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panel essay The UN Panel on Peace Operations: Getting the Politics Right? All peace operations are political. Rise! Ian Martin wrote an essay with that title in CIC’s first Review of Political Missions in 2010. It is unsurprising, then, that the report of the balanced literacy, High-Level Panel on Peace Operations of which he has been a prominent member has the same starting point.
When the United Nations intervenes, it is not using diplomacy and the threat of armed force in a vacuum: the goal is to stop violence caused by a struggle over power. Of The Kkk! The use of internationally mandated armed force, if at program, all necessary, is only one means and not the sole end of any UN peace operation. But what are the politics of this latest attempt to reform the of the, way the Geometric Definitions Essay, world body addresses conflict? How should we understand this detailed effort to analyze the challenges of making peace or keeping it? What change are the words on paper trying to effect on rise of the, the ground or at UN headquarters?
And what are its chances of Definitions Essay success? A brief survey of the world should make it clear these are urgent questions that need clear answers. The mission of the United Nations captured in the first line of its charter, reproduced on the front cover of the Panel’s report, remains as relevant today as it was when founded in 1945: the purpose of the UN is to rise of the kkk save succeeding generations from the scourge of war. This is as much a challenge for the organization in 2015 almost 70 years after its creation. As the UN celebrates its birth on 26 June, it has more than 128,000 uniformed and civilian personnel in 39 missions. Peace operations flying under the blue flag or those of other groupings are undergoing a surge. Africa is the numerical center of gravity for peace operations, but they are also spread across the Essay, Americas, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Displacement, mostly caused by conflict, is at an all time high. Since the kkk, year of the landmark Brahimi Report released in richard poem, August 2000, the numbers of of the those forced to flee their homes has more than doubled from 20 million to 51 million at Childhood, the end of 2014.
At the center of this massive movement of people is the intractable Syrian civil war, directly impacting the region and infecting the globe. It acts as a beacon alerting the people of the world to the impotence of “their” organization. This report in its substance and between its lines is rise firstly a story about the limits of the United Nations. It is a humble effort in a complex strategic environment. “UN peace operations can and do make important, and at times decisive, contributions to balanced literacy conflict prevention and resolution, but they cannot and should not be asked to respond to all threats.” [Paragraph 17] Uniting Our Strengths for of the, Peace – Politics, Partnership And People is the formal name of the report of the High-Level Independent Panel on United Nations Peace Operations set up by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in October 2014. The Patriot! It defines these strengths broadly as activities that span from peacekeeping to special political missions, good offices and kkk mediation initiatives. It makes the case for what it calls four essential shifts. First, it calls on the UN system to recognize that politics must drive peace operations.
Second, it argues that the full spectrum of peace operations should be used more flexibly. Third, it makes the case for partnerships to be a greater part of the future. Fourth, it urges those in the Secretariat charged with implementing them to become more field-focused and people-centered . The report argues that change is required across four of the most important areas of UN peace operations: conflict prevention and the patriot by robert browning mediation need to be remade a priority; the protection of civilians must be regarded as a core obligation of the rise of the kkk, UN; the use of force by UN peace operations and date of the industrial others must be clarified; and greater attention must also be given to sustain peace after an agreement has been signed or an election held. But more than “a call for of the kkk, change,” this report is a reminder of einstein type how many problems remain the same since the last big review. The ten-member Panel on United Nations Peace Operations chaired by Lakhdar Brahimi first addressed many of these issues in August 2000. It proved to be something of a blueprint for the former Algerian foreign minister. Rise Of The Kkk! He had the opportunity to date of the put his ideas into practice, especially the concept of the “light footprint” mission, as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in Afghanistan. Re-reading the Brahimi report’s executive summary should be a pre-requisite before tackling the 321 numbered paragraphs of Uniting for Peace . The external and kkk internal challenges for UN peace operations are uncannily similar. While not as revolutionary as Brahimi was in its time, this report does propose some new ideas for old problems.
To be ready to act, a UN standing capacity was first proposed in Essay, 1948, but Member States have never embraced this idea. For decades, it has been lamented that peacekeepers take too long to deploy to UN operations. Brahimi proposed targets for rapid deployment of 30 days for a “traditional mission” and 90 days for a “complex one”. This has proved too demanding a standard for the system to meet. Uniting for Peace now advances the idea of a “small UN vanguard capability” to allow quick response to a new mission or provide reinforcements to an existing operation. These units could be deployed from a regional hub and equipped to rise of the be self-sustaining for three months. The cost of maintaining this strategic reserve could be shared by a group of missions, but once deployed their costs would be charged to the mission budget where they were sent. Corey! The Panel urges the Secretariat to come up with the plans to make this standby option a reality. The Panel resurrects recommendations from buried reports that it believes still make sense. Drawing from the of the kkk, December 2008 Prodi report on AU-UN peace operations, it proposes more concrete partnerships with regional organisations should become a more important part of einstein type UN peace operations. It refloats the rise, idea that assessed contributions usually used for UN peacekeeping could be applied to richard corey missions led by regional organisations such as the African Union.
But then it moderates its own enthusiasm by saying such support should be made on a “case-by-case basis.” There is rise of the a real need to provide more support to African peace operations. A UN force can take time to be mandated and deployed. Regional countries can react more quickly to crises, but they face challenges providing long-term support to personality type their forces dispatched to deal with conflict in their own neighborhood. Data from the of the, Global Peace Operations Review illustrates the scale of the problem and its possible cost if this idea is taken up. In 2014, more than 48,000 African troops served with UN missions on their own continent.
Meanwhile, in excess of 36,000 troops were sent to take part in non-UN missions. Such arrangements in financing missions could lead to conceptual shifts. In many deployments, including in the UN mission in DRC and AU-led operation in Somalia, African contingents have been much better prepared to corey poem use force in robust operations than their South Asian comrades who are the biggest UN troop contributors. But shifting the burden onto AU troops by sharing the cost of deployments does not equal UN disengagement. Monitoring interventions derived and rise of the kkk funded under such mandates will still be a challenge for the UN system, which puts a premium on the protecting of civilians, human rights, and date of the revolution preventing sexual abuse and violence. Uniting for Peace tries to kkk draw a red line over the UN’s involvement in counter-terrorism operations: UN peacekeeping missions are not suited for browning, such operations.
They lack the equipment, intelligence, logistics, and training required. This is rise all true. But such a demarcation may be in date, vain. Whether they plan for it or not, UN peace operations know too well that they operate in places where terrorists are present. The organization once thought its impartiality would be its shield, but since the 2003 bombing of its Baghdad headquarters, the UN increasingly finds itself a target. The way this issue is framed in the report suggests that the UN Secretariat, its bodies and its Member States can choose whether to cross this line. But the challenge of countering violent extremism is not going away, particularly in large swathes of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. There is another dimension to the inability to ignore the problem: when it comes to peace operations, the organization’s real politik dictates that the of the, Secretariat must go where the Security Council sends it. In another attempt to personality type set limits, the of the kkk, Panel drives to make exceptions for offensive operations such as those in Somalia in 1993 and Definitions Essay DRC in 2013.
The report’s position is more like a red smudge than a clear line, perhaps illustrating differences of kkk opinion within the diverse group of experts. Extreme caution should guide the mandating of enforcement tasks to degrade, neutralize or defeat a designated enemy. Einstein! Such operations should be exceptional, time-limited and undertaken with full awareness of the rise kkk, risks and responsibilities for Essay Childhood, the UN mission as a whole. Of The Kkk! [Paragraph. 118] A number of einstein points in the report regarding mission needs and member state contributions, when taken together, should prompt a discussion about how to better match supply and demand. Should the UN Security Council scale back ambitious missions if troops cannot be found to rise of the staff them?
Or should Western countries contribute more forces to literacy program present and future operations? African troops are already the major peace enforcers in Somalia and DRC. A Nigerian-led coalition recently confronted Boko Haram. Is the UN being bypassed for the hardest jobs on the continent? While not strangers to the system, the members of the Brahami and Prodi panels were more outsiders looking in rise of the kkk, than the sixteen “eminent personalities” of this latest body, many who have decades or, in some cases, entire careers working inside the system. Chairman Jose Ramos Horta, a former president of Timor-Leste, is one of the relative “outsiders,” but even he has been a beneficiary of Essay Childhood one of the most successful series of UN peace operations that brought his country to independence and made it the 192 nd member of the of the kkk, UN. After leaving national politics, Horta headed a UN political mission in Childhood, Guinea Bissau. His deputy, Ameerah Haq, served in Afghanistan as a deputy SRSG before leading a later mission in Timor-Leste. Rise Kkk! Haq then served as Under-Secretary-General for the Department of Geometric Essay Field Service (DFS), the UN headquarters group supporting all peace operations.
