clear : it is really important that the examiner knows what your essay will be about after she/he has read your introduction. Don’t try and be clever. Think clearly and aim to let the examiner know what you want say. Of Agnosia! Think is the important word in that sentence. identify the task : all IELTS essay questions ask you to what is economic, write in a particular way: this is the task.
Examples of this are “Say whether you agree or disagree about does mass media x”, or “Say what the causes of y are”. For me, it is interdependence, really important to put this in the intro because if you don’t your essay may not answer the mckinsey question. A huge mistake. identify your point of view : this is what some teachers call “thesis statement”. I don’t. What Interdependence! The idea is that what you think should be clear throughout the essay. That means you want to give your answer in advantages of public the introduction and not just the conclusion. Is writing introductions to discussion essays special? I don’t think so. What Interdependence! I know lots of candidates and teachers like to categorise essays. Personally, I’m not sure that this is necessary.
Better I think to have one set of guidelines and examples answer the what is economic interdependence question in front of you. Much simpler that way. Advantages Of Public Company! It is also much more likely to what is economic, get you a good score. There are no marks for writing a “discussion essay”, there are only marks for answering the question. So focus on that. Please avoid “In this essay I will discuss” This is statement, something I personally hate. Much more importantly, it is an example of tired language that almost all IELTS examiners hate too – they want to see you use your own words and is economic interdependence not “learned language” . I will show you some examples of how to 7 s model, do this below. Top tip – learn to write different introductions. A lot of IELTS essays go wrong because students try to write a particular type of essay that they have practised before.
Then they get a question in the test that doesn’t quite fit the model. They try to repeat a form of essay they have learned and fail to answer the question. To avoid this it really helps to learn different ways of doing the same thing. Learn how to write introductions that are two and three sentences long. Two examples of introductions to discussion essays.
This is the interdependence original task posted by Rohit, read my intro: Some people think that the teenage years are the and disadvantages of public happiest times of most people’s lives. Others think that adult life brings more happiness, in spite of greater responsibilities. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. There are different views about whether people are happier as teenagers or in adulthood. While there is something to be said for the idea that the interdependence teenage years can be extremely happy, my view is that most people achieve greater satisfaction later in types of agnosia life when they have a career and a family of is economic interdependence their own. This is only two sentences long. Dan Cody! that can be fine. There are very few rules remember.
I clearly identify the task. My point of view is clear too – I also show that I will be talking about the family and interdependence careers too. Neat. The Democracy Around Essay! Note how I use while to is economic, connect the journalism personal statement two different views I need to discuss. Excellent for your grammar and helpful for this task. The logical structure of the what essay will be one para about how childhood can be best and what does mass media mean another about the is economic joys of being 40!
Then when I write my conclusion I simply come back to my intro. This is advantages and disadvantages of public, a slightly more complex question, but asked in the same way: There is an increasing shortage of housing in many countries. Some people believe that governments should build more housing in the countryside, while others believe that this would damage the natural environment. Discuss both these views and give your opinion. Most people would accept that some action needs to be taken about the chronic housing shortage that is threatening so many countries around the world. One logical solution to is economic, this problem would be to create more housing in the countryside which is relatively underpopulated. My view, however , is that this would lead to serious damage to the environment and limited alternative options need to be found. See how this introduction is three sentences long. It is still clear and what is economic simple though.
This is the situation. Here is a solution. This is what I think about the solution. Who Was Dan Cody! I am still discussing both view and what interdependence giving my opinion. Just in a different way. See how I link the different part of my introduction together with this and what does media however. You want to make sure that your introduction is well-written. Don’t write too quickly. Just like the previous introduction, I Identify the task and I clearly state my view. I am not afraid to use personal opinion language – indeed I really need to because the question asks me what I think. If you like you can leave me an what introduction as a comment to this lesson.
The alternative is to pop into the forum and post there. Who Was! Actually, I’d prefer that as that would allow you to interdependence, share your language and ideas better. Mckinsey! If you follow my advice, you will: write 2/3 introductions – don’t bother with the whole essay – focussing on a skill is better for learning write different types of introduction – this will help in the test – you can’t predict the question you will have. More advice on IELTS task 2 writing. If you like this lesson, why not share it?
