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liberal essay The Power of Independent Thinking. Liberalism and Equality. Junior Faculty Winner. First Prize ($10,000) #147;I think that democratic communities have a natural taste for freedom; left to themselves, they will seek it, cherish it, and Behind Pension Scheme Protection view any privation with regret. But for equality their passion is ardent, insatiable, incessant, invincible; they call for equality in freedom, and if they cannot obtain that, they still call for equality in slavery.#148; #151; Alexis de Tocqueville[1] #147;Believe me, Sir, those who attempt to level never equalize.#148; While the ideals of freedom and equality are not unique to one age or creed, liberalism[3] differs from its rivals in after pearl, the specific meaning it attaches to these terms.[4] For a liberal in the original sense, a free society must aim first and Pension in Retirement foremost at minimizing the exercise of arbitrary power by limiting all coercion to what can be accomplished by equal, invariable, and indiscriminate law. Thus the rule of law, the absence of arbitrary legal privileges or distinctions of status, appears to the liberal as the legal embodiment of freedom and equality alike, and as his greatest and fdr speech after pearl harbor proudest achievement.[5] Other times and Protection peoples have known liberties, but it is liberalism that can take credit for pipe, enshrining liberty.[6] The liberal champion of formal equality before the Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection law will have an eye, to be sure, on inequalities of opportunity, though he will resist the tendency to tard song, focus too narrowly on what happens to be most easily quantified;[7] what he will refuse to countenance, however, is the attempt, objectionable in principle but likely also futile in Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, practice, #147;to impress upon society a deliberately chosen pattern of distribution, whether it be an tard song order of Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement equality or of inequality.#148;[8] I. Freedom, Equality, and #147;Social Justice#148;

A concern with the adverse effect of material inequality is as old as our philosophical tradition, and it is hardly surprising that it should color so much of our political debates.[9] Nonetheless, while the liberal may look with favor upon the incidental equalization that may result from ceci pas un, legitimate government action, and while he may consider a high degree of Implications Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection material equality desirable and even admirable, he must be wary of any attempt at forcing such an outcome by quantitative revolution, means of coercion, on grounds of Implications and Savings principle and practicability alike.[10] Two fundamental problems will immediately confront those seeking to bring about Essay Up With Computer, a more equitable distribution of wealth: the difficulty of giving principled backing to any particular pattern, on the one hand, and that of making the pattern stick, on the other. For as Hayek argues at length in his Road to Serfdom , the kind of complete ethical code that might warrant a sustained #147;correction#148; of the outcomes yielded by and Savings Protection, the spontaneous and is soma new world uncoordinated interactions and exchanges within a society turns out, upon closer examination, to be full of gaps at best. The hazy vision of #147;social justice#148; that guides much of the debate over redistributional measures does not bear scrutiny, if it means anything at all, and reduces in Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, the final analysis to little more than a vague sense of dissatisfaction that remains strictly negative, parasitical on customary or historical distributions yielded by the market, and that offers little direction beyond taking as much from the rich as possible. Quantitative Revolution? Since a free society will not produce the kind of uniform, coherent moral scheme that would be necessary to Pension in Retirement, justify systematic redistribution, the ideal of justice that would govern it cannot be that of a society as a whole, but only that of someone within it.[11] To give such a conception of social justice meaning, moreover, it would not suffice to impose it selectively, but a whole society would need to be reorganized around it and forced to conform to it continuously.

As Robert Nozick#146;s #147;Wilt Chamberlain problem#148; illustrates, free exchange will quickly upset any favored distributional pattern, which cannot therefore be realized without persistent, continuous interference with people#146;s lives.[12] Even those who favor the pattern in question may thus come to fdr speech, balk at the methods that would be necessary to enforce it as they #147;will in practice find themselves obstructed at every move by the rule of law.#148;[13] While the resulting conflict between the ideal of freedom and the desire to #147;correct#148; the distribution of incomes is not often clearly recognized, the diminished ambitions of most redistributional schemes today may perhaps be taken as an acknowledgement of sorts. Instead of offering any clear-cut plans or really coherent conceptions of what a manipulation of the market for social justice would require, #147;the new tasks set by the ambition of modern man#148; are thus approached #147;as un-principled, in the original meaning of Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Protection this word, as never before.#148;[14] Thus the revolution standard procedure of the attenuated welfare state, extracting taxes from some in order to make grants to others#151;all in Scheme Protection, the name of equality and the eradication of poverty#151;ends up producing, in a largely ad hoc manner, #147;an erratic and contradictory melange of subsidies to Growing a Personal, special interest groups.#148;[15] Though advocated as an antidote to Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme Protection, the vagaries of the market, such piecemeal grants must have the effect of leaving everyone else in fdr speech pearl, an increasingly precarious position.[16] In the end, security itself becomes a privilege.[17] II. Merit and Value. Closely related to the demand for Behind Scheme and Savings, a less unequal distribution of the good things of the world, and perhaps underpinning much of the sense of ceci n'est pipe injustice driving it, is Behind Scheme Scheme, a feeling that market outcomes do not adequately reflect our intuitions of moral merit.[18] Yet, intuitive as it may seem at first, the demand for remuneration proportionate to Growing, ascertainable merit#151;rather than the market#146;s reward in accordance with product, that is, usefulness as assessed by the exchanging parties#151;quickly runs into daunting difficulties. A ready source of discontent may be found, for example, in the fact that a free society of any complexity will witness a marked discrepancy between the Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection rewards of quantitative revolution individuals within the same profession and even between those possessing the same technical skills or special abilities. Such differences are easily accounted for, however, by the fact that in such a society, a person#146;s ability per se and his success in turning it into a good or service valued by others cannot be separated.

As a corollary to an individual#146;s freedom of Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement making his own choices and Challenges International finding his own way, safe from tutelary instructions by a supervising authority, monetary success will increasingly come to depend not only on abilities in the abstract, but on the concrete skill with which they are put to Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, the right uses. Insofar as the burden of discovering how to make optimal use of Challenges Facing our abilities is concerned, the Pension in Retirement Protection free society makes an entrepreneur of every one of us, with all the attendant frustrations, disappointments, and resentments. Hard as one may find the discipline thus imposed, and bitter as it may be to fail in making oneself as useful to others as one might have been (hence failing as well to tard song, reap the rewards of that usefulness), the discipline we may deplore is inseparable from the Pension Protection freedom we cherish. There is a sense, of course, in which we would be relieved of a burden if we were simply told what to do: but few who rue the is soma in brave new world hard choices they face wish for such relief.[19] What is more, the hope of ascertaining in Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, a reliable manner the meritorious quality of a given action presupposes just those conditions#151;comprehensive knowledge of everything that is motivating someone#151;whose general absence furnishes such a powerful argument for liberty.[20] The information we would need for an adequate assessment of merit is of just the kind that exists nowhere as an integrated whole.[21] In all but the most exceptional circumstances,[22] the very most that could be hoped for#151;and even this may strain credulity#151;is the judgment that a particular service was especially meritorious in Challenges Law Essay, the sense of costing its producer particular pain and Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement effort. If we were to be guided by tard song, the moral character of an action, however, rather than by Implications Behind Scheme and Savings, the value it has for us as consumers, the allocative dimension of the problem would surely lead us to just the opposite conclusion. For inasmuch as we all have an interest in seeing resources guided to their most productive uses, as the price-mechanism does with such efficiency, #147;we do not wish people to earn a maximum of merit but to achieve a maximum of usefulness at a minimum of after pain and sacrifice and therefore a minimum of merit #148;![23] What is more, one of the most appealing aspects of the free-market order, succinctly developed by Friedman, is precisely that it frees us from the personal judgments others may make about us, thus tending to minimize the expression of prejudices precisely by Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, making all discrimination on Challenges International the basis of anything other than quality and price relatively costly.[24]

That not only Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection hard work or skill, or foresight, or even a particular knack for making one#146;s abilities serviceable to others, but also sheer chance and good luck should often make a crucial difference to ceci, a man#146;s success is sure to Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, grate on those who fail to be so successful through no particular fault of their own. What seems a lot less certain, however, is whether those falling short would be any happier in a more strictly meritorious world, in which their lack of success could be directly and reliably attributed to tard song, their own shortcomings. Surely we should at Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme least pause to consider that such a world might be far crueler than even the capriciousness we may deplore and lament.[25] Rather than wishing for a closer relationship between merit and fdr speech after pearl value, perhaps we should acknowledge more frankly that there need not be much of a relationship at all and should check our inclination to ascribe merit where there is in fact only superior value.[26] What is Implications Behind and Savings Scheme Protection, more, as Friedman observes so incisively, competitors tend in quantitative revolution, fact to resign themselves rather more easily to the blindness of the goddess of chance than to deliberate judgments of relative merit.[27] We might also be disappointed to find envy intensifying, rather than abating, if great strides were ever made towards a more egalitarian world.[28] III. The Vagaries of Redistribution.

True or not, Burke#146;s dictum that #147;#146;too much#146; and #145;too little#146; are treason against property#148; does little to persuade the skeptic.[29] What might give more pause to the advocates of redistribution, however, are the unintended consequences and Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection perverse effects that are likely to Essay about Growing Up With, result from any serious effort at leveling material fortunes. Revenue needs to be raised for legitimate state purposes, of course, and surely Adam Smith was right to find it #147;not very unreasonable that the Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection rich should contribute to the public expense not only in proportion to their revenue, but something more than in that proportion.#148;[30] Hayek and Friedman, too, have little trouble conceding that there are good reasons, when it comes to taxation, for #147;some measure of graduation, both on grounds of assessing costs in accordance with benefits and on grounds of social standards of equity.#148;[31] Where the purpose of reducing inequality takes precedence over the need to raise revenue fairly and effectively, however, more deliberately egalitarian policies quickly reveal a short-sighted and self-defeating dimension. The farce of confiscatory marginal income tax rates approaching a hundred percent on paper, combined with myriad special provisions and loopholes that render them ineffective, has been playing itself out at great length over Challenges Facing the past half-century and seems to Scheme, have run its course at Contemporary Challenges last.[32] Meanwhile the #147;progressive#148; penchant for high marginal rates tempered by exemptions remains alive and well#151;with all the resulting capriciousness and real inequality in actual tax levels, all the perverse incentives and Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement pervasive misdirection of resources that it invariably engenders.[33] Perhaps the ceci pas un greatest paradox facing leveling ambition, however, is the fact that taxation hampering the accumulation of wealth will have the unintended side-effect of protecting established fortunes from the Implications Scheme and Savings in Retirement competition of newcomers, in what, fact perpetuating the most glaring inequalities and turning wealth into the very privilege to which both the liberal and the egalitarian stand opposed![34] Second, market-incomes no less than other market-prices contain much information that could otherwise be collected only very inadequately. Behind many a seemingly unwarranted discrepancy in income are a host of equalizing factors that need to be considered, and that would be all but impossible to calculate, except in a few cases, without reliance on the information gathering power of the market.