This collective experience gives Uniting for Peace a level of bureaucratic detail not found in Brahimi . These insiders lived with the problems they are trying to resolve with this report. After a decade and of the kkk half between reviews, the laundry list of Childhood required fixes is still lengthy. UN peace operations need improved analysis, planning and rise of the kkk more realistic mandates. Balanced Literacy Program! They need faster deployment, better administration and clearer communications with those communities they are sent to help. There are many changes that the Department of of the kkk Political Affairs, Department of Peacekeeping Operations and DFS would like to do. Balanced Literacy Program! But they are blocked from doing them, or simply have not yet got around to them. The report’s contents will not surprise those within the house. Such closeness can also be a weakness. For those struggling with lack of coordination inside the system, the proposal to create an additional Deputy Secretary-General position responsible for peace and security is a reasonable option. It is explicitly drawn from the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change in 2004, another review stacked with eminent people. The proposal is rise a peace offering, rather a declaration of internecine warfare that the revolutionary idea of a merger of the patriot by robert browning DPKO and rise DPA would provoke.
Rearranging the Secretariat’s organizational chart excites those who work in Turtle Bay, the browning, New York neighborhood around the rise, UN’s iconic headquarters. It means nothing to those who think it is a resort in Vanuatu. There are a number of such instances where the report does not seek to reinvent the wheel when it feels a good idea has been too long ignored. It calls on type, the General Assembly to adopt a 2011 report of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) to, among other things, establish a separate account for the funding of special political missions. Such frequent references to older reports reflect poorly on the glacial pace of change at the UN. They also raise red flags about obstinate forces arraigned against systemic change. Of The Kkk! But Uniting for Peace has modest objectives. It is incrementalist, not revolutionary; more a notable milestone than a Brahimi -like landmark. In coming months, a joint team from the date of the industrial revolution, Secretariat will produce an of the, implementation report providing some “low hanging fruit” for the Secretary-General in the twilight of his ten years in office. In September, the einstein personality, Obama-Biden peacekeeping summit will provide Ban Ki-moon with a ready-made platform to talk about the future of UN peace operations.
If this report is to endure, then his successor will need to see some merit in its recommendations and adopt them as their own. There will be two other overlapping reports in kkk, coming months to einstein personality digest: the kkk, Review of UN Peacebuilding Architecture, chaired by former Guatemalan Foreign Minister Gert Rosenthal, as well as the High-Level Review on Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security, headed by Panel member Radhika Coomaraswarmy. To assess whether Uniting for Peace might succeed will take time. It will also require a more comprehensive response from member states. As the permanent representatives in corey poem, New York are never shy of pointing out, it is their organization and they are the ones running the show at the United Nations.
Most crucial will be the P3 – the kkk, U.S., Britain, and France – who pay the largest share for peace operations. Other potential spoilers include the G77, particularly if they see the corey, report as being too Western. African Member States pushed for the proposal to pay for their operations from the UN peacekeeping budget, but can they marshal the rise, support of wealthy nations to pay for it? The Panel is attuned to the reluctance of Member States to pay more for peacekeeping. It makes a pitch that with the planned winding down of some peace operations through sequencing, its recommendations could be cost-neutral. But can the Security Council restrain itself, and will Member States buy this argument? In calling for change, the report urges others to act and uses many synonyms for the UN’s Member States including the Security Council, regional organizations, troop contributing countries, host countries, and the ever-amorphous “international community.” A reader is left with a sense that the report’s authors are disappointed with their relative inertia in the face of so many crises. “Member states have not sufficiently invested in einstein type, addressing root causes of conflict,” the rise kkk, report says. Type! “The protection of civilians is a national responsibility,” it notes. “Member States should provide the necessary resources and rise kkk lend their influence,” it urges.
The report treads a fine line between chiding and chastising. The panel is an advisory body and its recommendation can simply be ignored ? but how will member states react if they feel they are being lectured to? Brahimi had something of this tone, too. Literacy! “The Secretariat must tell the Security Council what it needs to know, not what it wants to hear,” is one standout line. “When recommending force and other resource levels for a new mission, … it must set those levels according to realistic scenarios that take into account likely challenges to implementation.” These strident lines were written when the world was unipolar and led by the Unites States, a simpler time that a senior Secretariat official describe recently as “a golden age of peacekeeping.” But we now live in a time of multiple centers of kkk power. Richard Corey! This is only a problem for those who got used to getting their own way. Those able to now veto or simply obstruct feel empowered.
With the U.S. and of the kkk Russia once again using the organization as a proxy battlefield, the “challenges to industrial revolution implementation” are numerous. NATO’s perceived over-reach in UN-sanctioned operations in Libya, for example, created the mistrust that has led to inaction in Syria. Then again, as Jean-Marie Guehenno has written in The Fog of Peace , his memoir of of the kkk peacekeeping in the 21 st century, we still have not overcome the the patriot by robert browning, “lingering damage to of the kkk the idea of collective action” caused by einstein, the 2003 invasion of Iraq. As a young man, Jose Ramos Horta was known from the 1970s as a fearless and blunt advocate for his country’s independence. Kkk! He walked the corridors of the UN as an outsider for more than two decades. In releasing his panel’s report to the Member States, he sounded like one of those polite New York diplomats he once railed against, whose careers were made in meeting rooms. “We heard your call to reform not only the system’s instruments but also the mindset required to deliver them,” Horta said. Of The Industrial! But neither now nor a decade and of the kkk a half ago is there a consensus among Member States that a more assertive, effective, or efficient Secretariat is a desired outcome. As he noted in Essay, the same speech, Member States and regional organizations made almost 60 submissions. In other words, the majority did not contribute. While considerable outreach was required to produce it, the constituency for the end product is unclear. Is this document preaching to rise the converted, or is it a persuasive argument for einstein type, some Member States to stop sitting on the fence?
Who will back it and who will abandon it on the floor of the General Assembly, or when the Security Council meets in camera? Does the Secretariat have the flexibility to manage a cost-neutral proposal? How will its demands for more resources resonate back in the cash-strapped capitals? Fifteen years ago Brahimi identified the challenge to reforming the system in its first paragraph: Without renewed commitment on the part of Member States, significant institutional change and increased financial support, the United Nations will not be capable of executing the critical peacekeeping and peacebuilding tasks that the Member States assign to it in coming months and rise of the years. Brahimi , too, was humble in its expectations and yet we are now revisiting some of the same topics. “The Panel believes that the above recommendations fall well within the Childhood, bounds of what can be reasonably demanded of the Organization’s Member States,” Brahimi’s team wrote in August 2000. Has Jose Ramos Horta’s panel learnt lessons from the rise of the kkk, predecessors? The subsequent fifteen years of bloody history have demonstrated the limits of the power of the balanced literacy program, United Nations “to prevent all tensions and violence and end wars,” Horta wrote in his cover letter transmitting the report to the Secretary-General on 17 June . But they are also “aware of the fiscal environment and the constraints on Member States.”
In its modesty, Uniting for Peace may be laying the foundation for its own success. Of The Kkk! It is a practical technocratic document that has eschewed ideas that are too big or frightfully expensive. Program! It is a sensible blueprint for rise, what needs to change, and will be with us for some years to come. It can be a primer for the next secretary-general. Essay Childhood! But like Brahimi, the biggest challenge for Uniting for Peace comes with implementation. Rise Of The! This Secretary-General and Geometric Essay the next must be more leader rather than conference organizer.
They will need to build a consensus among member states that these reforms are crucial for more efficient peace operations, and it is in their interests to support them. In this handover from one SG to the next, there is a window where change again seems possible at the United Nations. With the right leadership, the next report on rise of the kkk, peace operations can be less deja vu and more a progress report. 726 Broadway, #543, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (+1) 212 998-3680.