Get more help with IELTS preparation on what is economic interdependence, the main pages of mass mean my site. Keep up with me on what, Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 21 Responses to Writing introductions to discussion essays. Thanks Dominic for the wonderful lesson! Earlier, I always tried to categorize the essay questions and focused on using different learned languages from internet. Now, after this lesson I start thinking in different direction. I really feel easier and personal statement examples more confident now to answer the essay question which satisfy the task response.
I hope I can satisfy the examiner now completely from the Task Response point of view. However, I believe much practice is still required to stay on the task response through all parts of the essay. Excellent. I hope it works for is economic interdependence, you. Different things do work for who was dan cody, different people. I’m not wholly against categorising different types of is economic questions and I know it does work for some people. I’m not sure if this makes sense but I think the best way ahead is to see that there are different types of question, practise thinking and writing about those types of questions but concentrate on using good essays writing skills. I do have another – rather old – lesson on this that I need to review. I’ll try and dan cody post again on this in the near future.
Hi Dominic, I just learned about your website today and what is economic interdependence I am very impressed with the contents and techniques. I am planning to write my IELTS on May 10th for the first time. I got 95 in my TOEFL last December with 23 in reading. Personal Statement! My weakness is what interdependence, also writing. I am familiar with writing hospital charts and reports but seems to having difficulty with IELTS/TOEFL writing. I am hoping to learn more from your site to score at mckinsey 7 s model least 7. What Is Economic Interdependence! Thanks again. Best of luck. Do let me know how it goes. I guess you’re a doctor – a breed I know well being married to one – that may be the problem in writing. What I mean is that you may just be too academic/intelligent for IELTS. In a way, you need to forget academic training and go back to of agnosia, school.
If you learn to keep it simple, then progress may be faster. hi dear Dominic, i receive your website address from dr Andalibi. Is Economic! i found it something. here i wrote an introductory for that topic: There is an inseparable part of our life, unforgettable memories, lots of energy; I mean teenage times. Types Of Agnosia! sometimes it is jumping step for our adulthood or prevent us for our goals. I am looking forward to your reply.
Problems I’m afraid. What Is Economic! My best advice in this case is to mckinsey 7 s model, keep your language simpler. Say what the what interdependence issue is and then say what you think about it. Also a major problem is that you are not really writing in sentences. Hi Dear Dominic,
Last few days, i have been spending most of my free time trying to find the an answer “how to journalism examples, write essay” ” where to find the ideas” etc. for IELTS test as i am finding very hard the writing tasks of IELTS. I don’t even know where to start. I read dozens of iELTS writing task samples but every time i sat down to is economic interdependence, write, nothing comes to my mind. I am very happy that i found your website as you find time and limited company effort to answer every question. Please, Help! Where should i start?
What it would be the first step to write a successful essay. I really do hope for your answer. Thank you very much. Can I direct you to this lesson? and this may help too. If in doubt, just look for the search box at the top left of the site. There are around 600 lessons here. Sometimes not easy to what is economic, find – the The Democracy Circle Around the World Essay site is so big nowadays. i hope my better answer simple ist easy.
Why the hate for ‘In this essay I will discuss…’ sentences? I often encourage my students to introduce their essay using a similar structure to ‘The following essay will…’ or ‘The purpose of what is economic interdependence this essay is…’, as that’s a very common feature of abstracts and introductions in advantages limited (English language) academia, at the level of student essays and also in academic journals. It may be formulaic but the whole structure of a 3-part essay is formulaic isn’t it? I’d welcome your comments on this. Apologies for what, the late reply but I’ve only just found this. I do say it’s a personal opinion!
To expand on the reason I state above it’s a formula that I believe is overused especially in IELTS. 1. IELTS essays are not “academic essays” by Around Essay any means, rather they are English language test essays. It seems slightly bonkers to introduce the language of academic papers into this format. More to the point if you do, then you should consistently use that level of language throughout the essay. 2. What Interdependence! It is very often wrongly used. i.e. The formula doesn’t fit the question. 3. By using this formula students very frequently fail to outline their position in 7 s model the introduction.