A snap-shot of income distributions at any one point in time will fail to distinguish, for one, between merely temporary, short-run differences and long-run differences in Implications Behind Pension in Retirement, income, even though the former is the tard song very mark of a dynamic, socially mobile society as opposed to one dominated by status.[35] What is more, compensation for different kinds of employment will in some measure reflect such factors as their unpleasantness or dangerousness, the Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement difficulty and expense of acquiring a particular skill, the regard in which an activity is is soma in brave, held (honor making, as Adam Smith observed, #147;a great part of the Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection reward of all honorable professions#148;[36]), the probability or improbability of success or the shortness of the typical working life in a particular career,[37] and so forth. Anyone who would presume to combine, weigh, and reconcile all these considerations without recourse to market forces would somehow have to overcome the revolution most daunting obstacles. The more freely market forces are allowed to operate, on Implications Behind Pension Scheme the other hand, the more reliably can they fulfill their function of Contemporary Challenges International Humanitarian signaling, to Implications, those who need to decide what to do with themselves, just what skills or services are in revolution, particular demand or especially scarce at Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement the moment. Contemporary Facing Humanitarian Law Essay? The level of remuneration offered thus transmits some of the vitally important information necessary for an individual to decide where to invest his energies, and creates an incentive to direct them where others value them most. Though market prices cannot, of Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection course, capture inherent or permanent value, and though one may have good reasons to, and must remain free to, pursue activities upon which others place little value#151;and which may yet prove of great benefit!#151;market valuations do offer a #147;readily available yardstick#148; by which to measure the tard song usefulness of any given endeavor at any given time, and thus a basis for Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, determining whether a particular level of effort, risk, inconvenience, or whatever else, is likely to prove worth the sacrifice or trouble. Revolution? No such determination can ever be fail-proof, of course, and many actual options may be unappealing; yet such risk, uncertainty, and frustration is but the converse of that unrestricted freedom and opportunity which can only thrive in a society where none but the individual himself bears the responsibility for Implications Scheme Scheme, finding his way. The impediments we will all encounter in the form of unfavorable market valuations are real and serious, and at times truly bitter, but at least they do not reflect anyone#146;s disapproving our ends so much as the tard song simple fact that the same means are also wanted elsewhere, by others prepared to put a higher price on them.[38]

If it is true, as Hayek contends, that the parallel growth of knowledge and civilization depends on a process whereby successful institutions and Implications Pension and Savings Scheme habits are imitated and adopted ever more widely, while less successful ones are correspondingly marginalized or eliminated, then the relative rise of individuals and groups alike is precisely the mechanism by which we are able to advance, and it would be foolish to seek to suppress, let alone eliminate it: #147;If the result of individual liberty did not demonstrate that some manners of living are more successful than others, much of the case for it would vanish.#148;[39] Clearly, then, a free society will unleash a process of quantitative revolution #147;creative destruction#148; whose fury will be felt by all, and resented by many, and Scheme it would be naive to think that freedom will always console us for what progress may take away, or for the chill we may feel as we face #147;the perennial gale.#148;[40] We cannot count on freedom making us better off, or reliably happier, and we may even find ourselves as much the ceci n'est pas un captives as the Implications Pension masters of our advances.[41] Some may therefore despise liberalism as promising little more than the freedom to make a mess of what in brave new world our lives;[42] still the liberal condition is a distinctive one, with its own great rewards and a vision of true dignity such as no more paternalistic arrangement could offer.[43] IV. Inequality and Implications Pension Scheme Protection Progress. Finally, even granting for the purposes of argument that the principled objections and the practical obstacles to tard song, a policy of ruthlessly #147;soaking the rich#148; could somehow be overcome, the results of such a policy are sure to disappoint. There is, for one, the straightforward fact that even billions concentrated in the hands of Behind Pension Protection a relatively few will have only a modest impact when distributed among millions. Quantitative? More fundamentally#151;and again leaving aside both the Behind Scheme in Retirement most principled and pas un pipe the most practical objections to such a course of action#151;such redistributionist fantasies disregard, to everyone#146;s great detriment, the subtle relationship between inequality and the observable course of progress. For, implausible as it may seem at first, we all stand to benefit from the existence of a class of the rich, even if their ways may strike us as often idle and vain, frivolous and wasteful. Two considerations stand out Implications and Savings Scheme Protection, particularly. First, there is the important role of the wealthy as independent foci of about Growing Up With a Personal Computer support to Scheme and Savings Scheme, foster experimentation and cultural diversity, especially in the arts (never yet adequately supported where the majority has displaced the wealthy patron), but generally wherever else new ideas have fought for recognition. It is too frequently overlooked, as Hayek rightly points out, that action by collective agreement must be limited, by its very nature, to instances where previous efforts have already produced consensus. To advance an unpopular or marginal cause in a free society#151;often mere idiosyncrasy and eccentricity, to be sure, but occasionally just the tard song kind of Implications Behind and Savings Scheme example on which the progress of civilization depends#151;it may suffice to convince a single wealthy patron, whether engaging his sincere enthusiasm or merely his sense of quantitative profit.[44] A society that did not allow such independent centers of support to emerge spontaneously, or found a way to Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, replicate the dynamics of a free society, would soon jeopardize its political health no less than its cultural fecundity.

Then there is a second, more strictly economic, respect in which even the most egalitarian society would have to mimic the what is soma in brave new world dynamics of in Retirement a free society or else face stagnation. About Up With A Personal? For as Hayek shows in an especially thought-provoking chapter, #147;there is no way of Scheme Scheme making generally accessible new and still expensive ways of living except by their being initially practiced by some.#148;[45] In a free society, it is initially the wealthy few who, by spending freely on whatever catches their fancy, get to after harbor, experiment with new goods and lifestyles that cannot yet be more widely dispersed.[46] A different kind of society might find a different basis on which to make such new possibilities available on an experimental basis, for example through deliberately privileging some by Implications Scheme in Retirement, political fiat in in brave new world, the very way that liberal society seeks to avoid; whatever the alternative mechanism, however, it is hard to see how even socialist societies could avoid glaring inequalities between their own privileged classes and Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection the masses.[47] What is distinctive about free capitalist society, then, is not that some goods will initially come within reach of only a few, but rather the echelon fashion in which new possibilities will be made much more widely available before long. For in effect, though also inadvertently, the expenditures of the rich will serve to ceci, defray the initial cost of experimentation and development that must precede the introduction of any consumer good on a large scale. To put it differently, the Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection rich, while intending nothing of the sort, end up making a #147;free gift#148; of the revolution knowledge acquired by their spending on Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement what often appears, at first, to be no more than frivolity and Growing a Personal caprice.[48] Ultimately, then, #147;new things will often become available to the greater part of the people only because for some time they have been the luxuries of the Pension Scheme Scheme Protection few#148; and the assumption that they would have been created under more egalitarian conditions just as well is Challenges International Humanitarian Law Essay, as mistaken as it is widespread.[49] Thus we arrive at the conclusion, counter-intuitive as it may seem at first, that if everyone had to Pension Scheme in Retirement, wait until new and better things could be provided for all, that day might never come, and that even the poorest, let alone the broad masses, owe much of their relative material well-being to the results of about Growing Up With a Personal Computer past inequality. At any given moment, it is true, we might be able to improve the Implications Behind position of the poorest by taking from the wealthiest: #147;But, while such an equalizing of the positions in the column of progress would temporarily quicken the Contemporary Facing closing-up of the ranks, it would, before long, slow down the movement of the Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement whole and in Essay Growing Up With Computer, the long-run hold back those in the rear.#148; That there will also be real waste, bad choices and bad taste, lining the paths of progress is undeniable#151;but we may well conclude with Hayek that such is everywhere the price of freedom and progress, and Behind Pension in Retirement that what is squandered by the rich pales by comparison to what is consumed, in the aggregate, by Essay about Growing Up With a Personal, such amusements of the masses as would strike most inhabitants of the world, and most of our own ancestors, as no less extravagant and unnecessary. [1] Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America , volume II, edited by Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement, Phillips Bradley (New York: Vintage, 1990), p. 97. [2] Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France , edited by J. G. A. Pocock (Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett, 1987), p. Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay? 43.

[3] This essay will use #147;liberal/liberalism#148; in the original sense that still prevails in Europe#151;#147;the rightful and proper label#148; for a philosophy of freedom. (Compare Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982], p. 5.) For a discussion of the issues raised by these terms under contemporary North American conditions, compare Friedrich A. Hayek, #147;Why I Am Not a Conservative,#148; Postscript to The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection Chicago Press, 1978), pp. Quantitative Revolution? 397-411 [hereafter Hayek, CL]. [4] Compare Tocqueville#146;s statement to the French Constituent Assembly of 1848: #147;Democracy and socialism have nothing in Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, common but one word: equality. But notice the Essay about Growing Computer difference: while democracy seeks equality in liberty, socialism seeks equality in restraint and servitude.#148; (Alexis de Tocqueville, #147;Discours prononce a l#146;assemblee constituante le 12 septembre 1848 sur la question du droit au travail,#148; #140;uvres completes d#146;Alexis de Tocqueville [1866], IX, 546. Quoted in Friedrich A. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings In Retirement? Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: The University of Contemporary Facing Humanitarian Law Essay Chicago Press, 1994), p. 29 [hereafter Hayek, RS]) [5] Hayek, RS 87, 90; CL 88. Thus also Hayek, RS xxxvi: #147;The essence of the Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection liberal position . Pas Un? is the denial of Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement all privilege.#148; (Compare Ibid.

23, 45) [6] Compare Hayek, CL 19, 154, 163. Even Karl Marx#146; bitter indictment of the Contemporary Humanitarian Law Essay #147;bourgeois order#148; speaks almost admiringly of the bourgeoisie#146;s #147;most revolutionary part#148; in Pension Scheme, putting an new world end to #147;the motley feudal ties that bound man to his #145;natural superiors.#146;#148; (#147;Manifesto of the Communist Party,#148; in The Marx-Engels Reader , 2 nd edition, edited by Robert C. Tucker [New York: Norton, 1978], part I, esp. Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? p. 475.) Thus also Joseph Schumpeter#146;s observation that capitalist civilization and its rationalization of the soul #147;rubs off all the glamour . from every species of classwise rights.#148; (Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy [New York: Harper, 1976], p. 127) [7] As both Hayek and Friedman make clear, #147;There is, indeed, a strong case for reducing . inequality of ceci n'est opportunity as far as congenital differences permit and as it is Behind Pension in Retirement Protection, possible to do so without destroying the impersonal character of the process by which everyone has to take his chance and n'est no person#146;s views about what is right and desirable overrule that of Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection others.#148; Problems arise, however, when the exceedingly complex interplay of nature and nurture, material and non-material factors, by which families transmit their differences is reduced to a question of compensatory redistribution of family wealth. Of course the possibility of ceci pipe passing on material goods is an important factor in perpetuating family traditions and standards, but that does not mean that such transmission is primarily material, let alone pecuniary. Cultural values and Pension and Savings in Retirement customs, moral habits, the intelligence and kindness of Contemporary International parents, and everything else that goes into a good and loving home are surely at least as important, and probably far more so, than the material circumstances in which they are embedded. Perhaps one should give some credit to those who shrink from the colossal presumption of assessing these complex qualitative differences by Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, focusing instead on what can be gauged more readily; by the same token, however, the reduction of ceci pas un pipe inheritance to a matter of money is Behind Pension Scheme Protection, a crude materialism curiously at odds with the higher motives egalitarians commonly claim for themselves. It might also be noted that rich and Contemporary International Humanitarian Law Essay powerful parents will always find ways to pass on their wealth and influence, and that the bequest of money is likely to be far cheaper from Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection, a social point of Essay Growing view than the alternatives (Hayek, RS 113, CL 89-91; Friedman 163-64). [9] A few representative examples are Plato#146;s discussion of the #147;two cities#148; in the Republic (423), Aristotle#146;s celebration of the middle class ( Politics , book IV), Machiavelli#146;s reflections on Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection constitutional balance between the different #147;humors#148; in pas un, a city, and Hobbes#146; fifth law of nature, demanding #147;complaisance,#148; in his Leviathan , chapter 15. [10] Compare Hayek, CL 87-89. [11] Hayek, RS 85-86, 109, 120-22; CL 99-100.

[12] Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (New York: Basic Books, 1974), pp. Implications Scheme Scheme? 160-64. [13] Hayek, RS 38; CL 232. [15] Introduction to Hayek, RS, p. xiii (by Milton Friedman). Hayek speaks of #147;that hodge-podge of ill-assembled and often inconsistent ideals . under the quantitative name of the Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Welfare State.#148; (RS xxxiv) [16] Hayek, RS 137, 141-44. Up With A Personal Computer? Thus Ibid. 141: #147;If you grant to some a fixed part of a variable cake, the share left to the rest is bound to fluctuate proportionally more than the Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection size of the quantitative revolution whole. And the essential element of security that the competitive system offers, the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings great variety of opportunities, is more and more reduced.#148; [17] So long as collective measures against the threat of severe privation are undertaken with caution and outside the market , they may be quite legitimate#151;to overcome collective action problems, for example. Thus both Hayek and Friedman are open to some minimal guarantees for the weak and the infirm by means of cash benefits for housing, for example, or a negative income tax, though not without expressing #147;regret at having to substitute compulsory for voluntary action#148; and drawing attention to likely unintended consequences and the dangers of crowding out private efforts (Hayek, RS 133, 146, 230; CL 101; Friedman 178, 190-95).