The Center on International Cooperation (CIC) creates the ideas, analysis and policies needed to transform international cooperation on leading global challenges, such as increasing peace and security, strengthening fragile states, securing strategic resources and the patriot by robert browning tackling climate change.
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The Greek Crisis and the Left Response: Two Essays by kkk Sotiris. Greece, the challenges for the Left and the need for a radical strategy. For the richard corey past three years Greece has been at the same time an experiment in neoliberal social engineering and a laboratory of movements and collective struggles. For the first time in many decades we have the of the case of balanced a country entering a phase of profound social and political crisis that has the potential to turn into a crisis of hegemony opening up the social and political space for a sequence of social transformation. That is why the rise Greek case brings forward not only the Geometric Essay depth of the crisis of the project of European Integration, the extreme violence of contemporary neoliberal policies, but also the need for a redefinition of left-wing or radical politics that could go beyond simply resisting austerity toward a new conception of a socialist alternative.
In order to understand what is happening we must first of all take a look at the social landscape in Greece. Rise! In terms of the social situation we are reaching forms of an einstein type, open humanitarian crisis. Recession has reached proportions that can only be compared to the consequences of kkk major warfare or of the 1930s Great Depression with a -25 per cent GDP contraction in the 2008-2013 period. Unemployment is at 27 per cent with youth unemployment at 64 per cent, creating a “no future” generation and leading to increased migration, including a “brain drain.” Real wage reduction is at -30 per richard, cent for most of the workforce, with new wage cuts coming in the near future. Kkk! Health indicators are already showing signs of deterioration along with an impressive rise in balanced suicides. New school closures have been announced along with new reductions in hospital beds. Increased homelessness, soup-kitchens and rise of the widespread drug use, also give an image of social devastation. In terms of the political crisis there has been a growing estrangement of the large segments of the popular classes from pro-austerity parties and the political system.
This found its expression in negative feelings and attitudes toward the balanced program political system, mainstream parties and a growing feeling of anger and distrust toward the European Union, including Greece's participation in the Eurozone. Large segments of the popular classes, of workers, employees, peasants, youths, members of the “professional classes,” small businessmen, have turned their back on mainstream parties, leading to a political earthquake in the May June 2012 elections when both PASOK and New Democracy suffered great losses and of the kkk SYRIZA came close to winning the balanced literacy June election and gaining governmental power. Kkk! One can see the Geometric Essay same elements of an open political crisis even in opinion polls. SYRIZA and New Democracy are running neck and neck for the first position, whereas the once dominant PASOK is polling between 6 and 8 per cent. However, treating these tectonic political shifts as the simple result of social crisis and the deterioration of social conditions is far from providing a full image of the situation in rise of the kkk Greece. Without a unique and Essay Childhood without precedent sequence of struggles and collective practices of resistance and solidarity, without a strong movement, which has been close to a modern version of a “protracted people's war,” we would not have experienced these political earthquakes. It was exactly through these collective experiences of struggle, this feeling of anger turned into hope, this feeling of confidence and of being part of a people in struggle, expressed in concrete practices such as a demonstration, a clash with the police or a popular assembly, that people were again re-politicized, re-radicalized, moved to the Left. Were it not for the mass strikes, for the continuing struggles in many sectors, for the hundreds of rise of the kkk solidarity initiatives, and for the many forms of resistance and disobedience, the political landscape would have been much more different. I would like to insist that when we talk about the einstein type experience of struggle in Greece, we are not talking simply about mass riots and whatever catches the attention of international media, but about a much more complex set of collective experiences and struggles. Apart from general strikes, we have had a whole series of labour confrontations both in the public and the private sector.
To give an example, despite efforts from the government including continuous parliamentary ‘coup d’etats’ (in the form of kkk ‘special legislation measures’), the government is far from reaching the quota for public sector lay-offs dictated by the Troika. Teachers in Secondary Education massively voted in einstein personality type favour of striking during the university entry exams, forcing the government to issue an authoritarian ‘back to work’ order. In Universities there have been important struggles in the past months against mandatory closures and mergers of rise Departments and Schools, struggles that in Essay Childhood some cases, such as the Athens University Faculty of rise of the Letters, were victorious. In Chalkidiki, in the North of Greece, local communities are still waging a heroic struggle against environmentally disastrous Gold mines, despite being treated as terrorists by the police and the justice system. At BIOME, a factory near Salonika we are already witnessing the first successful example of a self-managed factory. In many cities local citizen initiatives and popular assemblies are working with the farmer's cooperatives in richard corey poem order for cheap quality agricultural products to be available to working people. Popular assemblies and people from the Left have organized social medicine centres, cooperative grocery stores, collective kitchens, and collective children day-care centres.
Teachers’ unions from both public and private education have organized free tutorial courses for children. There are also experiences with non market exchange networks in many cities. At the same time there has been a flourishing of anti-fascist initiatives and demonstrations, along with struggles against the exploitation of immigrant workers. Some weeks ago, in the strawberry plantations in Manolada, in West Peloponnese owners shot at immigrant workers who were demanding to be paid. The reaction was not only impressive demonstrations which united Greek and rise of the immigrant workers, but also an impressive organization drive toward the first such union of agricultural labourers in Greece. I am stressing this because in many instances the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA acts as if political power and consequently an Definitions, end to rise of the, austerity and a beginning of social transformation will simply come as the ‘ripe fruit’ of worsening social conditions. Nothing is further from the truth. Without a mass movement, strong, politicized and in a position to make people confident again in their collective ability to change things no political change will ever be possible. What is the patriot by robert browning more important, is that time matters!
Without mass collective practices, without struggles, without solidarity, people experience austerity and the constant devastation of rise kkk their lives in an individualized manner. The Patriot By Robert! This doesn't breed rebellion. It rather breeds that kind of atomized, fragmented despair that fuels neo-fascism. If we look at the people following the neo-fascist Golden Dawn we will see that leaving aside these people that come from the traditions of the Greek far right, most of the people supporting Golden Dawn are people who are channeling exactly this kind of individualized despair toward the extreme reactionary discourse of rise of the kkk Golden Dawn and its ersatz ‘solidarity only for Greeks.’ I know that many people will raise the objection that simply building a strong movement is not enough, since despite three years of general strikes (more than 25 since the Spring of 2010), mass occupations, impressive protests such as the Movement in the Squares from May to July 2011, big street clashes, various forms of civil disobedience to tax hikes, successive governments have managed to pass one austerity bill after the other. Doesn't this stress the fact that only through a political solution, only einstein type through a change in what concerns governmental and political power, can we find a way out of the vicious circle of austerity, recession and unemployment?
It is obvious that Greece has entered what one might describe as a post-democratic condition. The traditional forms of political pressure that could force a government to step back from introducing reactionary measures through a calculation of the political cost, do not apply to Greece anymore. On the rise of the kkk contrary, we have entered a condition of limited sovereignty, with the the patriot browning EU-IMF-ECB ‘Troika’ dictating measures regardless of their social cost and rise of the kkk with Greek governments simply capitulating to these demands, under the pressure of the dominant fractions of Greek capital. Without a political breakthrough, without a sharp change in the political balance of forces in favour of the forces of industrial labour and other popular classes, there can be no end in sight in the politics of kkk austerity. We need such a broad popular alliance under the hegemony of the force of labour that will take governmental and political power and open up a political sequence of social transformation in a socialist direction. In sum what we need is to actually try and think how today's dynamics of anger, contention and protest can be turned into a highly original revolutionary process, revolutionary in the sense that it must challenge fundamental aspects of capitalist social relations and highly original because we cannot think about balanced literacy program it in terms of rise ready-made conceptions. Can this challenge be answered simply by struggling for a left-wing government, a possibility that has dominated discussions within the Left in Europe, especially after the election of June 2012 when SYRIZA came close to power? First of all, this possibility represents the depth and the extent of the political crisis in Greece, the Definitions Essay tectonic shifts in rise relations of political representation, as a result of the social crisis but also of the impressive series of einstein type struggles and collective practices of resistance, protest, disobedience and solidarity.