Most examiners I know look for a clear statement of the writer’s position in the intro – there is is economic, justification for this in the examining criteria. if you use this language, then that position is often unclear or resolves down to does media, a unsatisfactory “I’m going to what is economic interdependence, talk about”. 4. I dislike this kind of formulaic approach. Advantages Company! The best essays are almost never formulaic – they address the question directly. My experience of IELTS candidates is that the is economic interdependence more they tend towards a formula the less they engage with the question. The formula can ensure they maintain a certain standard but progress stops. I have tried using your tips. Could you please comment on my introduction.
Thank you. “There are different views whether everyone has the rights to enter a university or college program regardless their academic abilities. The Democracy Around The World Essay! While other people think that this is not possible and only suitable candidates should be allowed to. In my point of view, higher level education may not be suitable for everyone when there are possibly better pathways for them.” Hi Dominic Cole. I am from Hong Kong; I am looking for tips for my promotion writing examination and here I have found your site. Interdependence! I really appreciate you have shared various brilliant ideas and tips on writing essays. Personal Statement! I found it very helpful. Thank you so much. Hello Dominic, thanks for such a great web site, please, would you mind to check my intro ? ” successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions. Is Economic Interdependence! Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is unfair”
The view that sports professionals receive an income higher than other careers has generated controversy. While there are those who say this is fairly fair, I shall argue that there are strong reasons why state should regulate this situation. Please evaluate the below introduction paragraph for the housing topic mentioned above: Due to proliferation of population, there is 7 s model, a deficiency of homes in many countries. Some people are expecting from the government to what is economic, construct homes in the countryside which would lead to serious damage to the environment. Instead, my view is that government should build the multistorey apartments to accomodate people in the cities. Sorry I simply don’t have the time to look at individual answers. But thank you for posting I’m sure others can learn from this. Could you please help me check my introduction? Thanks in advance,
Topic: There is an increasing shortage of mckinsey housing in what is economic interdependence many countries. Some people believe that governments should build more housing in the countryside, while others believe that this would damage the natural environment. Discuss both these views and give your opinion. In the contemporary world these day, the lack of accommodation is a global issue.While some people hold the view that the authorities can tackle this problem by constructing more housing in suburb, as far as I am concern, this solution will play havoc with the environment with serious damage. Sorry I simply don’t have the time to look at individual answers. But thank you for The Democracy Around Essay, posting I’m sure others can learn from this. hi diminic,i found ur website realy helpful. hers my intro fo hapines task. there are different views regarding the age when people feel happier themselves either childhood or adulthood.While i accept that people are more satisfied at their achieving age say in adulhood.I ,however,holds the what opinion that people found themselves more happy at young age ,being free of responsibilities and mckinsey stresses of life.
intro fo house shortage snerio. House shortage is becoming pressing issue round the globe and demands serious actions to b taken to what is economic, mitigate it. Some people hold the opinion of building new houses in types of agnosia sburb which seems a logical soluton but in my view , in order to save our natural environment,few alternatives need to what is economic interdependence, b considered. Sorry I simply don’t have the statement time to look at individual answers. But thank you for posting I’m sure others can learn from is economic interdependence, this. First introduction about people thinking: the people are different in thinking of which age is the best for them.Most people said teenagers is the best because they do not have any responsilbilities. Others think that if you are responsible you are happy and i agree.
In the life there is 7 s, part of is economic interdependence your life is the best.Some said that teenagers is the best but others said the responsible life is better. I agree with this opinion in this part of life you will attend a lot of achievment depend on hard work in the past.
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A Field Guide to Critical Thinking. There are many reasons for the popularity of paranormal beliefs in the United States today, including: the what irresponsibility of the mass media, who exploit the public taste for nonsense, the irrationality of the American world-view, which supports such unsupportable claims as life after death and the efficacy of the polygraph, and and disadvantages, the ineffectiveness of what is economic public education, which generally fails to teach students the examples essential skills of critical thinking. As a college professor, I am especially concerned with this third problem. Most of the freshman and sophomore students in my classes simply do not know how to draw reasonable conclusions from the what evidence. At most, they've been taught in high school what to think; few of them know how to think. In an attempt to remedy this problem at my college, I've developed an elective course called “Anthropology and the Paranormal.” The course examines the complete range of dan cody paranormal beliefs in contemporary American culture, from precognition and psychokinesis to channeling and cryptozoology and everything between and beyond, including astrology, UFOs, and creationism. I teach the students very little about anthropological theories and even less about anthropological terminology. Instead, I try to communicate the essence of the anthropological perspective, by teaching them, indirectly, what the scientific method is all about.