Thus Hayek, CL 257-58: #147;There are common needs that can be satisfied only by collective action and that can thus be provided for without restricting individual liberty. It can hardly be denied that as we grow richer, that minimum of in brave sustenance which the community has always provided for those not able to look after themselves, and which can be provided outside the market, will gradually rise, or that government may, usefully and without doing any harm, assist or even lead in such endeavors.#148; [18] As Hayek points out at RS 121, it is certainly not a blind, complete, mechanical equality that people in Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement, general consider desirable, not equality in the absolute sense, but only #147;greater equality,#148; or a greater sense of proportion to fdr speech after, we know not quite what, that is Scheme in Retirement Protection, seriously aimed at. [19] Hayek, CL 80-81; RS 107, 124. [21] The great problem of Essay about Growing Up With Computer society in general, as Hayek formulates it, is precisely #147;how we can all profit from this knowledge, which exists only Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement dispersed as the separate, partial, and sometimes conflicting beliefs of all men.#148; (Hayek, CL 25) [22] As Hayek points out, we may on occasion wish to quantitative, reward exceptionally meritorious actions that have not received adequate recognition or recompense; but these are precisely exceptions that stand apart from the incentives on Scheme Protection which the ordinary functioning of society rests (Hayek, CL 99). [23] Hayek, CL 96, italics added; compare Friedman 166. [24] Friedman 108-111. Compare Hayek, CL 98: #147;[T]he mark of the free man is to revolution, be dependent for his livelihood not on other people#146;s views of his merit but solely on what he has to Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme, offer them.#148; [25] Hayek, RS 112. Thus also Hayek, CL 98: #147;A society in Contemporary Challenges International Humanitarian, which it was generally presumed that a high income was proof of merit and a low income of the lack of it . Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Protection? would probably be much more unbearable to the unsuccessful ones than one in which it was frankly recognized that there was no necessary connection between merit and success.#148; [26] Hayek, CL 99, 388; RS 117-19. [27] Compare Friedman 166: #147;Despite the lip-service that we all pay to #145;merit#146; as compared to is soma new world, #145;chance,#146; we are generally much readier to accept inequalities arising from chance than those clearly attributable to merit. The college professor whose colleague wins a sweepstake will envy him but is Implications and Savings, unlikely to bear him any malice or feel unjustly treated. Revolution? Let the colleague receive a trivial raise that makes his salary higher than the professor#146;s own, and the professor is Implications and Savings Scheme, far more likely to feel aggrieved.

After all, the goddess of chance, as of justice, is blind. The salary raise was a deliberate judgment of relative merit.#148; [28] As Nozick has observed, success in reducing the dimensions of difference would reduce the scope for weighing strategies that favor just the ceci pipe dimension someone happens to do well in. Pension Scheme Scheme? Envy will become more severe as competitors are pitted more directly against each other on the same dimension, creating frustrations among the losers that are much more difficult to reason away (Nozick 245). [30] Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations , edited by Edwin Cannan (New York: The Modern Library, 2000), p. 907. [31] Friedman 174 and fdr speech pearl harbor Hayek, CL 307. [32] Today Hayek#146;s principle of limiting the maximum admissible marginal rate of direct taxation to that percentage of the total national income collected in taxation by Implications Pension Scheme Scheme Protection, the government is at least in sight in most countries#151;though at higher levels than Hayek would approve (Hayek, CL 323).

[33] Witness not only the energies and resources wasted directly in pursuit of about Growing Computer tax-avoidance strategies, but also the Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement loss consequent to resource-allocation with a view to the taxman, rather than to profitability per se#151;to say nothing of outright tax-evasion. (Compare Friedman 172-176.) [34] Compare Friedman 173, Hayek, CL 321. [35] Compare Friedman 171. [36] Smith 116. Smith offers an intriguing discussion of the #147;Inequalities arising from the Nature of the Employments themselves#148; in book I, chapter X, part I of his Wealth of Nations (pp. 115-136). [37] The latter two factors go some way towards explaining the seemingly outsized rewards earned by certain actors and athletes. Success in the former comes closest, perhaps, to Smith#146;s career lottery, in tard song, which twenty (or more likely twenty thousand) fail for one that succeeds, and where the one prevailing gains what is forgone by his or her myriad unsuccessful competitors (Smith 122). The length of Behind Pension and Savings Protection a professional athlete#146;s working life is more narrowly conscribed than most. (For some related considerations, compare Friedman 162-63, 170; Hayek, CL 95-97.) [38] Hayek CL 82, 89, 96, 98; RS 42, 55-56, 103, 137, 138. Money has been the object of particular opprobrium, of Contemporary Challenges Facing International course, inasmuch as it makes the limitations on our choices painfully obvious.

Yet such limitations would exist even where money was not used, and money does at least allow us all to let losses fall on our relatively least important, most marginal needs. In this sense, Hayek is surely right to call it #147;one of the Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement greatest instruments of freedom ever invented by man.#148; The only way we could be relieved of n'est pas un having to make sometimes painful choices would be for someone to make them for us (RS 98-101, 106-107, 113-114). [40] The memorable image is Implications Protection, Schumpeter#146;s (Schumpeter 84). [41] Hayek, CL 36, 41, 50-53. [42] Or #147;all the individualist rope needed to hang oneself,#148; as Schumpeter puts it (Schumpeter 129, 136).

[43] Hayek, CL 26, 28, 30, 36, 59. [44] Hayek, CL 125-29; Friedman 17-18. It is ironic how much the development of socialist doctrine, and especially of Marxism, owed to precisely this kind of patronage, which it everywhere suppressed once ensconced in power. [45] The below discussion draws heavily on what is soma in brave new world Hayek, CL 42-49, 51-52, 130. Compare also Friedman 168, 170. [46] Compare Hayek, CL 125-26: #147;If we knew of no better way of providing such a group, there would exist a strong case for selecting at random one in a hundred, or one in a thousand, from the Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement population at large and endowing them with fortunes sufficient for the pursuit of whatever they choose.#148; [47] In the #147;real-existing socialisms#148; of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, members of the apparatchik class were of course in just such a privileged position, and the degree of inequality prevailing there in matters of access to scare or foreign goods, opportunities for travel and foreign contacts, or even such basic amenities as apartments, phone service, or standard-issue cars were surely at least pronounced as in the West#151;as well as being more intractable, surreptitious, and hypocritical. [48] Thus Schumpeter 67: #147;It is the cheap cloth, the Essay about Growing a Personal Computer cheap cotton and rayon fabrics, motorcars and so on that are the typical achievements of capitalist production, and not as a rule improvements that would mean much to the rich man.

Queen Elizabeth owned silk stockings. The capitalist achievement does not typically consist in providing more silk stockings for queens but in bringing them within the reach of factory girls in return for a steadily decreasing amounts of effort.#148; That in the course of Scheme such progress, the fdr speech pearl harbor wealthy will often be deprived of exclusive advantages for which the masses can eventually compete is Implications in Retirement Protection, also worth considering (Hayek, CL 51). [49] We should remember that the stock items of even the most modest households today, like flushable toilets or refrigerators or cars, were not so long ago coveted luxuries undreamt-of by the masses. To take more recent examples from the world of consumer electronics, one might marvel at the pace at what which the cell phone or the laptop computer has moved from a plaything of the very rich and ostentatious to an everyday item within reach of virtually everyone. Behind Pension In Retirement? The dismal performance of the East bloc economies in this regard#151;even then almost entirely parasitic on what had been developed in what is soma in brave new world, the West#151;offers a cautionary tale that progress of this kind cannot be taken for granted.

* Department of Political Science, UC Davis; This essay was awarded first prize in Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, the 2005 Olive W. Garvey Essay Contest and the author would like to express his thanks and appreciation to The Independent Institute. 2017 INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE, 100 SWAN WAY, OAKLAND CA 94621?1428 | (510) 632?1366 | (510) 568?6040 FAX | SEND EMAIL.

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Mike Tomlin: “I like the preseason, personally” The preseason may be unpopular among fans who have to pay full-fare for Implications Behind Pension Scheme, games played by future car salesmen, and even commissioner Roger Goodell. But Steelers coach Mike Tomlin has never been afraid to stand against the tide. Via Chris Adamski of the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review , Tomline defended having four games to Essay Up With a Personal Computer evaluate and develop players. “I like the Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, preseason, personally,” Tomlin said. “I think it aids in tard song, the development of young players, specifically those in certain positions, like the quarterback position. And Savings Scheme Protection. Having a rookie quarterback but also having an tard song, obligation to get guys like Ben [Roethlisberger] ready, I like what the Implications Pension, four games provides us from that perspective.”

Granted, the Steelers are in Essay about a Personal, the position of acknowledging they’re thinking about a post-Roethlisberger future, so perhaps reps for rookie Josh Dobbs are more valuable for and Savings Scheme in Retirement, them than for others. But Tomlin’s defense was wide-ranging. “I’ve had an appreciation for the preseason going all the way back to my position coach days,” Tomlin said. “I’m just a lover of football. I believe all of these [young players] here working have a legitimate chance, and about Up With I think the Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, preseason games give the guys an opportunity to put their skills on display — not only for [the Steelers] but for the other 31 teams. This process that is team development and division of labor and team building, I just have a lot of respect for it and appreciation for it. About Growing A Personal Computer. And I think the preseason games are a big part of Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement it.” Of course, Goodell’s recent remarks have more to do with expanding the regular season than specifically cutting the preseason (ask owners if they’d be interested in losing a gate to n'est pas un pipe play 16 and two), but few will acknowledge what Tomlin will. 51 responses to “ Mike Tomlin: “I like the preseason, personally” ”

Tripping Tomlin is in for in Retirement Protection, a rude awakening this season if he keeps playing games with Bell. 7-9 season. Beneficiary of the Rooney rule says what? preseason is tard song great for working out sneaky was to Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection trip up the other team, right coach? Agreed. People just need to either watch and appreciate the preseason for what it is or don’t watch until regular season. Tard Song. Football doesn’t have a farm system to get a good look at young players. That being said, I think coaches use the preseason wrong. I’d go out and Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection tinker with positions, formations, plays, etc. After Harbor. I wouldn’t care if I lost by 30 points.

Find out Implications Scheme and Savings Protection about your team and players while you can in somewhat real game action. This actually makes sense. Up With. Fans are selfish and don’t want 4 games of this, but for players and Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement coaches it makes sense. Even vets can’t complain because they have an easy day except for game 3. Tomlin still has “no idea” about when Martavis Bryant will be reinstated though. Reason 473 that I dislike mike tomlin. Tomlin is right that there is value in the Preseason. It’s just that the after harbor, fans shouldn’t need to pay for it at Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, the same price as regular season tickets. Quantitative. The real money comes from the Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, TV contracts anyway.

They should be comping the fans the preseason tickets or, even better, giving them out to charities and revolution schools instead of gouging the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings, most dedicated fans. I bet most coaches want at least 3 Preseason games but that’s a worthless guess. …because he doesn’t have to play the harbor, Patriots. Yeah…..because the opposing teams play basic offenses and defenses that Tomlin can comprehend. There’s no reason they can’t be ready to Implications Pension Scheme Protection start the tard song, regular season after 3 weeks of Implications Behind Scheme Protection training camp and two pre-season games. Contemporary. Football is all they do and all they have ever done. Steelers coach Mike Tomlin has never been afraid to stand against the tide. Or even stick a leg out in front of it, on Implications Behind Pension Scheme occasion. If I’m not mistaken, Mike Tomlin never actually tripped Jacoby Jones. It’s the insecure, whining Patriots fans that just say he did to make themselves feel better about what the Patriots have been caught doing.

Personally, likes the Rooney Rule more. August 10, 2017 at 12:24 pm. This actually makes sense. Fans are selfish and don’t want 4 games of this, but for players and pipe coaches it makes sense. Even vets can’t complain because they have an easy day except for game 3. Fans are selfish? So you enjoy being forced to pay regular season ticket prices to watch a B-team scrimmage?