At the same time it brings forward the rise of the centrality of the question of political power in the current conjuncture in corey Greece. Of The! However, although the whole question of a possibility of date revolution a left-wing government opens up the question of political power, this does not mean that SYRIZA, at least in its current policies and strategic proposals is the answer. That is why it is important to rethink questions of kkk political and Essay Childhood governmental power. The first question arising when discussing such matters refers to the question of the program of any attempt to fight for political power. For many people, questions of political program might seem like a luxury. Rise Of The Kkk! For them what we need is to unite forces around simple demands, around this necessary ‘no to austerity,’ instead of endless discussions on the program. However, there are aspects of the political program that do not represent ideological obsessions but attempts to come to terms with important material constraints for any potential left-wing politics.
Or to put in simple terms there can be no left-wing governance without a left-wing program. To give perhaps the most important example, the question of the relation of Greece to Eurozone and Geometric Definitions Essay the European Integration project in general is not an ideological obsession from the part of some tendencies of the Greek radical Left. On the contrary, it is one of the crucial questions that any attempt at left-wing governance will face. The European Union today is not simply turning more neoliberal (especially if we consider the rise kkk embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration project since the Single European Act of 1986), it is also turning into a highly undemocratic process, openly calling for Essay, limited sovereignty for countries in the European South, creating conditions of a ‘race to the bottom’ of austerity, recession and unemployment, using in many instances an openly neo-colonial rhetoric on the need to “reform those lazy Southerners.” The euro is not simply a currency, but represents a whole set of institutional restraints and obstacles to any progressive policies. At the same time it is an imperialist strategy. The euro as common currency in an economic area marked by sharp differences in productivity and competitiveness acted as an extra “comparative advantage” for the capitals of the hegemonic European social formations, such as Germany and as an “Iron Cage” of capitalist modernization for peripheral social formations.
In a period of economic crisis it also enhances structural imbalances, inequalities and divergences, thus contributing to the debt and the general economic crisis of countries such as Greece. The Euro also forms the of the kkk material ground of all forms of blackmail that any left-wing or progressive government will face in Greece. To put simply it is not possible to negotiate or take a firm stand against the austerity measures imposed upon Greece when the Eurogroup controls monetary policy, when the European Central Bank controls the liquidity of banks, when a country remains dependent upon loans from the ECB and the IMF. Regaining monetary sovereignty, as a form of democratic social control of an important aspect of the literacy program economy is a necessary precondition for any potential progressive solution to the Greek problem. I know that the counterargument is that a left-wing government, armed with the of the kkk support and aspiration of the electorate will be in a position to take a firm stand against the EU-IMF-ECB Troika, renegotiate successfully, obtain important concessions and put an end to austerity. However, I think that this is as close to a fantasy that we could get! That is why Cyprus offers an important example and a warning that we cannot avoid taking into account. What happened in Cyprus? The EU-IMF-ECB Troika imposed a very aggressive austerity program. The Cypriot Parliament rejected this program, under the pressure of the people who were demonstrating in the streets.
The Cypriot government went to Brussels to renegotiate, taking a firm stand and demanding a better deal. Personality Type! However, it was also determined to stay within the monetary and institutional framework of the Eurozone. The result was that it got an even worse deal than the original in terms of of the kkk recession, austerity and richard unemployment. How can we be certain that a SYRIZA government determined to get rid of austerity while remaining within the Eurozone, will not get the same treatment and succumb to the same kind of blackmail? The argument that Greece is ‘too big to fail’ does not hold, since by rise of the kkk now it is obvious that most countries, central banks and international organizations are in richard corey a position to withstand the bankruptcy of of the kkk a country like Greece. On the contrary, the unwillingness of the leadership of SYRIZA to even consider the possibility of a rupture with the date industrial European Integration process and the mechanism of debt-ridden austerity, leads it to make proposals that are not only out of touch with the reality of power relations in of the kkk the international plane, such as the proposal for a “New Marshal Plan” for Europe, but would also lead to an even greater dependence of the Greek economy on the funding from international organizations. There is nothing nationalist or chauvinist in opting for the exit of Greece from the Eurozone. Unless we think that it is nationalist and chauvinist to fight for a rupture with the violence of neoliberalism and the imperialist character of the monetary and fiscal architecture of the Eurozone. As for the argument that it is better to wait for Essay, a pan-European movement to rise of the, get rid of austerity, I believe that this argument misses an important aspect of social struggles in Europe, namely the uneven character of their development.
Not all movements are equally radicalized and politicized and adopting such a strategy of personality type waiting for a Pan-European movement will mean that the people in Greece will endure many more years of austerity and social devastation. There are some comrades that have suggested that opting for a return to monetary sovereignty will be equal to entering into an antagonism of competitive devaluations with Spanish or Portuguese workers. I also think that this is far from the truth. Getting Greece out of the Eurozone is not about competitive devaluations but about rise kkk protecting large segments of the popular classes against the systemic social violence of the free movement of capitals and commodities across the European Union, about regaining democratic social control of the monetary policy and the economy in general, and type about attempting to rely on the collective effort of working people to build an alternative future instead of being prey to the embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration Project. Moreover, I think that such a process will also be a true act of internationalism. Wouldn't it be a message of of the kkk hope and a proof that social change is possible if social movements in richard a country of the of the European South managed to break away from the Eurozone and date revolution begun a process of social transformation? Wouldn't this be the first step in getting rid of the euro and all the neoliberal and undemocratic framework of the rise of the European Union? Wouldn't this open up the way for new forms of cooperation based on respect for democracy, popular sovereignty and Geometric common effort for a better future? In light of the above, recent interventions in the debates within the European Left in rise of the favour of a strategy of exit from the Eurozone, are more welcome.
The decision of AKEL to consider the possibility of Cyprus exiting the Eurozone, the report by Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas [Ed.: see below for more on this report] on the patriot the crisis of the Eurozone, and the public intervention by Oscar Lafontaine in of the kkk favour of a potential “Grexit,” all these represent a welcome change and open up the space for a real discussion of radical alternatives. I do not want to suggest that the Geometric Essay question of an alternative policy for Greece is limited to questions of monetary policy. Nor am I criticizing SYRIZA in the name of of the some abstract ‘anti-capitalism’ like the one offered by Geometric Essay the Greek Communist Party who talks about socialism but only in another time, since today ‘conditions are not ripe.’ What I am trying to suggest is that any possibility of an end to austerity must start with a set of urgent measures that are immediately needed in order to rise kkk, avoid social disaster and at the same time open up the way for a radical transformation of Greek society in a non-capitalist direction. Balanced Literacy! These measures should include apart from the immediate exit from the Eurozone and potentially the EU, the annulment of debt, the nationalization of banks and strategic enterprises and redistribution income in favour of the forces of labour including a re-establishment of of the full trade union rights to organize and the patriot collectively bargain. Institutionally, this process should not be conceived in of the kkk terms of remaining within the contours of existing legality (both national and balanced literacy program European). On the contrary it will require a new ‘Constituent Process’ and deep changes that should include limitation to capitalist ownership, the right to occupy and rise of the kkk self-manage abandoned or closed enterprises, and new and extended forms of social and workers’ control. It is on the basis of such measures that we can really start thinking about literacy program radical changes in a socialist direction, in the sense of extended self-management, alternative forms of non-market distribution, new forms of democratic social planning, socialization of knowledge and expertise, new forms of rise democratic participation at all levels of decision-making. Implementing such measures will not be easy and Geometric Definitions it will require a new collective ethics and of the a strong sense of common effort and participation. That is why it is necessary to think of this challenge not in terms of governance but of a movement, of a collective process of transformation. Moreover, only Essay a strong movement from below, in the sense of of the extended forms of trade union action, of forms of popular democracy from below, of networks of solidarity, of forms of self-defence, can mount a successful resistance to all forms of formal and informal sabotage and counter-attacks from the part of the forces of capital, the balanced literacy justice system or the repressive apparatuses of the State. All these bring forward an important question.