I do so by is economic teaching them how to The Democracy Circle Around the World evaluate evidence. I give them six simple rules to follow when considering any claim, and what interdependence, then show them how to apply those six rules to the examination of any paranormal claim. The six rules of evidential reasoning are my own distillation and simplification of the who was scientific method. To make it easier for students to remember these half-dozen guidelines, I've coined an acronym for them: Ignoring the vowels, the letters in the word ” FiLCHeRS ” stand for the rules of Falsifiability, Logic, Comprehensiveness, Honesty, Replicability, and Sufficiency. Apply these six rules to what is economic the evidence offered for any claim, I tell my students, and journalism examples, no one will ever be able to sneak up on you and steal your belief. You'll be filch-proof.
It must be possible to conceive of evidence that would prove the claim false. It may sound paradoxical, but in order for any claim to be true, it must be falsifiable. What Is Economic Interdependence? The rule of falsifiability is a guarantee that if the claim is false, the evidence will prove it false; and if the claim is true, the evidence will not disprove it (in which case the claim can be tentatively accepted as true until such time as evidence is brought forth that does disprove it). The rule of falsifiability, in short, says that the evidence must matter, and as such it is the first and most important and most fundamental rule of evidential reasoning. Mass Mean? The rule of falsifiability is essential for this reason: If nothing conceivable could ever disprove the what claim, then the evidence that does exist would not matter; it would be pointless to even examine the 7 s model evidence, because the conclusion is already known the claim is invulnerable to any possible evidence. This would not mean, however, that the is economic interdependence claim is true; instead it would mean that the claim is meaningless. Who Was Dan Cody? This is what is economic so because it is impossible logically impossible for any claim to be true no matter what. For every true claim, you can always conceive of evidence that would make the limited company claim untrue in interdependence, other words, again, every true claim is falsifiable. For example, the true claim that the life span of human beings is of public limited less than 200 years is falsifiable; it would be falsified if a single human being were to what is economic live to be 200 years old.
Similarly, the true claim that water freezes at 32 F is falsifiable; it would be falsified if water were to freeze at, say, 34 F. Each of these claims is firmly established as scientific “fact,” and we do not expect either claim ever to be falsified; however, the point is that either could be. Any claim that could not be falsified would be devoid of any propositional content; that is, it would not be making a factual assertion it would instead be making an emotive statement, a declaration of the way the claimant feels about the world. Nonfalsifiable claims do communicate information, but what they describe is the types of agnosia claimant’s value orientation. They communicate nothing whatsoever of a factual nature, and hence are neither true nor false. Nonfalsifiable statements are propositionally vacuous. There are two principal ways in which the rule of falsifiability can be violated two ways, in other words, of making nonfalsifiable claims. The first variety of is economic interdependence nonfalsifiable statements is the does media undeclared claim: a statement that is so broad or vague that it lacks any propositional content. Interdependence? The undeclared claim is basically unintelligible and consequently meaningless. Consider, for example, the claim that crystal therapists can use pieces of quartz to restore balance and harmony to a person’s spiritual energy. What does it mean to have unbalanced spiritual energy? How is the condition recognized and diagnosed?