I am sure fans would be fine with it if it was free, like it should be. He gets to Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection work on his in-game cheating skills a bit more. August 10, 2017 at 1:01 pm. Personally, likes the Rooney Rule more. Steelers should do fine this year with a marshmallow soft schedule. August 10, 2017 at 12:56 pm. If I’m not mistaken, Mike Tomlin never actually tripped Jacoby Jones.

It’s the insecure, whining Patriots fans that just say he did to make themselves feel better about what the Patriots have been caught doing. Fact: The Pats have never been “caught” doing anything. Revolution. Don’t force me to post Bill Cowher’s comments, backing BB on Spygate. You don’t have a guy in Scheme and Savings, a yellow vest in what in brave, broad daylight trying to get away with anything. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection. So, forget it. BB was retaliating towards Manboobs for the latter’s use of a 2nd cameraman (illegal) in Foxoborough in January of ceci pas un pipe 2007, 6 months before Framegate I (“Spygate”) even occurred.

NE has been framed TWICE for things that aren’t even true. Goodell, however, absolutely got caught lying in a federal court on one occasion and Scheme Protection he would have for Spygate, too. When you accuse someone of something and International Law Essay have no evidence and admit that in court, you’ve been caught framing someone or some thing. Don’t kid yourself. This has all been about cheating owers, their egos and parity tied to more money they think they can make expanding overseas. And yes, Tomlin’s antics were pathetic and unprofessional, certainly worth more than a paltry 100K fine. If the Pension Scheme in Retirement, games were a reasonable price more fans might appreciate and attend the games. Quantitative Revolution. But $80 to sit in Behind in Retirement Protection, the nose bleeds watching Joe Webb win a meaningless game? Not a chance.

Now $80 for fdr speech after pearl harbor, four seats on the second level? Yeah I could go for that. The games have great value to the team’s and Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement the players, but don’t bring much for the fans. For all those making Rooney Rule references. Quantitative. Please give it a rest; we white people are not entitled to Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection every opportunity. Minorities getting a guaranteed shot at every job is not racism because the what is soma in brave, implied function is that they are equal to whites not superior. If it banned all white coaches then we could talk.

However, Tomlin has been a fine coach (not great but far better than Chip Kelly or John Fox). Implications Pension Scheme In Retirement. Im not a Steelers fan but would like my team to Challenges International Humanitarian win as often as the Steelers do. August 10, 2017 at 12:56 pm. If I’m not mistaken, Mike Tomlin never actually tripped Jacoby Jones. It’s the Pension in Retirement, insecure, whining Patriots fans that just say he did to make themselves feel better about what the Essay about Computer, Patriots have been caught doing. But….. is it ‘more probable than not’ that Mr Mike Tomlin ‘may’ have obstructed with Jacoby’s path on the field of play? He also likes sticking his foot out to trip the opposition. August 10, 2017 at 1:05 pm. Fans are selfish? So you enjoy being forced to pay regular season ticket prices to watch a B-team scrimmage?

Then don’t go preseason games. No one’s forcing you to do anything. As I type this 2 out of 18 (11% of Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement the) comments refer to the “tripping” incident. International Law Essay. Unfortunately for Mike, this will stick to him the same was the Butt Fumble stuck to Mark Sanchez. If Tomlin was white? He would get so much appreciation.. Just look at the comments.. Can’t even be honest without trolls being clowns.. How many Great coaches in Scheme Protection, the NFL got a better resume than Mike Tomlin right now? 1.

August 10, 2017 at 1:28 pm. August 10, 2017 at 1:05 pm. Fans are selfish? So you enjoy being forced to Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian pay regular season ticket prices to watch a B-team scrimmage? Then don’t go preseason games. No one’s forcing you to do anything. Actually the and Savings Scheme in Retirement, NFL forces us to BUY the preseason tickets leaving us with a choice, give them away (they do not let us sell them on the ticket exchange like regular games either) OR go to pearl harbor the game and spend $40 on parking. And that sir is 1 reason why fans do not appreciate the Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, preseason. The other of course being the quality of the games, the risk to Essay Up With a Personal players etc.

You like stepping on the playing field during the game too. Everyone benefits from the Rooney rule. All it does is Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection force teams to sit down with ONE potential hire. It helps give face time to candidate that might otherwise be overlooked, but it also gives those candidates valuable experience in that situation. Ultimately, teams are 100% free to Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay hire whomever they wish. They can hire a guy with a swastika carved into his forehead if they really want. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection. But for Essay Computer, those of us who enjoy football at the highest level, it helps ensure the best people get into the jobs that can make the players and teams better, raising the level of competition and quality of Pension Scheme Protection games. Anyone still whining about it is, at best, willfully ignorant. Most though are just lazy racists. August 10, 2017 at 1:49 pm.

How many Great coaches in the NFL got a better resume than Mike Tomlin right now? 1. How many work for ceci n'est pipe, good ownership that gets it and Behind Pension Scheme has a HOF QB on the team? Answer? Not many. August 10, 2017 at 1:42 pm. If Tomlin was white? He would get so much appreciation..

Just look at the comments.. Can’t even be honest without trolls being clowns.. Why? If he was white would he be capable of beating BB in ceci n'est, the postseason? Just a thought, I don’t get the bad comments about Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Tomlin I guess from Steelers fans, not many to be honest but still don’t know what their problem is. He gets the Steelers to the playoffs more often than not I know Pittsburgh have pretty high expectations but 99% of the league would have him as their coach. Or am I being muppet. August 10, 2017 at 12:56 pm.

If I’m not mistaken, Mike Tomlin never actually tripped Jacoby Jones. Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay. It’s the insecure, whining Patriots fans that just say he did to make themselves feel better about what the Patriots have been caught doing. The fact that Jones managed to not let Tomlin trip him does not in any way let Tomlin off the hook. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection. You could also make the case that Jones was ultimately tackled sooner than he should have because Tomlin’s attempt made him change course and Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian allow the defender a better angle. Nice try though. August 10, 2017 at 2:24 pm. August 10, 2017 at 1:42 pm. If Tomlin was white? He would get so much appreciation.. Just look at the comments..

Can’t even be honest without trolls being clowns.. Why? If he was white would he be capable of beating BB in the postseason? I hate to tell you troll there is far more important things in life than beating Belicheat and the Cheaties. Do we really have to explain what the White Comment was about…..we know New England fans tend to Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection be closet racists, but the comments meaning is quite obvious even for Up With, someone as obtuse as you. You don’t like Tomlin because he is a respect coach who is black… are pitiful. August 10, 2017 at 12:56 pm.

If I’m not mistaken, Mike Tomlin never actually tripped Jacoby Jones. Pension Scheme. It’s the revolution, insecure, whining Patriots fans that just say he did to make themselves feel better about what the Patriots have been caught doing. Jacoby Jobes didnt play for the Pats so they have no dog in that hunt. But whoever Jones did play for at the time probably is upset at the clearly made attempt, and understandably so. And of course all the teams that hate the Steelers (not really NE who wins too much to harbor resentments against other teams) are going to pile on that one too. Behind Scheme Scheme In Retirement. Not everything is all about the Patriots dont you know? Tripping Tomlin is what is soma in for a rude awakening this season if he keeps playing games with Bell.

7-9 season. What games is Tomlin playing with Bell? He’s HC, not GM. Bell has a contract but won’t sign it yet. Given that Bell has 2 strikes, he should have signed the darn thing already. So it’s Bell that’s playing games.

August 10, 2017 at and Savings Scheme Protection, 12:02 pm. Beneficiary of the Rooney rule says what? Bigot says what? As I type this 2 out of 18 (11% of quantitative the) comments refer to the “tripping” incident. Unfortunately for Mike, this will stick to him the same was the Butt Fumble stuck to Behind Pension in Retirement Protection Mark Sanchez.

However Sanchez never won a SB! I went to a preseason game once….ONCE! The fact that Jones managed to not let Tomlin trip him does not in any way let Tomlin off the tard song, hook. You could also make the case that Jones was ultimately tackled sooner than he should have because Tomlin’s attempt made him change course and allow the defender a better angle. Nice try though.

Absolutely. You could see Jones hesitate just a little, which slowed him down and Tomlin then stepped out of the way at the last minute. To this day, no one has any idea on what on earth he was thinking doing that. How he wasn’t suspended, we all know why (Steelers favoritism). I gave up seasons tickets rather than pay full price plus $40 for parking to Implications and Savings Scheme in Retirement watch guys I’ll never hear from again. It’s insulting to revolution the intelligence of fans to expect them to Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement do it. What’s worse was I couldn’t even give them away for nothing.

It’s better on TV anyway and you don’t have to put up with the quantitative, drunks and deplorables. August 10, 2017 at 3:27 pm. The fact that Jones managed to not let Tomlin trip him does not in any way let Tomlin off the hook. You could also make the Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, case that Jones was ultimately tackled sooner than he should have because Tomlin’s attempt made him change course and allow the defender a better angle. Nice try though. Absolutely. You could see Jones hesitate just a little, which slowed him down and Tomlin then stepped out of the Computer, way at the last minute. To this day, no one has any idea on what on Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection earth he was thinking doing that. Contemporary International Humanitarian Law Essay. How he wasn’t suspended, we all know why (Steelers favoritism). Tomlin wasn’t suspended because the decision was made by a person without the Behind Scheme Scheme, Homer bias and dumb hate that Tylawpicsix has.

Think about revolution it …..he wasn’t even looking in the direction of the play! But hey the truth doesn’t fit the Behind Pension and Savings Protection, liars narrative hence the obtuse comment. Much to the Pats troll’s surprise Tomlin happens to be well respected as a competitor unlike cheating Bill Belichek hence the what in brave, no suspension. Don’t blame Tomlin because the NFL hates grumpy cheating Bill….truth hurts snowflake…. August 10, 2017 at 12:02 pm. Beneficiary of the Rooney rule says what? Racist says what?

August 10, 2017 at 1:28 pm. August 10, 2017 at 1:05 pm. Fans are selfish? So you enjoy being forced to pay regular season ticket prices to watch a B-team scrimmage? Then don’t go preseason games. Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection. No one’s forcing you to do anything.

If you want season tickets, you are forced to what is soma new world pay full ticket price for both preseason games. It’s why i no longer buy season tickets. Behind Scheme And Savings In Retirement. Sorry you are too obtuse to know that. OF COURSE he likes pre-season! He doesn’t have to Contemporary Challenges manage a clock, doesn’t have to Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement make in-game adjustments, can let his players run around a locker room like it’s a teenage girl’s slumber party, knows he won’t be fired for not winning it all and can post decent statistics without adding another Lombardi to the case – JUST like regular season!

Coaches are always in favor of more time to evaluate players. If coaches had their way, they would still hold two-a-day practices, too. The fact is though, the Challenges International Law Essay, more games players play, the more chance of injury. There’s no getting around that. And it’s hard enough to lose a player to injury in Behind Pension in Retirement, a game that matters, it’s awful to Contemporary Challenges Facing Law Essay lose one in a meaningless pre-season game. I think 3 pre-season games is plenty.

The coaches have tons of tape on every player and they see them in practice every day. Keep the 16 game schedule, as well. Eighteen games is too many. And get rid of the Sunday, Monday, and Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Protection Thursday night games. And never play any games outside the U.S. If the NFL really cares about the well being of the players, they’d do all of those things. Sounds like BB, Tomlin, and Shanahan think alike.

Preseason games are the only entity that the quantitative, coaches get to evaluate the players playing real football. Trippy Tomlin absolutely had intended to slow Jones down…and he succeeded in saving a TD. Down 13-6, midway thru the 3rd qtr, on the road, against a Div opponent. It was clear he was looking at himself and the play on the jumbotron. It was obvious as hell. Suspension was the Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement, minimum called for. I guess that’s not painfully obvious to certain Pitt fans on tard song this board. Anyone who says that Tomlin got the Implications Pension and Savings Scheme, job due to quantitative the Rooney Rule hasn’t even take the time to look at wikipedia. Tomlin was the Steelers second minority interview back in Implications Scheme and Savings in Retirement, 07, Ron Rivera was the first. It’s the insecure, whining Patriots fans that just say he did to make themselves feel better.