It is not possible to deal with questions of left-wing government and its relation to the movement without opening up the question of rise a revolutionary strategy in the 21st century. Contrary to the position held by both SYRIZA and the Communist Party, that today there is poem no point in talking about revolutionary changes (in the case of SYRIZA in the name of the immediate need to avoid social disaster and in the case of KKE of the of the situation not being ripe enough), I want to stress that what has been happening in Greece in the past three years in terms of social protest and contention, of open political crisis, of Essay Childhood people abandoning mainstream parties and politics and being ready to accept radical solutions, of a demand of rise kkk profound social and political change, of an acceptance of the need for new social and political configuration beyond ‘actually existing neoliberalism,’ is the closest we could get to potentially pre-revolutionary situation. Of course, the situation is in a way unripe and immature, but hasn't this been the case with all sequences of major social and Essay political transformation? However, this need for a new and rise kkk necessarily original revolutionary strategy should not lead us to a dogmatic reproduction of the patriot either the ‘democratic road to socialism’ position or the traditional insurrectionary conception of the revolutionary process. On the rise of the one hand we need to take into consideration that in advanced capitalist societies with developed forms of civil society institutions and extended apparatuses of hegemony it is necessary to conduct a modern version of ‘war of position,’ a complex attempt at creating forms and institutions of counter-power and counter-hegemony from below in Geometric Definitions a new and original form of a ‘dual power’ strategy. On the other hand we need to find ways to accelerate and intensify processes of political and potentially hegemonic crisis and take advantage of any opportunity to of the kkk, bring reactionary governments down under the pressure of the movement and use the window of opportunity opened by the possibility of a left-wing government along with an escalation of struggles and literacy program confrontations with the logic of capital on all levels. What is needed is an attempt to transform contemporary dynamics within Greek society into something close to an “historical block” to use Gramsci's term, not simply an electoral alliance, but the encounter between an of the kkk, alliance of the subaltern classes, a radical anti-capitalist program, in the sense of an alternative narrative, and new collective forms of organization and experimentation. Devising such a contemporary revolutionary strategy should also be seen as a learning process, through experimentation with current experiences of self-management, non-commodity provision of services, on direct democracy from below. However, most tendencies of the European Left do not even attempt to open up this debate, remaining entangled either in “realist” proposals for a progressive governance that will not challenge the power of capital or the current architecture of globalized capitalism, or in revolutionary fantasies about “storming the date revolution Winter Palace.”
And this is the problem with SYRIZA leadership's strategy. They treat the rise of the question of governmental power as a means to bring forward progressive reforms and balanced literacy gradually put an end to austerity. To this end they take for granted all the institutional constraints of the of the Eurozone and the bail-out loan agreements. That is why they moved from balanced program, a position of complete renunciation of the loan agreements to a position of “renegotiation.” That is of the why they have been trying to develop a better understanding with representatives of big business, including media barons. That is why there have been references from the part of SYRIZA to sound entrepreneurship and socially responsible ‘investments.’ I do not wish to deny the radicalism and the good will of many comrades in SYRIZA and their commitment to socialist politics, but the truth is that the current strategy by Geometric Essay SYRIZA is far from answering these challenges. And this means that we must not think simply in terms of of the kkk electoral dynamics. We still need a strong movement; we need to reach a point where a parallel society of struggle, resistance and solidarity emerges. These struggles should not be conceived in the instrumental sense of either success or of failure. As I have already mentioned, traditional calculations of movement pressure do not apply to Greece. We need more to think in terms of a protracted peoples’ war in which the einstein type crucial point is not whether there is ‘victory’ in the sense of an of the, austerity bill not passing because of a mass strike, but more in terms of a constant attrition of the government and the Troika, of delays or blockages in aspects of the austerity measures, and of a growing collective confidence within the movement that in Definitions Essay the end we can win. Solidarity in the sense that people can be confident that through the collective practices they will avoid having their electricity cut-off, their home auctioned, that they will be able to cater for of the kkk, basic needs from date revolution, food, to rise, medicine to tutorial courses for their children, is extremely important, since it brings back confidence to collective struggle and the ability to build a better future.
At the same time, these collective practices must be seen also as the emergence of by robert forms of popular power from below, as forms of an emerging contemporary form of dual power, as forms of self-defence against the aggressiveness of the government and the forces of capital. Underestimating the importance of a strong movement and rise kkk prolonged struggles means underestimating the dynamics of the class balance of forces. A prolonged period of social devastation without successful resistances does not necessarily lead to increased radicalism. More likely it will lead to despair and a collective feeling that nothing can be done. That is why political decisions regarding movements are crucial. The recent developments regarding the Secondary Education Teachers’ strike are in this sense revealing of the deficiencies of tactics of the Left. The decision of the leadership of SYRIZA to Childhood, agree on calling off the strike, instead of attempting to break the government ‘back to work order,’ was an expression not only of a deep rooted reformism but mainly of rise a conception of politics as electoral politics, not as an attempt to influence the real balance of forces. The SYRIZA leadership thought of this tactic as a way to get out of a political trap.
In reality this decision only reinforced the government's rhetoric that it is in a position to pre-emptively smash a movement. What can remain after such a confrontation are not only anger and corey protest against authoritarian measures, but also disappointment and a feeling of futility. Above all, we need to think of this whole process not simply as an attempt by a progressive or benevolent government to save society but as a mass movement for the experimentation with new forms of organization of production, education, health. We need to make use of the collective experience and knowledge that have emerged in the movements and rise kkk struggles of the past years for this experimentation that cannot be left to specialists, even from the Left. The crisis and austerity in Greece have been a catalyst for Childhood, many people, who faced with extremely aggressive policies are obliged to think differently. Rise Of The Kkk! When the balanced literacy program government is dismantling public education, militants in education trade unions are forced to think how we can operate schools differently.
When the public health is in ruins and is kept in rise of the kkk place only by the efforts of by robert doctors and other health workers, then public health unions face the question of what it means to actually run a truly public health system oriented toward improving the quality of life. This is of the kkk exactly the kind of collective experimentation that can provide as with concrete answers regarding a contemporary socialist strategy. Are there signs of such processes in Greece today? Or have we arrived at Geometric Definitions an impasse and there is no other alternative than simply waiting for the next general election in the hope that the Left will get the of the mandate to form a government? I think that we are far from this. We may not have had in the past months the kind of social explosion that gain the attention of international media, but everyday struggles continue in the form of small and big battles in various sectors, solidarity initiatives, and anti-fascist demonstrations. At the same time, things are changing in the trade union movement, the Left is on the rise in important unions such as in public education and public health and this opens up the Definitions Essay possibility for a radical reorientation.
Moreover, there is an open debate regarding the question of the political program and there are signs of mass appeal of a radical anti-EU, anti-euro position, especially after the experience of Cyprus. The current dialogue between ANTARSYA, the front of the anti-capitalist Left, and other radical groups in of the Greece, opens up the way for a ‘third pole’ in the Greek Left that will insist on the actuality of such a radical political alternative, in an attempt to change the balance of forces within the Left. What is to be done? I think that the answer, at least for richard poem, all of us in the Greek Left, in ANTARSYA and other radical formations, that do not opt for a tactic of simply hoping that we will somehow push SYRIZA to the Left, and at the same time do not want to engage in a destructive and rise sectarian criticism (like the one coming from the part of the Greek Communist Party), is to attempt to deal with the real challenges: To elaborate on the necessary transition program. To work within the movement and help the coordination of resistances, struggles and networks of solidarity, in order to make things even more difficult for the government and the Troika. To experiment with forms of Essay Childhood self-management, self-organization and popular democracy from rise kkk, below. Therefore, we are far from the personality type end of the movement. I think that despite the efforts from the part of the rise of the kkk government, the Troika, the forces of capital to Childhood, suppress collective practices, and despite the effort of the leadership of SYRIZA to channel this dynamic into of the a fruitlessly ‘realist’ strategy of renegotiating austerity, Greece is still the most advanced laboratory of struggle and radical alternatives in Europe, and I hope that it will soon send a message of date revolution hope to working people all over Europe. • Panagiotis Sotiris teaches social theory and rise of the kkk social and einstein personality type political philosophy at rise of the the Department of Sociology of the University of the Aegean. Einstein Personality! This text is based on two presentations at the “Marx is a Must” Conference in Berlin (9-11 May 2013), organized by the Marx 21 network, and first published on his blog at lastingfuture.blogspot.gr. The elephant in rise the room or why we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF recapitalization.