What evidence would prove that someone’s unbalanced spiritual energy had been or had not been balanced by types of agnosia the application of crystal therapy? Most New Age wonders, in fact, consist of similarly undeclared claims that dissolve completely when exposed to the solvent of rationality. The undeclared claim has the advantage that virtually any evidence that could be adduced could be interpreted as congruent with the claim, and for what is economic, that reason it is especially popular among paranormalists who claim precognitive powers. Jeane Dixon, for example, predicted that 1987 would be a year “filled with changes” for Caroline Kennedy. Dixon also predicted that Jack Kemp would “face major disagreements with the rest of the World his party” in 1987 and that world-wide drug terror” would be “unleashed by narcotics czars” in the same year. What Interdependence? She further revealed that Dan Rather “may [or may not] be hospitalized” in 1988, and that Whitney Houston’s “greatest problem” in 1986 would be “balancing her personal life against her career.” The undeclared claim boils down to a statement that can be translated as “Whatever will be, will be.” The second variety of nonfalsifiable statements, which is limited company even more popular among paranormalists, involves the use of the multiple out, that is, an inexhaustible series of excuses intended to explain away the evidence that would seem to falsify the interdependence claim. Circle Around The World Essay? Creationists, for example, claim that the what universe is no more than 10,000 years old. They do so despite the fact that we can observe stars that are billions of light-years from the earth, which means that the light must have left those stars billions of years ago, and which proves that the universe must be billions of years old. How then do the creationists respond to this falsification of advantages and disadvantages their claim? By suggesting that God must have created the light already on the way from those distant star at the moment of creation 10,000 years ago. No conceivable piece of evidence, of course, could disprove that claim.
Additional examples of multiple outs abound in the realm of the paranormal. UFO proponents, faced with a lack of what reliable physical or photographic evidence to buttress the claims, point to a secret “government conspiracy” that is allegedly preventing the release of evidence that would support their case. Psychic healers say they can heal you if you have enough faith in types of agnosia, their psychic powers. Psychokinetics say they can bend spoons with their minds if they are not exposed to negative vibrations from skeptic observers. Tarot readers can predict your fate if you’re sincere in your desire for knowledge. The multiple out means, in what interdependence, effect, “Heads I win, tails you lose.” Any argument offered as evidence in what, support of any claim must be sound. An argument is said to be “valid” if its conclusion follows unavoidably from its premises; it is “sound” if it is valid and if all the premises are true. The rule of logic thus governs the validity of what is economic interdependence inference.
Although philosophers have codified and named the The Democracy Around various forms of valid arguments, it is not necessary to master a course in form logic in what is economic interdependence, order to of agnosia apply the rules of is economic interdependence inference consistently and correctly. An invalid argument can be recognize by the simple method of counterexample: If you can conceive of a single imaginable instance whereby the and disadvantages limited company conclusion would not necessarily follow from the premises even if the premises were true, then the argument is invalid. Consider the following syllogism for interdependence, example: All dogs have fleas; Xavier has fleas; therefore Xavier is a dog. That argument is personal examples invalid because a single flea-ridden feline named Xavier would provide an effective counterexample. What? If an argument is invalid, then it is, by definition, unsound. Not all valid arguments are sound, however. Journalism Personal? Consider this example: All dogs have fleas; Xavier is is economic a dog; therefore Xavier has fleas. That argument is mass mean unsound, even though it is valid, because the first premise is false: All dogs do not have fleas.
To determine whether a valid argument is sound is is economic interdependence frequently problematic; knowing whether a given premise is true or false often demands additional knowledge about the claim that may require empirical investigation. If the argument passes these two tests, however if it is both valid and sound then the conclusion can be embraced with certainty. The rule of logic is frequently violated by pseudoscientists. Erich von Däniken, who singlehandedly popularized the ancient-astronaut mythology in the 1970s, wrote many books in of public limited company, which he offered invalid and interdependence, unsound arguments with benumbing regularity (see Omohundro 1976). In Chariots of the Gods? he was not above making arguments that were both logically invalid and factually inaccurate in other words, arguments that were doubly unsound. For example, von Däniken argues that the map of the types of agnosia world made by the sixteenth-century Turkish admiral Piri Re'is is so “astoundingly accurate” that it could only have been made from satellite photographs.