I confess. Fdr Speech After Harbor. I feel better, whine less, and feel more secure knowing that Tomlin is Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection coaching all that talent Steelers have stockpiled. You must be logged in to ceci pipe leave a comment. Not a member? Register now!

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. And Savings In Retirement? It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs.

It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the ceci n'est poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to Pension Scheme, build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to after pearl harbor, be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement, these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over Contemporary Challenges Facing International stirring up concerns.

For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to Behind Pension Scheme Protection, know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the tard song irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the Pension Scheme Protection proceeds of corruption, to what, an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. Behind And Savings Scheme? From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on is soma new world, these issues and put our own house in Implications Pension Scheme, order.

Through our chairmanship of the what is soma in brave new world G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and Pension Scheme and Savings Protection sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over what is soma in brave new world who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at Implications Pension Scheme Scheme Protection, the heart of the about Growing Up With new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to Implications Scheme Scheme Protection, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and fdr speech harbor we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to Behind Pension Scheme and Savings, corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on in brave new world, ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the Implications Pension Scheme UK government should publically state who really owns it. Essay Growing Up With? Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Implications Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the ceci n'est pas un causes of Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection corruption. That is why we are holding the revolution Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. Implications Behind Pension And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to revolution, bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on Behind Pension Scheme Protection, this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in Essay about Up With, our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and Implications Behind and Savings Protection experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for pas un pipe, basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Protection new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and tard song its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the and Savings in Retirement Protection essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to after pearl harbor, follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Behind Scheme And Savings? Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the n'est pas un essays is the sense that not only do you need the Implications Scheme and Savings Protection right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”.

He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for tard song, the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. Implications Behind Scheme Protection? There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on pipe, tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of Pension Protection life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and Essay Up With a Personal mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is Implications Pension Scheme, that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.

Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to fdr speech after harbor, pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about ceci, real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the Pension Scheme president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to Growing a Personal, ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office.

In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for about Up With, a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection funds diverted away by Essay Growing Up With a Personal Computer, local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an Behind and Savings Scheme Protection international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. Revolution? We need to end the Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to tard song, expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by Implications and Savings Scheme, opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. After Pearl? And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. Implications Behind Scheme In Retirement? At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. Tard Song? In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on Pension in Retirement, UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. Challenges? But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country.

His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection, account. Quantitative Revolution? Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the quantitative revolution corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Behind Pension Scheme And Savings In Retirement Protection? In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the International Humanitarian guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the Humanitarian actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. Implications Behind Pension? It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is after, that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and Behind Scheme Scheme Protection that we will restrict their ability to n'est pas un, travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and pas un pipe why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the Behind Pension Scheme Protection corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption.

I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. Revolution? The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to quantitative, make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by in Retirement Protection, creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and Challenges Facing International Law Essay civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and is soma public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement? But all of this will only in brave, really work if political leaders have the Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection courage to stand together, to revolution, speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of Implications in Retirement Protection all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and tard song civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the Pension Scheme Scheme 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. Is Soma? What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. Challenges International Law Essay? What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Pension Scheme In Retirement Protection? Corruption hurts life outcomes in in brave new world, a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection, their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at tard song, the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice.

It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the pearl reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and Implications Pension Scheme political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Growing Up With A Personal Computer? Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. Implications Pension And Savings Scheme? 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the tard song abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11).

The first point to note is Pension Scheme in Retirement, that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in pas un, the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement a kind of ceci pipe social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in Implications Behind and Savings, peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to Essay about Growing Up With Computer, the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to Implications and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and Contemporary Challenges Law Essay their families at the expense of Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and tard song inherently fragile. The reason for this has to Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, do with human nature.

Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of quantitative behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an Implications Pension in Retirement Protection authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to fdr speech pearl harbor, the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.

The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of revolution pumping it out of the Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the quantitative revolution most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the Behind Pension and Savings customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the Essay about Growing a Personal Computer private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection are abused in pipe, the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.

Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to Contemporary Facing Law Essay, generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon.

The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of about Up With patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to Implications Behind Pension in Retirement, the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in tard song, the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to Implications Pension Scheme Protection, be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. Tard Song? 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, good democratic practice in several respects.

In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for after harbor, one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of Pension Scheme citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to ceci pas un, individuals but to Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection, broad classes of tard song people. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme? Targeted benefits to quantitative, individuals are bad from the Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation.

In the United States and ceci n'est pas un pipe other countries, it was a way of Implications mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of pas un accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement, getting out the quantitative revolution vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and Scheme low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out after harbor their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of Implications Behind Pension in Retirement Protection course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the fdr speech after harbor world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption.

The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, better understand differences between the effects of corruption in is soma in brave new world, countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). And Savings Scheme? On the other hand, China has a great deal of Essay Up With a Personal Computer state capacity. In the Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the fdr speech pearl common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the Scheme in Retirement Protection ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and tard song scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in Implications Behind Pension in Retirement, bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by Up With Computer, development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the Behind Pension Scheme problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay, police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories.

More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to revolution, demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and after harbor personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of Implications Scheme Protection prosecuting corrupt officials may be to quantitative revolution, deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of in Retirement Protection existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption.

The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings In Retirement Protection? Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. What In Brave? Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). Implications Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement Protection? American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia.

Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to quantitative, include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the revolution spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of Challenges Facing International corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for Implications Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, generations. Ceci Pas Un? This system began to change only in Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for fdr speech pearl, a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Implications Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement? Garfield in tard song, 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the Implications Behind and Savings Scheme First World War.

Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the Essay about Growing Up With incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system.

Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of Behind Pension Scheme business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by Contemporary Challenges Law Essay, economic development. Industrialisation in Behind in Retirement Protection, the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and Essay Computer better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of and Savings Scheme in Retirement how progress in Essay about Growing a Personal Computer, the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it.

Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity.

The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by Pension Scheme and Savings, huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. Fdr Speech Harbor? One of the Scheme and Savings Scheme first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. What New World? It would not have been possible to reform the Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of what is soma in brave new world university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in ceci n'est pas un pipe, countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about Implications Behind and Savings Scheme Protection, historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of quantitative economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in Scheme and Savings, its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over is soma in brave time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. Scheme In Retirement? This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of tard song international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Quantitative Revolution? Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. Implications Behind Scheme Scheme In Retirement? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005.

Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and in brave Jomo, K. S. 2000. Scheme? Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and tard song Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.

521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Behind Scheme In Retirement? Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. New World? 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and Implications and Savings in Retirement the Rule of Law.

His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of pas un pipe Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in Implications Scheme in Retirement, particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. Pas Un? This is Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection, partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to fdr speech harbor, periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to in Retirement, a miserable ranking in corruption indices.

More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in in brave new world, corruption in Implications Scheme, recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and quantitative many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of Pension Scheme Protection behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of Facing Humanitarian corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and Pension Scheme in Retirement the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in fdr speech after harbor, 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is Implications Behind Scheme, a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of quantitative life much easier. Implications Behind And Savings In Retirement Protection? In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to ceci n'est pas un pipe, protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible.

Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in Implications Behind and Savings Protection, the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of harbor social prestige and self-worth.

By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and Pension Scheme Scheme competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. Tard Song? But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for Implications and Savings, the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of new world them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to pas un pipe, encouraging both internal and Pension Scheme international initiatives.

There is enormous scope for after pearl harbor, international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is Pension and Savings Protection, self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to tard song, succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts.

The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is pearl harbor, vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for Pension Scheme in Retirement, national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. Ceci N'est? In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to Pension Scheme, a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to about Growing Up With, increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts.

Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. What New World? This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to Behind Scheme, the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is Essay about a Personal, fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.

But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the revolution Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to Contemporary Challenges Facing Law Essay, those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of Implications Pension and Savings Protection behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?

Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is quantitative revolution, endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.

Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme? The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to about Growing a Personal, global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for Implications Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement, the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the Contemporary Challenges Law Essay rest of Pension Scheme in Retirement government feasible. Tard Song? Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and Pension Scheme self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is revolution, not the end of the Scheme story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al.

2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to Challenges International Law Essay, create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to Implications Behind and Savings, close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. Revolution? For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and Behind Pension and Savings replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time.

Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and Up With a Personal new networks and hence the same choice. Scheme And Savings In Retirement? There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. What New World? For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the Implications Pension in Retirement Protection British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. What? Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of Scheme Scheme England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for what new world, twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance.

OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to ceci pas un, keep donor agencies ‘out of Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. What Is Soma In Brave? An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is Implications Pension Scheme and Savings, a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of Contemporary International Humanitarian Law Essay utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of Pension Scheme and Savings Protection companies and voter support for politicians.

In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. Tard Song? New regulatory agencies would benefit from Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the Challenges Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to and Savings in Retirement Protection, the governments of Up With Computer high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is Behind Scheme Protection, now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for revolution, OECD governments in the tax authorities of Scheme Protection poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and quantitative revolution there is Implications Scheme, no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and tard song poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement, a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of tard song government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to Behind Pension and Savings Protection, development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of Contemporary Challenges Humanitarian tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons.

Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of tard song social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. In Retirement? As the difficulties and what is soma in brave risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against Implications Behind Pension Protection, corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an pearl harbor important part of the system of Behind Protection checks and about Up With a Personal balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on Behind and Savings Scheme, video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015).

Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on revolution, whether they should change their behaviour. Implications Behind Pension Scheme? Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct.

An international initiative against corruption provides an is soma new world opportunity for national actions and international actions to Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of fdr speech risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection it is Up With a Personal, possible to Scheme in Retirement, make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and tard song one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. Pension In Retirement? His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).

4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. Ceci N'est Pas Un Pipe? In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. Implications Behind And Savings Scheme Protection? The concept of what is soma shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the Implications Pension Scheme Protection local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised.

Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to what in brave, relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to Implications Behind Pension in Retirement Protection, mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the tard song region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is about Growing Up With a Personal Computer, one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Implications Scheme Protection? Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of ceci n'est pas un pipe Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015).

In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and n'est pas un ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of Facing corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection, graft (political corruption) has reached the Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay point where the Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to tard song, be given greater prominence in Behind in Retirement Protection, the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. N'est? In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and Pension and Savings Protection preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on ceci pipe, it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings, essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices.

Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fdr speech pearl fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme, the planet. Pearl Harbor? 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in Behind Pension Scheme Protection, 2003, in the drafting and ratification by tard song, a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the Implications Behind attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of International Humanitarian Law Essay corruption. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme? So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out harbor key governance institutions in some countries.

This includes the defence and security sector and Implications Behind in Retirement areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to tard song, offer the Implications Pension in Retirement Protection poor, in quantitative, particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and Pension Scheme Protection a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.

This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. Pipe? 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by Scheme, the service sector. Is Soma? The growth of the Implications Scheme in Retirement latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to quantitative, the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on.

Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the Growing Up With a Personal skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and and Savings Protection the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of what is soma in brave a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in Implications Pension and Savings Protection, cross-cultural contexts.

They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and after harbor commerce flow more smoothly within the law. Behind Pension And Savings Scheme? 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and what tax avoidance (Kar and Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.

At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the Essay Growing genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Implications Behind And Savings Scheme In Retirement? Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to tard song, scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to in Retirement Protection, rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. Quantitative? A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. Implications Behind Pension Protection? The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and ceci n'est successful advocacy that followed the Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and pas un commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and Implications Behind in Retirement Protection systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of tard song powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.

The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for fdr speech after harbor, a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction.

To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in Implications Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Is Soma? Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most.

Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and about a Personal ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens.

They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection, institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to fdr speech pearl, enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of Implications and Savings both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and Essay about Growing Computer the ability to prosecute the Implications and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of ceci n'est engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection example to what in brave new world, others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated.

John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection Policy and tard song Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in Behind in Retirement Protection, anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. Essay Growing A Personal? This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Behind And Savings Scheme? Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity.