The report by Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas on the crisis of the Eurozone has been an important step in re-opening the euro debate within the European Left. The political significance of the report was made even more evident by the fact that it was published by the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, and was endorsed by the leadership of Die Linke, especially after Oskar Lafontaine had also recently insisted on the need to consider the exit from the Eurozone as a potential solution for countries of the European South such as Greece. It follows the decision by AKEL the Cypriote left-wing party to propose Cyprus’ exit from the Eurozone, a proposition based upon scientific advice offered by amongst others Lapavitsas and Flassbeck. Greek workers walk out to protest ban on personality teachers' strike. The report itself is not a radical or Marxist manifesto. Although Lapavitsas has a strong Marxist background, the report is marked by Flassbeck's much more Keynesian approach. Moreover, it is not a report with an a priori hostility toward monetary union or currency coordination for Europe, nor is it filled with anticapitalist references.
On the contrary it seems to of the kkk, take the internationalization of trade and capital flows as granted. However, it is exactly this kind of critique from within aspects of the dominant economic paradigm that makes it even more interesting. This does not mean that it is not a radical critique of the corey poem dominant economic policies within the Eurozone. Rather, it is a devastating deconstruction of the contradictions, fallacies, and shortcomings of the economic and financial architecture of the Eurozone. Particularly important is the emphasis on kkk the inability of inflation targets without real wage convergence to create a balanced common currency area. Richard Corey! Moreover, the two writers highlight the direct causal connection between the imbalances in the Eurozone and rise of the kkk trade deficits and also with increased public debt. Program! This makes evident the fact that European leaders insist on denying: the euro itself as common currency is part of the problem of the economic crisis in the European South. It is also interesting that the position the two writers take in regard to potential solutions within the rise of the Eurozone. They show convincingly that given the obvious inability to einstein personality, reach an actual political union in the EU it is not possible to have that kind of rise redistributive mechanisms that could tackle the problem of productivity and competitiveness divergence.
At the same time they remind us that there is no point in thinking in terms of richard transfers between countries because this could lead in a certain form of of the dependence of the countries receiving this kind of transfer funding. On the basis of by robert browning these assumptions the two writers insist on the need for rise, an orderly and prepared exit from the Eurozone and in this sense a dismantling of the current financial and literacy program monetary architecture of the Eurozone. To this end they also deconstruct the argument that such a move, which would necessarily include measures such as capital controls and restrictions to bank transactions, is not possible, by pointing to the developments in Cyprus where the EU accepted the imposition of capital controls as a means to avoid the complete implosion of the Cypriot banking system. Of The! In this sense the taboo has already been broken. In light of the above it is really interesting to see the richard corey reactions of the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA regarding these positions. As with the case of the change of AKEL's adoption of the exit from the Eurozone strategy, SYRIZA leadership chose to politely refuse such proposals, despite the appeal of this position in the large segments of the electorate of the Greek Left. In many instances representatives of the leadership's position within SYRIZA have criticized the exit from the Eurozone as being nationalist and in opposition to class politics. However, the problem is that the dominant narrative of SYRIZA leadership that the main target must be pan-European cooperation of the Left and social movements aiming at a break of austerity while remaining within the Eurozone, comes in contrast with the decision of other parties of the European Left to rise of the, discuss the possibility of an exit from the Eurozone.
The argument from the part of SYRIZA leadership that opening the debate on the exit of the Eurozone would offer pro-austerity forces the chance to put pressure on SYRIZA, alienate segments of the Geometric Definitions electorate (who remain ideologically attached to the euro), and consequently jeopardize a possible election victory, misses the main point. Of The! As long as the einstein type Greek Left does not challenge the euro as the central node for the current particularly European version of the rise of the kkk neoliberal “There Is No Alternative,” the political debate will remain cornered in a discursive terrain that is much more suitable to of the revolution, systemic pro-austerity forces than to social movements. This helps pro-austerity forces, both politically and electorally. In contrast, working toward the break with the Eurozone opens up the political space to work and rise kkk experiment with radical economic and social alternatives that go beyond the limits of neoliberal capitalism and can help the Left emerge as an actual political alternative and not just an electoral outlet for protest. Moreover, it is not possible to have radical changes without some form of rupture with the Childhood current financial, monetary and institutional framework of the Eurozone and the dominant strategy within the EU.
In the long run, everyone would agree that we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF and ECB recapitalization. • Middle class civil war in rise of the Greece: latest update and conclusions. #1 Miguel Figueroa 2013-05-28 04:50 EDT. Where have we heard this before? Reading The Greek Crisis and date of the the Left Response by Panagiotis Sotiris, one cannot but agree with its main theses: (1) the direct and inescapable connection between the deepening crisis in Greece and its continuing servitude to the EC monopolists and bankers; and (2) the need therefore for rise of the kkk, the Greek working class to of the industrial revolution, sharply criticize SYRIZA's pathetic pro-Eurozone position, and make a strategic break with its (il)logic.
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Nov 17, 2017 Rise of the kkk,
30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Rise Kkk. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of richard books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. Of The Kkk. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the date of the revolution act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an rise of the assignment to balanced program, students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the of the kkk student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it.
These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to Geometric Essay, think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out of the worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. Geometric Essay. These are usually limited to rise of the kkk, the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. By Robert Browning. These questions may ask students to rise of the, name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. Date Of The Industrial. It’s not uncommon for of the the teacher to read a picture book with the Geometric class and of the kkk have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.
If the by robert classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. Kkk. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by date of the industrial revolution filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to rise of the kkk, each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on Essay, longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. Rise. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to Essay, detail a different element of the book. Of The Kkk. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.
The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. The Patriot By Robert Browning. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to rise of the, describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report.
The report is usually written in literacy, a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. Of The Kkk. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.
In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the Essay Childhood book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and rise of the opinion of the type book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and rise of the kkk can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending.
Multi-page reports start out richard as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the of the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme.
The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for Geometric Definitions books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in kkk, the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Richard Corey Poem. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters.
There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the rise events of the Definitions Essay book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Rise Of The Kkk. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to personality type, answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report.
When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. Of The. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the Geometric Definitions most difficult part. Kkk. Finishing up that report in personality type, the following steps is rise, a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the corey book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the rise final report is due.
The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and einstein personality suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the of the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at by robert your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes.
Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the rise kkk report. Print out a fresh copy of the report.
Read through it one more time looking for Geometric Definitions spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in rise of the, the document file and the patriot review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to of the kkk, be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports.
Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and Essay Childhood need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the rise kkk word count requirement low. Balanced Program. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report.
Make sure you don’t fall behind on rise of the, the work by following a few of einstein type these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in rise of the kkk, advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Date. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for rise of the kkk the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity.
Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.
Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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essays economics Specialised entry pages for. A theoretical reflection needs words, not only numbers and mathematics. Essays and papers expand the room for thinking by sharing an international view on the subjects in order to invite the reader to of the kkk co-operation with the Institute. Essay: Analysing retailing opportunities and threats using agent-based simulation. As a valuable supporting tool for the marketing analysis of opportunities and threats on retail markets, an corey poem agent-based simulator is rise, proposed, providing insights to answer to questions such as: - What happens in the distribution landscape if we open a new outlet? Where should it be located? What profile (assortment composition, price levels, size) the new outlet should have? - What if competitors open or close outlets?
What should we then change in the profile of our outlets? - What if the purchasing behaviour of consumer households changes? E.g. purchasing power and literacy program, decision rules changes due to economic crisis. - What if the cost structure changes? E.g. there is easy funding of outlets in less-favoured areas by municipalities and regional authorities. Essay: When the poor pay more than the rich (2014) This paper presents eleven groups of reasons and conditions under which, painfully surprisingly, the poor has to pay a higher price than the rich for the same good or for the same fulfillment of a need. This is conducive to devise innovative anti-poverty policies and business practices.
Essay: Prices and rise of the, quantities. This paper explore mismatches between ECON101 textbook theory of economics and empirical evidence from the real world that you can collect by yourself, so to replicate (confirming, widening or rejecting) the proposed analyses, as a scientific approach would authorise and ask for. Essay: The marketing mix of the of the hotel “U Lišky”: an rise kkk example of strategic choices leveraging product differentiation. By analyzing and evaluating the the patriot by robert browning 7P’s marketing mix of the of the kkk hotel “U Lisky” (product, price, promotion, place, people, process and einstein personality, physical evidence), the author build upon of the personal insights and literature (including this paper from EWI) to the patriot suggest future improvements. Is anything worth keeping in rise kkk microeconomics? A poignant critique of neoclassical microeconoimcs, and in particular supply and demand curves.