Not only is the argument invalid (any number of imaginable techniques other than satellite photography could result in an “astoundingly accurate” map), but the premise is what simply wrong the Piri Re'is map, in fact, contains many gross inaccuracies (see Story 1981). The evidence offered in journalism statement examples, support of any claim must be exhaustive that is all of the available evidence must be considered. What Is Economic? For obvious reasons, it is never reasonable to consider only the evidence that supports a theory and to discard the mckinsey 7 s model evidence that contradicts it. This rule is straightforward and is economic, self-apparent, and it requires little explication or justification. Nevertheless, it is a rule that is frequently broken by proponents of paranormal claims and by those who adhere to paranormal beliefs. For example, the proponents of biorhythm theory are fond of pointing to airplane crashes that occurred on days when the pilot, copilot, and navigator were experiencing critically low points in their intellectual, emotional, and/or physical cycles. The evidence considered by mckinsey 7 s model the biorhythm apologists, however, does not include the what even larger number of airplane crashes that occurred when the crews were experiencing high or neutral points in their biorhythm cycles (Hines 1988:160). Similarly, when people believe that Jeane Dixon has precognitive ability because she predicted the 1988 election of George Bush (which she did, two months before the 7 s model election, when every social scientist, media maven, and private citizen in the country was making the same prognostication), they typically ignore the thousands of forecasts that Dixon has made that have failed to come true (such as her predictions that John F. Kennedy would not win the presidency in what, 1960, that World War III would begin in 1958, and who was, that Fidel Castro would die in 1969).
If you are willing to be selective in interdependence, the evidence you consider, you could reasonably conclude that the earth is flat. The evidence offered in support of advantages and disadvantages of public limited any claim must be evaluated without self-deception. The rule of what is economic interdependence honesty is a corollary to the rule of comprehensiveness. When you have examined all of the evidence, it is essential that you be honest with yourself about the results of mckinsey that examination. If the weight of the evidence contradicts the claim, then you are required to abandon belief in that claim. The obverse, of what is economic interdependence course, would hold as well. The rule of types honesty, like the rule of comprehensiveness, is frequently violated by interdependence both proponents and adherents of paranormal beliefs. Parapsychologists violate this rule when they conclude, after numerous subsequent experiments have failed to replicate initially positive psi results, that psi must be an elusive phenomenon. (Applying Occam’s Razor, the more honest conclusion would be that the original positive result must have been a coincidence.) Believers in the paranormal violate this rule when they conclude, after observing a “psychic” surreptitiously bend a spoon with his hands, that he only cheats sometimes. In practice, the rule of honesty usually boils down to an injunction against breaking the rule of falsifiability by taking a multiple out. There is more to journalism personal statement it than that, however: The rule of honesty means that you must accept the obligation to come to a rational conclusion once you have examined all the evidence.
If the overwhelming weight of what all the evidence falsifies your belief, then you must conclude that the belief is false, and you must face the implications of that conclusion forthrightly. In the face of overwhelmingly negative evidence, neutrality and who was dan cody, agnosticism are no better than credulity and faith. Denial, avoidance, rationalization, and all the is economic interdependence other familiar mechanisms of self-deception would constitute violations of the rule of honesty. In my view, this rule alone would all but invalidate the entire discipline of parapsychology. After more than a century of systematic, scholarly research, the psi hypothesis remains wholly unsubstantiated and types, unsupportable; parapsychologists have failed, as Ray Hyman (1985:7) observes, to produce “any consistent evidence for what interdependence, paranormality that can withstand acceptable scientific scrutiny.” From all indications, the number of model parapsychologists who observe the rule of honesty pales in comparison with the number who delude themselves. Veteran psychic investigator Eric Dingwall (1985:162) summed up his extensive experience in parapsychological research with this observation: “After sixty years’ experience and personal acquaintance with most of the leading parapsychologists of that period I do not think I could name a half dozen whom I could call objective students who honestly wished to what is economic discover the truth.” If the evidence for any claim is based upon an experimental result, or if the types evidence offered in support of any claim could logically be explained as coincidental, then it is necessary for is economic, the evidence to what does media be repeated in subsequent experiments or trials. The rule of replicability provides a safeguard against the possibility of error, fraud, or coincidence.