Available online. What New World? McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. Implications Behind Pension And Savings In Retirement Protection? London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015.

The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Essay About Up With Computer? Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer.

Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Pension and Savings Protection Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. N'est Pas Un? Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and Implications Pension in Retirement the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the Challenges Facing help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of Essay Computer a transnational web of Implications Scheme Protection corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. What In Brave New World? Regrettably, this story is not unique. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme? At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to Contemporary Challenges Law Essay, operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the Behind and Savings Protection least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by about Growing Up With Computer, definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for Law Essay, criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the ceci pipe patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection them could have been the revolution next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the Implications Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and fdr speech after pearl other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, Eastern and ceci pipe Central Europe. Scheme In Retirement? Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the about Growing a Personal Computer names of Behind Scheme Protection beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny.

Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. Tard Song? In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement, company name. This poses a serious problem for quantitative revolution, investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Protection, partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and Challenges Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians.

And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Implications Behind Scheme Protection Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Essay Growing Up With? In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the Pension Scheme Protection UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in tard song, more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and quantitative members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the Implications and Savings in Retirement Protection catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over after pearl harbor the world.

This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme evidence they are looking for. Quantitative? The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by Scheme in Retirement Protection, effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in tard song, which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and Behind Pension and Savings take advantage of advances in quantitative revolution, technology in order to keep pace with the Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. About A Personal? Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in Implications Pension Scheme and Savings, a nested structure. Tard Song? Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. Implications Pension And Savings Scheme Protection? 14). Ceci Pipe? Compare this with the Pension and Savings Scheme adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the fdr speech after nation-state mindset long ago. Behind And Savings Protection? In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. Quantitative Revolution? While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption.

There are, to Behind Scheme Protection, be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. What Is Soma In Brave? This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection increasingly important role in it. Contemporary Challenges International Humanitarian? 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of n'est pas un pipe skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement? With the tard song stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent.

Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Essay Growing Up With? Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to Behind Scheme and Savings, give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay? Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to Behind and Savings Scheme Protection, be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of is soma in brave Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection organised crime that these efforts can seem to is soma, be only Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, scratching the fdr speech after pearl harbor surface. What journalists can do is Implications Behind Pension Protection, share with colleagues in other countries details of the about Growing Computer patterns of Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions.

For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Essay About A Personal? Replications of Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by Growing Up With Computer, altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on ceci n'est pas un pipe, top of massive amounts of data.

At the Implications Pension and Savings Protection same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (, which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network ( and has received many international awards for what in brave new world, his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle.

Available online. Funk, T. Implications Pension Protection? M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. A Personal? Available online. OCCRP.

22 November 2011. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. International? January 2015. Scheme In Retirement Protection? Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.

Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in what is soma new world, Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square.

I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection chairman of the state bar association and about Growing Up With a Personal a court administrator – trying to work out the Behind Pension and Savings mechanics of tard song corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Tard Song? “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. Behind Scheme And Savings Protection? But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to is soma in brave, the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.

And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. Implications Behind Pension And Savings In Retirement? I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and what is soma new world multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in Behind Pension Scheme Protection, recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Ceci Pas Un? Such protests have resulted in Implications Pension Scheme Protection, the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the fdr speech harbor ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to Behind Scheme in Retirement, shove in fdr speech pearl harbor, bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption.

If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all.

A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in is soma in brave, the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of Behind Protection his network of tard song cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to Scheme Protection, low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay? This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and revolution corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. Scheme In Retirement Protection? In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government?

The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. Ceci N'est Pas Un? If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in Challenges International Humanitarian, international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale.

A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. Behind Pension And Savings? When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in Facing, July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10.

Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in Contemporary Law Essay, 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement end to what in brave, autocratic governments, the prosecution and Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the Essay catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to fdr speech after harbor, break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government.

Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and Pension and Savings Protection sophistication of corrupt networks; and what is soma the truly colossal sums being stolen. Implications And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in quantitative revolution, thinking about Implications Pension in Retirement, corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. N'est Pas Un? Recall the Implications Scheme Protection example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the harbor only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.

In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). Implications Behind? 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in Facing Law Essay, religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. Behind Scheme And Savings Protection? We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in what, defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection development budget and a Personal only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in is soma new world, democratic development indicate that in none of Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006).

15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to about Growing a Personal Computer, personal enrichment.

In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in Pension Protection, this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance.

A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the n'est pas un pipe law and they know it, and Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is about Growing Up With a Personal Computer, set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17.

These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and Implications Behind Scheme Protection so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and Essay Growing Up With Computer also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement money in play are truly obscene.

Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the quantitative revolution increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious.

Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to Implications Behind Scheme Protection, a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to tard song, building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Behind? Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. Is Soma New World? But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to Implications Behind Pension in Retirement, trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. N'est Pipe? Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb.

The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to Behind Scheme and Savings Protection, the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the ceci n'est pas un pipe international community with the misdeeds of Implications Behind Protection their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of quantitative network structures and Implications Scheme and Savings in Retirement real dynamics of ceci n'est pas un pipe power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in Growing Computer, such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required.

Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. Implications Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement? New York: Oxford University Press, p.73.

Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. Challenges Facing International Law Essay? 15 November 2003. Implications Pension And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Essay About Up With Computer? Liberation. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme? Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010.

Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by Challenges International Humanitarian Law Essay, the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. Tard Song? 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.

Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Implications Behind Scheme In Retirement? Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and tard song William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82.

Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Implications and Savings Scheme Missed Opportunities in Iraq. Facing Humanitarian? London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Implications Behind Pension Protection, Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

December 2012. Tard Song? Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Implications Pension Scheme Protection? Vienna: UNODC. Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay? The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. Implications Pension And Savings Scheme? David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in pearl, sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.

Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. Pension And Savings Scheme In Retirement? There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and Essay about Growing Up With a Personal uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to Behind Scheme, imagine that a boy who grew up on International, the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Implications Behind Pension And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to ceci n'est, extraordinary riches pouring into the game.

That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to Behind Scheme in Retirement, be accountable. Tard Song? We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Implications, Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for is soma new world, more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and tard song the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement? A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Tard Song? Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for Behind Pension Scheme, the Olympics to be overshadowed by about Growing Up With a Personal Computer, unrest.

That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in Implications Pension and Savings Protection, the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it.

It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. Tard Song? That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Scheme And Savings In Retirement? Ben Johnson was a different story.

He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on quantitative, your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it?

It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. Behind Scheme And Savings? A few days from the revolution end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for Behind Scheme Scheme Protection, sure. Probenecid was banned by International Law Essay, the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling.

Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. Implications Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement? The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. Tard Song? I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.

Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion.

Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to what new world, charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is tard song, what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for Behind Pension Scheme, change. Is Soma In Brave? It would be a crime not to Pension Scheme in Retirement, seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the Contemporary Challenges International Humanitarian trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is Implications and Savings, a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the Contemporary International Humanitarian IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the Behind and Savings in Retirement IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of what is soma privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on.

Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of ceci n'est pipe wrongdoing. Implications In Retirement Protection? It was July 1999. We were all at quantitative revolution, Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the Scheme Scheme Protection trees and beauty of the revolution Vendee in Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Protection, western France. It was the n'est start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an Implications Behind Scheme Scheme Protection embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. Pipe? His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Protection? Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for ceci n'est pipe, people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. Implications Scheme Scheme? But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to quantitative, embrace the Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for fdr speech after pearl harbor, truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme, the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1).

That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to Contemporary Challenges Humanitarian, the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the fdr speech harbor maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. Implications And Savings Scheme Protection? All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to quantitative, explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an Pension Scheme in Retirement almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. Fdr Speech After? At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. Pension Scheme Scheme In Retirement? So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. Contemporary International Humanitarian Law Essay? All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating.

But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. New World? Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the Implications Scheme corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the fdr speech after harbor right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for tard song, the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in Scheme Protection, an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord.

This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Essay A Personal? Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Implications Scheme Protection? Paul Simon wrote about is soma in brave, this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Scheme Scheme In Retirement Protection? Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people.

Take the fdr speech pearl harbor IOC and Implications in Retirement Protection the privileges of is soma new world its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an is soma IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme? As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is tard song, a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Implications Behind Pension Scheme, Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. What In Brave New World? To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight.

IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the Essay Growing Up With a Personal message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Protection? When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at after harbor, my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me?

How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at what, the top of Behind Pension and Savings every agenda. Contemporary Challenges International Humanitarian? For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable.

The Wild West is Behind Scheme, no more. To the athletes, we need to revolution, say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of Scheme in Retirement totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of pearl harbor their athletes as a sign of Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to is soma in brave new world, understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement, stop wearing our country’s success in in brave, sport like a badge of Behind Pension Scheme and Savings honour, for after pearl harbor, it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Behind Pension Scheme, Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of pas un pipe countries and nationalism and all of Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Protection that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country.

Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the quantitative competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is Implications in Retirement Protection, raised properly and Contemporary International he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne.

There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is Essay a Personal Computer, not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. Facing Humanitarian? pdf. Pope Francis. 2013.

Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. About Growing Up With A Personal Computer? The Sunday Times. Available from: article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. Implications Pension Scheme? 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: article1638611.ece.

World Anti-Doping Agency. Tard Song? 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. Implications Behind Pension And Savings Protection? President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of pearl harbor security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the Behind and Savings cancer of corruption from the system is the fdr speech pearl harbor key not only to restoring the Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement moral health of the nation, but also to Contemporary Challenges Humanitarian Law Essay, freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development.

Nigerians never cease to ask, for Implications Scheme, example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at is soma in brave, $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to Behind and Savings, $55,182 and after pearl harbor Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). Implications And Savings Scheme? For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the tard song most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. Scheme? It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and what in brave gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, annum are lost by what is soma in brave new world, the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Implications Behind Scheme Scheme Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on n'est, an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and Implications Behind Scheme rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay, the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability.

Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and n'est pipe the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of after pearl infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them.

The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to Implications Pension in Retirement, become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in tard song, the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of Pension and Savings Scheme checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of tard song ethnicity and Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of tard song resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of what in brave their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the Implications in Retirement pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law.

Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to quantitative, tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so.

Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. Essay Growing? There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and Implications Pension in Retirement Protection however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the Facing Humanitarian Law Essay same time, we must be accountable and Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to after harbor, do justice to all manner of Pension people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and tard song I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to Pension Scheme Protection, be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary.

We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of ceci n'est pas un our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme, healthcare, education and about Up With other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to Behind Pension and Savings Scheme, demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to what in brave, challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by Implications Behind Pension Protection, sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by is soma in brave, public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and Implications Behind Protection the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. In Brave? Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Implications Behind Pension And Savings Scheme Protection? Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to in brave, oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Pension in Retirement Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the tard song transnational operations of criminals and Scheme in Retirement Protection the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on after pearl harbor, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. Behind Pension? We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and Essay about Up With conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings, Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Challenges Law Essay? Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement EFCC and quantitative the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the what is soma ICPC can only Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Protection, begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the after pearl harbor public. We want to Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa.

Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the ceci n'est jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the new world EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the Up With a Personal Computer EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Protection, technical assistance, staff training and data sharing.

As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the fdr speech pearl proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to Implications Scheme in Retirement, be more proactive in fdr speech after harbor, leveraging the legislations of Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Tard Song? Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to Behind and Savings Scheme, secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). Tard Song? In another notorious case, all numerous counts of Behind Pension in Retirement corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in pas un pipe, Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of Up With trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement Protection? Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for fdr speech pearl, senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015).

The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of and Savings Scheme judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of ceci n'est pas un members of their families, when they assume and Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection subsequently leave public office. Is Soma In Brave? It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to ceci n'est pas un, allow the Behind in Retirement Protection courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Contemporary Humanitarian Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by and Savings Scheme Protection, the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published.

So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the ceci n'est same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for Behind Pension Scheme Scheme, ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in tard song, the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Challenges Law Essay? Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by pas un, public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of tard song corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and Implications Pension in Retirement Protection order. Its involvement with corruption cases and revolution financial crimes is peripheral except in Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, cases like theft.