Contrary to all good sense, microeconomists assume that all agents are price-takers, without saying who makes and changes these prices. But people trade with each other, and not with#147;the market.#148; Some polemics in of the industrial paid press followed after publication, to which the authors replied here. A further essay is here. Essay: The rich and the poor. This short paper presents an exploration of the differences between the rich and the poor, as they result from a formal model. Essay: European space and West-East flows of tourists The role of Italy.
The broad concept of trajectory covers a crucial phenomenon in of the the contemporary reshaping of European space. Dividing and Geometric Essay, defining European identities as they did, the traditional geographical borders are rapidly losing their role, since social, cultural and economic identities are increasingly to rise of the kkk be defined in dynamic terms as evolution along a path. Published by the Polish Academy of Science, this short paper by Valentino Piana, underlines the meaning of tourism as a symptom of the corey poem emergence of new stronger trajectories, provides a quantitative analysis of data on West-East bilateral flows of tourists, supplies a longer discussion of the qualitative role of Italy in these flows and in their deeper meaning. Essay: Integrating healthcare and microfinance. Harnessing the strengths of two Sectors to improve health and alleviate poverty. Essay: Our Plan B for macro-economic recovery and structural change (31st October 2011) EWI has been asked to sign this program to change the rise macro-economic policies to cope with the combined financial, economic, social and environmental crisis in UK and other countries. By Robert! We accepted to sign a letter published by the Guardian and would like to offer to our readers' reflection the following policy essay: Essay : Addressing a missing element in the Toledo Declaration with industrial ecology (May 2011) A landmark of urban regeneration policy for EU, the Toledo Declaration, amidst the call for an integrated approach to address sustainability challenges by the declaration, exhibits a predominant focus on using local actions to solve local problems.
This lope-sided scope may give rise to policies that end up shifting problems beyond the local jurisdiction. Some of these problems can be deduced using key industrial ecology concepts, such as material flow analysis and of the kkk, life cycle assessment. The author, a Singaporean scholar, provides a few possible strategies to cope with the issue, after a longitudinal study showing a specific case. Paper presented to balanced literacy program the 12th Conference of the Association of Heterodox Economics. Essay: How to tranfer knowledge to SMEs. Guidelines on effective knowledge and technology transfer activities to SMEs in the food sector with particular focus on traditional food manufacturers. A path-breaking contribution from an original consortium of both trade associations and RD providers, that delivers a far-reaching approach that should be followed in many further fields to of the enhance appropriate innovation and diffusion. Essay : Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation. Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data.
Essay : Proximity in corey product space and diversification strategies. Essay : Package size, price, and of the kkk, consumer rules. Optimal commercial offer by retailers depends not only on einstein personality type efficient logistics and buyer's power with respect to the supply chain: it hinges on of the the segmentation of customers according to their rules of literacy program choice. In this paper, an example of rise of the kkk purchase basket over many categories, varieties and package sizes is constructed and commented, freely offering the date of the revolution Excel file with all open programming code. Consumers can find out their style of shopping; managers have a device to fix the prices in your commercial premise, the researchers and rise kkk, the absolute beginners can simply explore the unexpected consequences of the interaction of Childhood such trivial, but real, things like package size, weight, and budget constraints. Essay: Pro-diffusion-of-innovation tax. A small tax levied on non-adopters can boost the diffusion of any new technology, including those required in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The tool costs nothing to the policy-maker and kkk, can enjoy a fairly good opinion in the general public. Essay: Peak oil: coming soon but when? The former director of what is now Puerto Ricos's Energy Affairs Administration, Lewis L. Smith, sets forth a compelling framework for the economically-feasibile production of oil to peak before 2020 with a 90% of chance. Essay : Complexity meets development - A Felicitous Encounter on the Road of the patriot Life.
Essay : Market dynamics with firm-specific fixed and variable costs. In this easy evolutionary model you'll find a market with a large number of firms, each characterised by of the a different cost structure, and you'll be able to study the the patriot by robert evolution of profits over time, according to rise changes in demand and endogenous technology progress. A key statement will relate the richard corey poem way demand interacts with the kind of technological innovation approved by top management. Essay : Levels of product differentiation in the global mobile phones market. Essay : Consumer theory: the of the neoclassical model and its opposite alternative. A new consideration or evoolutionary routines.
Essay : Economic development from the literacy perspective of of the kkk evolutionary economic theory. While neoclassical theory sees the economy as at rest, or undergoing well anticipated change it has nothing to say about these kinds of conditions. Therefore the author, Richard Nelson, believes the processes of economic catch-up have to proceed under the implicit or explicit guidance of an richard evolutionary economic theory. Essay: Microfinance in Ghana: an overview (2007) A sound example of vibrant and of the, innovative economy, Ghana offers a great institutional richness of Essay microfinance institutions, as explained in this paper. Outlining the challenges, a Central Bank insider calls for further improvements in the organization of the sector. From a tough scenario to policies in rise a key African country. Essay: Exports and their linkages to literacy.
An exploration of the manyfolds relations of exports and the growth of the number of people capable to write. Essay: Survival strategies: innovate or die. To devise new modified versions earlier than expected during the product life cycle can costs you cannibalising your own product but leaves no room to competitors, thus resulting in long-term business success. Essay : The impact of market structure and irreversibility on investment under uncertainty: an empirical analysis. This paper estimates a model of the patriot by robert investment under product price uncertainty for 23 French industries during the period 1977-1997 and represents the first empirical work that includes variables of rise kkk market structure (in terms of date of the revolution degree of rise kkk competition) in a model of investment under uncertainty. In the paper, Sara Maioli presents one of the very first attempts to literacy program make explicit the kkk empirical relationship between investment and uncertainty under different degrees of irreversibility . Essay and Software : You are a monopolist.
Essay : Who matters in a complex society? Essay : Outward foreign direct investment and technology transfer: selected results from the U.S. and Taiwan in the electronics industry. workers, and if there is a perceived danger of allowing critical technology to be dispersed. Any Inward FDI will be criticized if it is einstein personality, seen as allowing foreign entities to own the rise kkk engines of industry and gain control of critical technology. This paper focuses on the electronics industry and presents some examples of countries’ policies concerning technology transfers and the effects on industry of each of the three reactions by the patriot policy makers and high-level managers. Essay : Profits, competition and opportunity costs: two introductory papers on the flaws in neoclassical approach. In the second paper, the rise neoclassical theory of competition is critically re-examined and compared to the solutions of classical theory. Essay: The economics of ex ante coordination. Prof. Sergio Bruno and Essay, Alessandra De Lellis present in this paper a few fundamental elements of a new perspective in economics, stressing complex time structures and co-ordination issues in investment, production, consumption. It integrates innovation theories and the earlier studies on of the the economic development of nations to single out overlapping issues and solutions.
Essay: Consumer decision rules for agent-based models. A clear-cut introduction to literacy evolutionary consumption microfoundation in agent-based models. Kkk! It proposes several rules to cope with budget constraints, product differentiation, purchase repetition over time. In particular, you shall find the rules of consumer behavour used in the freely downloadable model Race to market, which gave rise to these micro-data. Moreover, it suggests to ACE modellers a golden rule for more realistic models. Essay: The production function of the patriot by robert browning students' grade.
A critical introduction to the neoclassical concept and use of the of the kkk production function. To help students understanding the richard corey poem concept and its limitations, the author proposes to take into consideration a particular production process that should be well known to them: the production of grades in rise an exams after an richard poem education course. Essay: Assessing the employment effect of FDI inflows to Egypt: Does the mode of rise of the entry matter? (2008) Egypt has attempted to einstein type attract Foreign Direct Investments since 1974 and has offered generous incentives to achieve this target, motivated by low domestic savings rates accompanied by inefficient financial intermediation and the opportunity to rise benefit from the direct and type, indirect effects of FDI on increasing demand for labour. This is especially important given a chronic unemployment problem that the Egyptian economy suffers from.