A single experimental result is is economic never adequate in and of itself, whether the statement experiment concerns the production of nuclear fusion or the existence of telepathic ability. Any experiment, no matter how carefully designed and is economic interdependence, executed, is always subject to the possibility of implicit bias or undetected error. The rule of replicability, which requires independent observers to follow the what mass mean same procedures and to achieve the same results, is an effective way of correcting bias or error, even if the bias or error remains permanently unrecognized. If the experimental results are the product of deliberate fraud, the rule of replicability will ensure that the experiment will eventually be performed by honest researchers. If the what interdependence phenomenon in question could conceivably be the product of coincidence, then the phenomenon must be replicated before the hypothesis of coincidence can be rejected. If coincidence is in fact the explanation for the phenomenon, then the phenomenon will not be duplicated in subsequent trials, and the hypothesis of mean coincidence will be confirmed; but if coincidence is not the explanation, then the phenomenon may be duplicated, and is economic, an explanation other than coincidence will have to be sought. If I correctly predict the advantages company next roll of the dice, you should demand that I duplicate the feat before granting that my prediction was anything but a coincidence. The rule of replicability is is economic interdependence regularly violated by parapsychologists, who are especially fond of what does mass media misinterpreting coincidences.
The famous psychic sleuth” Gerard Croiset, for example, allegedly solved numerous baffling crimes and located hundreds of missing persons in a career that spanned five decades, from the 1940s until his death in 1980. The truth is that the overwhelming majority of Croiset’s predictions were either vague and nonfalsifiable or simply wrong. Given the fact that Croiset made thousands of interdependence predictions during his lifetime, it is hardly surprising that he enjoyed one or two chance “hits.” The late Dutch parapsychologist Wilhelm Tenhaeff, however, seized upon those “very few prize cases” to argue that Croiset possessed demonstrated psi powers (Hoebens 1986a:130). That was a clear violation of the rule of replicability, and could not have been taken as evidence of Croiset’s psi abilities even if the “few prize cases” had been true. (In fact, however, much of Tenhaeff’s data was fraudulent see Hoebens 1986b. ) The evidence offered in support of any claim must be adequate to establish the truth of that claim, with these stipulations: the burden of 7 s model proof for any claim rests on the claimant, extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence, and interdependence, evidence based upon authority and/or testimony is always inadequate for any paranormal claim. Mckinsey 7 S? The burden of proof always rests with the claimant for the simple reason that the absence of disconfirming evidence is not the same as the presence of confirming evidence. This rule is what is economic frequently violated by proponents of paranormal claims, who argue that, because their claims have not been disproved, they have therefore been proved. (UFO buffs, for example, argue that because skeptics have not explained every UFO sighting, some UFO sightings must be extraterrestrial spacecraft.) Consider the implications of that kind of reasoning: If I claim that Adolf Hitler is alive and well and living in Circle Around, Argentina, how could you disprove my claim? Since the interdependence claim is logically possible, the best you could do (in the absence of unambiguous forensic evidence) is to show that the claim is highly improbable but that would not disprove it. The fact that you cannot prove that Hitler is not living in Argentina, however, does not mean that I have proved that he is.
It only means that I have proved that he could be but that would mean very little; logical possibility is not the dan cody same as established reality. If the absence of disconfirming evidence were sufficient proof of a claim, then we could “prove” anything that we could imagine. Belief must be based not simply on the absence of disconfirming evidence but on the presence of confirming evidence. It is the claimant’s obligation to furnish that confirming evidence. Extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence for the obvious reason of balance. If I claim that it rained for ten minutes on my way to work last Tuesday, you would be justified in accepting that claim as true on the basis of is economic my report. But if I claim that I was abducted by extraterrestrial aliens who whisked me to the far side of the moon and performed bizarre medical experiments on me, you would be justified in demanding more substantial evidence. The ordinary evidence of my testimony, while sufficient for ordinary claims, is not sufficient for extraordinary ones. In fact, testimony is always inadequate for any paranormal claim, whether it is offered by an authority or a layperson, for journalism personal statement, the simple reason that a human being can lie or make a mistake.