This paper extensively assess empirically the effect of of the FDI and argue about the importance of studying FDI at the most disaggregated possible level, since they are not homogeneous in their effects. Essay: The mystery of excess trade (balances) Bilateral trade balances are an important source of frictions in international trade relations, so it is important to understand their provenance. In this papers, the author provide an empirical examination of two key theories - one based on macroeconomic balances and the other based on triangular trade. Both theories perform poorly in explaining bilateral trade balances. Poem! Actual bilateral trade balance are vastly larger than those predicted by the theory, a result that may be termed the kkk mystery of the program excess trade balances. Essay: Italy: Regional differences in public health quality management systems. This short essay presents a review of the various approaches applied by the different Italian Regions with regard to Quality Management in health care policy. Essay: A solution for the national resource curse: should we distribute oil revenues to the citizens directly instead that to governments?
Countries with an abundance of natural resources have on rise of the kkk average lower economic growth than resource-poor countries. They also have more poverty and are more likely to suffer from violent conflict. These negative outcomes in resource-rich countries are called the ‘curse of natural resources.’ Dr. Martin E. By Robert Browning! Sandbu proposes a policy of revenue distributions from taxable resources to individuals as a way of addressing the curse. Instead of paying resource rents in to the government treasury, they would be distributed equally to all indviduals, but the government would then be allowed to of the tax it back. Essay: Dynamic competition with bi-directional product differentiation, bounded rational consumers, innovation, advertising, and finance.
This paper explains and offers you a powerful software tool for understanding the Geometric Definitions Essay introduction of product and process innovation in rise a competitive market. Consumers are individual agents with different tastes and personal income. In terms of industrial dynamics, you'll see how product life cycles arise by personally playing the software model or by observing how artificial agents perform. Essay: A new approach to business fluctuations: heterogeneous interacting agents, scaling laws and financial fragility. Business fluctuations in GDP, investment, etc. can be explained in a new micro-founded way. The authors present a simple agent-based model, whose core is the interaction of heterogeneous financially fragile firms and a banking sector. The Patriot Browning! In their framework, the origin of business fluctuations can be traced back to the ever changing configuration of the network of heterogeneous interacting firms . Simulations of the model replicate surprisingly well an impressive set of stylized facts , particularly two well known universal laws.
Essay: Financial Fragility, asset bubbles, capital structure and real rate of growth - A study of the Indian Economy during 1970-2000. Essay series : Global value chain: governance and typologies. Essay: Innovation and Growth: A Schumpeterian model of innovation. The creation of a positive feedback loop is what makes the difference between sustained growth and of the, gradual (or sudden) decline . The Patriot By Robert Browning! A Positive Feedback Loop Innovation System (POLIS) is here modelled along Schumpeterian lines and applied to the actual economy of kkk Taiwan. Essays: Agriculture innovation system in the patriot browning Australia. The papers identifies eleven broad categories of agents taking part to the innovation system. The kind of innovation and the goals of innovation are explored and ranked by an empirical survey. Essay: Influence of delayed feedback on learning, performance and strategy search - revisited. Economic agents live in an uncertain environment, where they have to learn how to rise behave and which is the performance of Childhood their actions.
Strategy is not given: they have to search for the right one, if exists at all. Feedback is a crucial mechanism linking the past with the future, possibly helping the agents in their tasks. In particular, the rise of the timing of feedback signals can deeply influence their effects. Is immediate feedback always superior to delayed feedback? Are the features of the environment irrelevant? This paper offer original experimental results on the influence of delayed feedback on learning, performance and strategy search. Essay: Active decisions and pro-social behavior: a field experiment on blood donation. In this paper, Alois Stutzer, Lorenz Goette and Michael Zehnder propose a decision framework where people are individually asked to either actively consent or dissent to some pro-social behavior. The authors hypothesize that confronting individuals with the choice of engaging in a specific pro-social behavior contributes to the formation of corey poem issue-specific altruistic preferences while simultaneously involving a commitment. The hypothesis is tested in a large-scale field experiment on of the blood donation. This active-decision intervention substantially increases the stated willingness to donate blood, as well as the actual donation behavior of people who have not fully formed preferences beforehand.
Essay: Does innovation policy matter in a transition country? Prof. Personality Type! Attila Havas demonstrates in this paper the simultaneous need for systemic institutional changes and macroeconomic stabilisation in order to improve microeconomic performance . Whithin an rise of the evolutionary economics framework, innovation policy is examined both theoretically and empirically in the case of type a country currently undergoing deep structural changes: Hungary. Essay: Estimation of a dynamic discrete choice model of irreversible investment. A dataset of Spanish manufacturing firms provides an of the kkk important empirical evidence that business investment - at micro level - is infrequent and Definitions, lumpy.There are periods in which firms decide not to rise of the invest and periods of large investment episodes. Rocío Sánchez-Mangas develops and corey poem, tests consider a dynamic discrete choice model of rise of the irreversible investment with a general specification of adjustment costs including convex and nonconvex components. Essay: An example of information set for the export manager. Exporters often approach new markets just by participating to richard poem trade fairs, meeting there potential importers and of the, building business relationships with them by trial and error . But a systematic overview of foreing markets can offer a more structured approach. In this report by U.N. Bhati, you'll find a good instance of what an Essay export manager can find in such documents to orient its actions and business plans. Essay: Japanese Foreign Aid, Development Expenditures and Taxation: econometric results from of the kkk, a bounded rationality model of fiscal behaviour.
A path-breaking methodology for assessing the behaviour of foreign aid receivers. Investment in human and physical capital has been a significant factor in Malaysian GDP growth. Both internal and external sources of finance have been used in promoting investments as well as development expenditures. But foreign aid could have been used, by a bounded rational bureaucratic policymaker, in many different ways, not all conducive to development. Essay : Hierarchy structures in world trade. Essay: Country concentration of Turkish exports and imports over time. Through international trade, countries develop their own net of privileged partners. Turkey is an extremely interesting example of a fast changing developing country.
In this paper, Prof. Güzin Erlat shows not only balanced literacy program, data analysis but also a methodology to address the issue of concentration and diversification of exports. The Product Cycle Theory of international trade is given further data support. Essay: Tax base in developing countries. How to increase the tax revenue in developing countries? By enlarging the tax base the fiscal burden would be better distributed, comprehending the large informal economy which is so present in these countries. Unlike in rich countries where informality is kkk, largely a result of the tax burden, the informal economy in developing countries is largely a result of high fixed costs of entry into the formal sector. The tax burden is lower in developing countries and the barriers to entry into the formal economy are higher. Empirical analysis supports the Essay results of of the kkk this paper by Essay prof.
Emmanuelle Auriol and Michael Warlters. Essay: The new conceptual limits of laisser-faire. Prof. Sergio Bruno presents his standpoint in terms of a wide and of the, modern critique of laisser-fairism. General economic equilibrium is put into question on the basis of the patriot browning new conceptions of time, uncertainty and complementarities in production processes. Thus, well targeted policies may be of much help. [. ] What these different forms of intervention have in rise kkk common is that they are based neither on coercion nor on traditional incentives, but rather upon suasion and negotiations. Essay: A graph representation of a basic macroeconomic scheme: the IS-LM model. Students of the first year of balanced economics usually learn the basic functioning of the economy thanks to the IS-LM model. Here we present an original representation that concentrates the entire model in just one sheet. The researcher will find many innovative features to the model. To a creative economist , this representation offers the immediate possibility of adding further variables and outlining new or different linkages between variables.
If you have never heard of IS-LM model, click here. Essay: Quality and health system: two worlds apart? Can Quality Management tools and principles, adapted to the peculiar features of the public health sector, help to solve the main challenges this system is presenting? Cost effectiveness, suitable solutions to people's needs and rise, requests, the full account of human and professional relations could be better targeted using a Quality approach. This essay sets the stage for literacy, a discussion on the subject. Essay: Credit risk: a general scheme in a banking perspective. What are the issues banks evaluate for assessing credit risk when they are going to give a credit facility to a borrower? This essay proposes a general synoptic scheme in order to answer to this question.
The problem is crucial not only for the bank but also for the economy at large, since overall investment and consumption are affected by micro-decisions of this kind. Other papers available at kkk, the Economics Web Institute in separate pages, for instance evolutionary economics downloadable papers are here. Please use the Search tool to Essay find where or navigate through the left top page menus.
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