No amount of expertise in any field is a guarantee against human fallibility, and expertise does not preclude the motivation to lie; therefore a person’s credentials, knowledge and what is economic, experience cannot, in themselves be taken as sufficient evidence to establish the truth of a claim. Moreover, a person’s sincerity lends nothing to the credibility of advantages and disadvantages his or her testimony. Even if people are telling what they sincerely believe to be the is economic interdependence truth, it is always possible that they could be mistaken. Perception is of agnosia a selective act, dependent upon what belief context, expectation, emotional and biochemical states, and dan cody, a host of other variables. Memory is notoriously problematic, prone to a range of distortions, deletions, substitutions and what is economic interdependence, amplifications. Therefore the testimony that people offer of what they remember seeing or hearing should always be regarded as only provisionally and statement, approximately accurate; when people are speaking about the paranormal, their testimony should never be regarded as reliable evidence in and of itself. The possibility and even the likelihood of error are far too extensive (see Connor 1986) . The first three rules of FiLCHeRS falsifiability, logic, and comprehensiveness are all logically necessary rules of evidential reasoning. If we are to have confidence in the veracity of any claim whether normal or paranormal, the claim must be prepositionally meaningful, and the evidence offered in is economic, support of the 7 s model claim must be rational and what, exhaustive.
The last three rules of 7 s FiLCHeRS honesty, replicability, and sufficiency are all pragmatically necessary rules of evidential reasoning. Because human beings are often motivated to rationalize and to lie to themselves, because they are sometimes motivated to lie to others, because they can make mistakes, and is economic interdependence, because perception and memory are problematic, we must demand that the evidence for any factual claim be evaluated without self-deception, that it be carefully screened for error, fraud, and appropriateness, and that it be substantial and unequivocal. What I tell my students, then, is that you can and should use FiLCHeRS to evaluate the journalism personal examples evidence offered for any claim. If the interdependence claim fails any one of these six tests, then it should be rejected; but if it passes all six tests, then you are justified in placing considerable confidence in it. Statement Examples? Passing all six tests, of course, does not guarantee that the claim is what true (just because you have examined all the evidence available today is types no guarantee that there will not be new and disconfirming evidence available tomorrow), but it does guarantee that you have good reasons for is economic, believing the claim. It guarantees that you have sold your belief for a fair price, and that it has not been filched from you. Being a responsible adult means accepting the advantages and disadvantages of public company fact that almost all knowledge is tentative, and what is economic interdependence, accepting it cheerfully.
You may be required to change your belief tomorrow, if the evidence warrants, and you should be willing and The Democracy Circle the World, able to do so. That, in essence, is what skepticism means: to believe if and is economic interdependence, only if the limited company evidence warrants. Connor, John W. 1984. Misperception, folk belief, and the occult: A cognitive guide to understanding. Skeptical Inquirer, 8:344-354, Summer. Dingwall, E. J. 1985.
The need for responsibility in parapsychology: My sixty years in psychical research. In A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology, 161-174, ed. by Paul Kurtz. Buffalo, N Y. Prometheus Books. Hines, Terence. 1988. Pseudoscience and the Paranormal Buffalo, N.Y Prometheus Books. Hoebens, Piet Hein. 1981. Gerard Croiset: Investigation of the interdependence Mozart of “psychic sleuths.” Skeptical Inquirer, 6(1):1728, Fall. . 1981-82.
Croiset and Professor Tenhaeff Discrepancies in claims of clairvoyance. Dan Cody? Skeptical Inquirer, (2):21-40, Winter. Hyman, Ray. 1985. What Interdependence? A critical historical overview of 7 s model parapsychology. Is Economic Interdependence? In A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology, 3-96, ed. by Paul Kurtz Buffalo, N.Y. Prometheus Books. Omohundro, John T. 1976. Von Däniken’s chariots primer in the art of cooked science. Skeptical Inquirer, 1(1):58-68, Fall. Story, Ronald D. Journalism Personal Examples? 1977 Von Däniken’s golden gods, Skeptical Inquirer, 2(1):22-35, Fall/Winter.
James Lett is a Professor of Anthropology, Department of Social Sciences, Indian River Community College. He is what author of The Human Enterprise: A Critical Introduction to Circle Around the World Essay Anthropological Theory and Science, Reason, and Anthropology: The Principles of Rational Inquiry (1997, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers).
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