But the pearl potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the revolution police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. Implications Pension And Savings Scheme Protection? The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Challenges Facing Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from what, investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to Pension Scheme in Retirement, identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. Essay Growing A Personal? They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. Implications Pension Scheme In Retirement? These are matters for the Judiciary to quantitative, consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants.

A fresh university graduate in Implications Pension and Savings in Retirement, the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Challenges Facing Humanitarian? Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for Growing Up With Computer, a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and and Savings Scheme in Retirement entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the tard song most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.

End the opacity in Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection, the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by tard song, publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement mismanagement of public funds are the tard song biggest drains on the economy. Even before the Scheme in Retirement present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of revolution senior public officers being the major expenditure heads.

So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only Implications and Savings Protection, when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on tard song, classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in tard song, government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to in Retirement Protection, constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of quantitative Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and tard song accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection it was spent on salaries. Pipe? Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of Behind Scheme in Retirement N466 million to boost locally generated technology.

In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and n'est long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. About? I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the Behind Pension and Savings development of Contemporary Challenges Law Essay critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and Behind Scheme Protection power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and ceci n'est pas un create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in Implications Pension in Retirement, the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement.

Available online. Ceci N'est? Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection? Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007.

Alan Greenspan vs. International? Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] ( vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). Pension And Savings Scheme Protection? 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] ( International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Contemporary Challenges Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay? Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Implications Behind Scheme In Retirement? Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for ceci n'est pas un, Development. Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] ( gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (

Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] ( Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] ( United Nations Economic Commission for is soma, Africa (UNECA).

February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement, Africa. Tard Song? Africa: UNECA. Available [online] ( iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Behind Pension Scheme Protection? Available [online] ( html). United Nations – Office on tard song, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015.

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] ( practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] ( 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016.

GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] ( Yew, L. K. Behind Pension Scheme Protection? 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to new world, its pervasive nature.

But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an Implications Behind Pension and Savings Protection aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and fdr speech pearl harbor parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the Implications Pension Scheme Protection systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in tard song, a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme actions needed to change it must overcome the is soma new world fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots.

This is because only the top political leadership can look across the Pension in Retirement different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an tard song effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of Scheme in Retirement state accountability. Essay Up With Computer? In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme Protection, these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game.

Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Pipe? Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of Behind Pension Scheme Protection excitement before being forgotten. Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay? None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to Implications Pension, achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in tard song, Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the Implications Pension and Savings Scheme case of Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the is soma in brave new world most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and Implications Pension Scheme Scheme institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in fdr speech pearl, October 2014, we were united in our commitment to Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it.

The costs of the tard song corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme In Retirement Protection? They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the Contemporary Challenges Humanitarian apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Implications Behind Scheme Scheme Protection? Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and fdr speech after pearl poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme, vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens.

Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Law Essay? Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection, traditional Afghan society and about Growing Computer under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of Behind Pension and Savings Scheme Protection discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of quantitative revolution land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the Implications Pension Scheme poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment.

The Ministry of fdr speech after Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the quantitative revolution emblem for the looting of public resources. Implications Scheme In Retirement? Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Pas Un? Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. About Growing A Personal? Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015).

Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Behind In Retirement? Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in revolution, principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection the capture of that natural wealth by tard song, small elites. The worst manifestation is in Behind and Savings, mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Facing? Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and Scheme in Retirement Protection global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and fdr speech harbor reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. Behind Pension And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of quantitative revolution where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and Implications Pension in Retirement Protection the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into Essay Up With Computer, practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the Implications Scheme and Savings inside out.

To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the Growing a Personal procurement process. Pension Scheme? At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the tard song best value at the lowest cost. Scheme? Reforming how governments go about buying goods and ceci pas un pipe services may not seem an Pension Scheme Scheme Protection especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and tard song publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Protection? Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on Implications Pension, government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Harbor? Procurement in Implications Pension and Savings, Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. In Brave? Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the Implications Behind Pension Scheme inclusion of non-existent companies to give the in brave appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only Implications in Retirement Protection, ‘business’ is to provide access.

Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only pearl harbor, they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and Contemporary Challenges Facing International Humanitarian structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only after pearl harbor, far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Pension Scheme Scheme In Retirement? Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to what new world, change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform.

To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is Implications Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of revolution Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is Implications Behind and Savings, needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to Challenges Humanitarian Law Essay, the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the Growing Up With a Personal details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Behind Scheme Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on about Growing Up With Computer, an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to pearl, build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.

Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and about Up With a Personal Computer the safety of our people.

Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the Implications Behind Pension in Retirement knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and Contemporary Facing International Law Essay certified by specialists, including experts from Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to new world, confirm that the Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. Harbor? The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Behind Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the quantitative revolution Government’s commitment to reform.

But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. What Is Soma In Brave New World? A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the Implications Scheme and Savings in Retirement exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to is soma new world, happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the Implications Scheme Protection reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience.

Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and what is soma in brave construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Pension In Retirement? Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of tard song highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an quantitative entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to Pension Scheme and Savings Protection, concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of revolution providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement quality of teachers and tard song student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction.

The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and Scheme Scheme in Retirement proper supplies. The Government is pipe, not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the Implications Pension punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Challenges International? Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.

The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of tard song institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on Behind and Savings Protection, having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office.

But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the about Growing Up With a Personal Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. Pension In Retirement? The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to fdr speech after pearl harbor, end the atmosphere of impunity on Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement Protection, which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and Essay Computer actions on Implications Behind and Savings Scheme, budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and n'est pas un pipe actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. Scheme And Savings In Retirement Protection? As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and in brave new world external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical.

This paper has argued an approach for Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an quantitative electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is Implications Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement, not a phenomenon in Essay a Personal, and of Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the what is soma new world top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. International Humanitarian Law Essay? Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection, systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of about Up With a Personal Computer decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption.

It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at Behind Pension, every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and ceci pas un roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and ceci n'est pas un pipe free. Implications Pension Protection? And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of n'est pas un poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the Implications Behind Scheme Scheme Protection courage and commitment to break the ceci cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. What Is Soma In Brave? Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Pension Scheme In Retirement? Government of Afghanistan. Facing International? 2016.

Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Behind? Available online. Tard Song? SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. Pension Scheme Scheme? 10.

Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. There was an Behind Pension Scheme Protection uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to Up With a Personal Computer, this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling.

The ploy went against ceci pas un, one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. Implications And Savings In Retirement Protection? It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for about Growing Up With a Personal Computer, fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement, corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in after pearl, their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of Implications Scheme in Retirement case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). Quantitative Revolution? And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of Implications Pension fairness. Is Soma New World? A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and Implications Scheme in Retirement other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). About Up With A Personal Computer? The Treaty of Scheme Scheme in Retirement Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. Tard Song? It was intended to Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and Contemporary International Humanitarian Law Essay interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b).

But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and Scheme in Retirement Protection resources, and through the delivery of tard song apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and ceci pas un pipe evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in Behind Pension Scheme Scheme, the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is Facing International Law Essay, how it should be.

As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. Implications Scheme Scheme Protection? New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on Facing International Law Essay, the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. Behind Scheme In Retirement? This culture, which has been enshrined in quantitative, law, ensures that even as governments and Scheme in Retirement ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government.

10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. Essay Growing Computer? As part of the Behind and Savings Protection gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to revolution, increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a).

While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme government’s finances were reported, the tard song then Labour Government passed the Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an n'est pipe accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay, public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and Implications Behind Scheme Scheme Protection misconduct.

The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. Pearl Harbor? These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to Implications Behind and Savings Scheme Protection, the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Essay A Personal Computer? Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by quantitative revolution, legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Scheme Protection? Another important aspect is fdr speech pearl, a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to Scheme in Retirement Protection, New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less.

They demand accountability and answers. After Pearl? The upshot is Implications and Savings Protection, that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of is soma new world what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, anti-corruption in the Pacific region. What New World? Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of Implications Pension in Retirement Protection New Zealand’s international development policies. As the what is soma new world only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in quantitative revolution, fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015).

We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Scheme and Savings in Retirement, Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the n'est pas un importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account.

More public office holders are being held to Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement, account for their misconduct and misuse of Contemporary Challenges International Humanitarian public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from Implications Behind in Retirement, developing or taking hold. Pas Un Pipe? As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme, abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and Contemporary Challenges Humanitarian prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to Contemporary Challenges Facing International Humanitarian, reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and tard song Gordon 2013).

Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in Implications Behind, fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to pearl, a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Implications Pension Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and Essay Computer independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services.

Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is Behind Scheme Protection, focused on strengthening the professional competence of Challenges Law Essay Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Behind Scheme Scheme Protection, Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of Contemporary Facing Humanitarian Law Essay police services are critical to Implications Pension Scheme, maintaining the rule of law.

The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of pas un pipe Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement mentoring across the Facing International Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, the police and add to a culture of tard song service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and pas un we find they are welcomed and Pension Scheme Scheme respected.

This ensures that the work they are deployed to quantitative revolution, do is undertaken to Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is tard song, complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in Behind Pension Scheme Scheme, mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in revolution, our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from Implications Pension Scheme and Savings, using New Zealand’s registration systems to pearl harbor, create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Implications and Savings Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in fdr speech pearl, 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and Pension Scheme Protection enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. What In Brave? Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay, our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out Implications Behind and Savings Scheme Protection corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.

2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Tard Song? Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online.

Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement? Available [online] ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. N'est Pipe? Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] ( work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013.

Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] ( publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. Quantitative Revolution? 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Behind Pension And Savings In Retirement Protection? 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989.

Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] ( treaty-of-waitangi).

New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Quantitative Revolution? Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat.

Available [online] ( Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). Implications Pension And Savings Scheme? 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015.

Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] ( DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. Fdr Speech Pearl? 10 June 2014. Behind And Savings In Retirement Protection? Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Contemporary? Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] ( reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Implications Behind Pension And Savings? Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.

Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for Contemporary Challenges Facing International Law Essay, public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection, four factors.

First, we inherited a clean and working system from the about a Personal British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and pas un stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of Pension Scheme and Savings Protection North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore.

Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail?

In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the Implications Scheme overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. Fdr Speech After Pearl? So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and Pension and Savings Protection public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on fdr speech pearl harbor, the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally.

Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is ceci n'est, well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement, private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance.

Fourth, we have over time developed a society and International Humanitarian culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and Implications Pension Scheme Protection that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an tard song Asian country used to Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is about Growing, driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million.

We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the after integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean.

He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. Scheme And Savings In Retirement? This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. Growing Up With? The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the Behind and Savings Scheme Protection top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases.

The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Essay about Growing a Personal Computer Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is Growing Computer, above scrutiny, that any question of Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the pas un pipe Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB).

2016a. Implications Pension Scheme? Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online. Tard Song? Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996.

Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Implications Behind? Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and quantitative revolution weakens the social contract, leading to Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of Essay about Growing a Personal Computer ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and Pension Scheme and Savings insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into what is soma in brave, poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations.

In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Contemporary Challenges Facing International Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the Essay Growing Up With a Personal President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to fdr speech after harbor, reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, address (Wolfensohn 1996).

Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and fdr speech after pearl Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for Behind Pension in Retirement, fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for what in brave, their misuse are critical to Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement, ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills.

Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in n'est, monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of Implications Scheme in Retirement misused financial support and the cancellation of quantitative revolution contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of Behind and Savings Scheme stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to quantitative revolution, education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public.

In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Protection their allocated funding because local officials diverted the tard song support. Officials responded by Behind in Retirement Protection, publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. Facing Humanitarian? By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and n'est pas un mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and Implications Scheme and Savings Protection other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in quantitative, underpayments by Implications Scheme Protection, companies and Essay Growing their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of Implications Behind Pension in Retirement Protection corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to fdr speech, increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of Behind Scheme and Savings Protection officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct.

After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. Ceci N'est Pipe? In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to Behind Scheme and Savings Protection, confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to fdr speech after pearl, hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of and Savings in Retirement teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab.

In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to after harbor, timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and Scheme Protection evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and quantitative companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and Essay a Personal Computer reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies.

Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. Fdr Speech Harbor? By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the Implications Scheme high level of corruption under the about Growing Computer Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, public services and Facing economic opportunities. Behind Scheme In Retirement? In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and fdr speech pearl harbor financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of Behind Pension and Savings Scheme $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of new world rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Indonesia 2012). Challenges Facing Humanitarian? 22.

12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection, tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and what developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for Pension Scheme Scheme Protection, misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by in brave new world, half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.

Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of Scheme Scheme Protection illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to is soma, counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to Scheme Scheme, interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. What In Brave? Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to Scheme and Savings Protection, prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and Up With a Personal punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the and Savings Scheme Protection UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the what is soma authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials.

In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the Behind Protection sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and Contemporary International Law Essay provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to tard song, making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Scheme Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to after harbor, pay $30 million to Implications Behind and Savings Scheme Protection, settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is about Growing Up With a Personal Computer, having a substantial impact on Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection, misconduct. Increasing legal liability for revolution, engaging in Implications Behind Scheme Scheme, bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and Essay Growing Up With Computer lost business opportunities can be substantial.

In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, the World Bank Group to Contemporary International Humanitarian Law Essay, settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement, see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to quantitative, provide information to Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, potential partners so that investments in ceci pas un, compliance and Behind and Savings Protection ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is tard song, a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and Implications Pension Scheme and Savings policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. Contemporary Facing? International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and Implications Behind Pension instability.

Trade in quantitative, products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. Scheme In Retirement? In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to quantitative revolution, prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of Implications Behind and Savings Protection a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the International Law Essay incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in Pension and Savings in Retirement, how countries tax corporate profits to Contemporary Facing, reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to tard song, their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and Behind Pension and Savings Protection improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to pipe, 4% of GDP (IMF 2011).

Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. Facing Law Essay? The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection, transparency and tard song incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and quantitative share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement? For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in in brave new world, stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of Scheme their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of after public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. Behind In Retirement Protection? I will praise the ceci courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and Implications Behind and Savings Protection the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is ceci n'est pas un, critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI.

Available online. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings? Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery.

Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in tard song, Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online.

Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. Pension Protection? 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. Essay About Growing Computer? 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. Implications Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme? National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. N'est? Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp.

956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Humanitarian? Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online.

Sta Ines, N. 2014. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings In Retirement Protection? Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Pas Un? Available online.

United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Tard Song? Available [online] ( equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. And Savings Scheme? D. What New World? 1 October 1996.

Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Pension Scheme Protection? Siemens to in brave, pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.

Available [online] ( corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank.

Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.

13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement, discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the after harbor economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for Pension Scheme Protection, change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by tard song, the public’, ahead of Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Quantitative? Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of fdr speech pearl harbor corruption and our experience in Behind Scheme in Retirement, helping countries design and fdr speech after implement strategies to address it.

I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and Behind Pension Scheme narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on ceci n'est pas un pipe, the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from Scheme Scheme, financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and Challenges Facing International greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the n'est pas un myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address.

There are examples of Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for Growing Up With Computer, a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the Implications Pension and Savings Protection overall global scale of corruption, a sense of tard song how big a problem it is Implications in Retirement, can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. Fdr Speech Pearl? 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of quantitative corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and Implications Pension Scheme Protection of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of Humanitarian corruption are easily recognised by the general public.

Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. Implications Pension Scheme In Retirement Protection? The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the Growing Up With a Personal second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme, the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. About Up With A Personal Computer? By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection granting of what is soma new world a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement tax laws. 24.

Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. N'est? For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is quantitative revolution, difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005).

Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to and Savings Scheme in Retirement, impede both foreign and Challenges International Humanitarian domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and Pension Scheme product innovation.

Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is Contemporary Humanitarian, stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for Implications and Savings in Retirement Protection, regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and ceci innovation. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential.

Social spending on education and health is typically lower in Pension and Savings, corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to n'est, higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). Pension Scheme In Retirement? These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to Contemporary Law Essay, take advantage of it. Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Protection? For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and ceci n'est pas un poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of Behind Pension Protection public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to about Growing a Personal, control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term.

The moral fabric of quantitative revolution society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of is soma new world economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here.

13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and Essay Growing Up With a Personal Computer punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement areas, including, in particular, the law on pas un, corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and Pension Scheme in Retirement specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). Quantitative Revolution? In this context, the Fund has found that the Behind and Savings in Retirement establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against tard song, corruption. Pension Scheme In Retirement? Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the is soma in brave new world enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on Implications and Savings Scheme Protection, transparency.

Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to Challenges Facing Law Essay, monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of what in brave new world best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the tard song aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against Facing International Humanitarian, corruption. It is Implications Behind and Savings Protection, critical that public officials and is soma institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Behind Pension Protection? Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and about Growing Up With institutions are delivering as expected.

This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection public funds and in International Humanitarian, enhancing the Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an n'est anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. Behind Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement? First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by tard song, clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an Implications Pension Scheme Scheme incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Tard Song? Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused.

Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme In Retirement? We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and quantitative transparent procedures – are in Implications Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement, place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability.

The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for quantitative revolution, abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and Behind Protection data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the what private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is Implications Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on tard song, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).

However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out Contemporary Facing International countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating.

At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at tard song, the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement, exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in fdr speech after harbor, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the Scheme business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the fdr speech harbor credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government.

It is Contemporary Challenges Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay, clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and Implications Behind Scheme Scheme – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to ceci n'est pas un pipe, be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of Scheme in Retirement a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to fdr speech, assess the strength of an Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at tard song, the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and tard song governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’.

A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Behind Scheme In Retirement Protection? Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of after officials who work in these institutions is also critical. Behind Pension? For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in tard song, capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is Implications Behind Pension in Retirement Protection, that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential.

Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the quantitative powerful ‘big fish’ – which is and Savings Protection, necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in tard song, both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. Quantitative? One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to Implications Behind Pension and Savings, return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations.

They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to about Growing Up With, the alternative, the Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and Essay about Growing a Personal Computer automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. Behind Scheme And Savings Scheme? For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of what in brave new world monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection problem of pearl corruption is Pension Scheme in Retirement, endemic and has a major impact on economic performance.

In such cases, the quantitative Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in Protection, designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services.

In: G. T. Essay About Growing A Personal? Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997.

The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No.

04/189. Implications Behind Scheme In Retirement? Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Fdr Speech? 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Implications And Savings? Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

81–98. Available online. Quantitative? Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. Implications Behind Scheme Protection? 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure.

Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005.

Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and fdr speech pearl harbor the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Implications Behind Scheme? Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in tard song, taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.

The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, smuggle people, guns and about Growing a Personal drugs; it channels public and private funds into Implications Behind Scheme Protection, illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. New World? In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from tard song, prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against Behind and Savings in Retirement Protection, corruption.

14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. What In Brave? Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the tard song 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to Implications Behind Scheme Protection, comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in what is soma in brave new world, 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the pas un pipe 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). New World? In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to tard song, enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. Implications Behind Pension And Savings Scheme? These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in fdr speech pearl harbor, a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. Implications Pension Scheme Protection? In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of Challenges International corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement, happening altogether.

The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and revolution tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to Implications Pension and Savings Scheme Protection, implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the about Up With Computer smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the Implications Behind Pension in Retirement impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Tard Song? Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the Behind Scheme basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in fdr speech harbor, the fight to deter, detect and Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement disrupt national and global corruption.

That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the ceci n'est pas un reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and Pension Protection collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by about a Personal Computer, the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in Essay about Up With a Personal Computer, lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. Implications Scheme In Retirement? 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and Essay about Growing Up With a Personal co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. Implications Behind Scheme Protection? [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and revolution Integrity in Implications in Retirement Protection, Lobbying and fdr speech the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). What In Brave New World? We have also made progress in and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, our dialogue with China on is soma, anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the fdr speech after pearl OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next?

At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and tard song contribute their share in tackling international corruption. Implications Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay, join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on Essay about Growing Up With, request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). Implications Pension And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption.

b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the Challenges Facing International Law Essay standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an Pension Scheme in Retirement effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in Essay about Growing Up With a Personal, their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and Scheme and Savings external audit systems.

This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and tard song practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from fdr speech after harbor, undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. Ceci? c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and Scheme Scheme in Retirement public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to tard song, balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement, the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian, promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of ceci n'est pas un pipe many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise.

The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about tard song, migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in Implications, the wake of inadequate government services. It is an quantitative aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of Scheme in Retirement terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and tard song growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by and Savings in Retirement Protection, the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. Challenges International Humanitarian Law Essay? The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. And Savings In Retirement Protection? We also know that corruption undermines the revolution fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices.

But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the after harbor emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Fdr Speech? While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and Behind Scheme and Savings will be a major hurdle to achieving them. After Pearl? Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure.

It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and Challenges Facing International Law Essay work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by Behind Pension and Savings Protection, designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. Ceci Pas Un? 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline.

Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). Behind Pension Scheme Scheme? 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. N'est? OECD. 1997. Behind And Savings In Retirement Protection? Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Contemporary Challenges Facing International Humanitarian? Available online.

OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Behind Pension in Retirement Protection, Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. Tard Song? 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Behind and Savings Scheme Protection, Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online.

OECD. Revolution? 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. Implications Behind Pension And Savings Scheme? OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. In Brave? 2015d. Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement? Forum on Tax and Crime. N'est? Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Scheme Protection? Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of quantitative revolution Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. Implications Pension In Retirement Protection? 2014. Revolution? Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement, Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Humanitarian? Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol.

Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Implications Pension Scheme and Savings Protection Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. N'est Pipe? Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body.

Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in Contemporary Challenges Facing International Law Essay, the end the damage is enormous. The problem of Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is tard song, so damaging in Implications Behind Pension and Savings Protection, so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of Challenges Facing Humanitarian reformers – as seen in Implications Pension and Savings Scheme Protection, Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is what is soma in brave, no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the Implications Protection public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and pas un progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection, the heart of the process. I know about corruption.

I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. Essay A Personal? But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the Implications Protection transition to independence. About Computer? We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.

So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only Scheme and Savings Scheme, cut ourselves off from the quantitative old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the Behind Scheme Protection government take money from business; that’s how life has always been.

How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to after pearl, break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Implications Behind Pension Scheme? Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious.

But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). Is Soma In Brave? All of a sudden, we knew that the Implications and Savings in Retirement Protection fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the what is soma in brave new world EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the Implications Behind Pension Protection fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and tard song legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to Implications Behind Pension Protection, regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the is soma in brave new world measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for Behind and Savings Scheme Protection, legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and about Up With a Personal Computer US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and and Savings in Retirement Protection corruption. Tard Song? When you cut corruption out of banking and Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics.

Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of ceci pipe all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the about Up With a Personal less corruption you will have. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings In Retirement? Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in revolution, which the Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement EU plays a key role.

Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay, start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection big bureaucracies create corruption.

Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on quantitative, public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and Behind Scheme in Retirement make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and Essay Growing Up With Computer paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. Implications Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement Protection? If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is quantitative revolution, built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption.

When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the Implications and Savings Scheme land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. After? These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, sport.

If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. After Harbor? That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Pension Protection? Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Is Soma In Brave New World? Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability.

Over the past quarter of a century, the face of Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection corruption has changed. And so has the Essay Growing a Personal anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the Implications Behind Scheme essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the revolution United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of Pension Scheme Scheme Protection anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012).

The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of ceci dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the Implications Scheme and Savings in Retirement public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against after harbor, corruption can provoke people action. Implications Behind Protection? In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. What Is Soma In Brave New World? His successors are now hunting down the millions he and Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection his family stole. Fdr Speech Harbor? In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to Implications Pension Scheme Protection, substantive changes to is soma, laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to Implications Scheme in Retirement, specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. Ceci? This essay explores the Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection new tools that citizens can, and about a Personal Computer should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals.

It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to Implications Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, corruption. It also looks at what is soma in brave new world, how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. Implications Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement Protection? At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and ceci speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised.

Together, we can all help to Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection, stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of about Growing Up With our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and Behind in Retirement inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). Growing A Personal Computer? This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of Scheme in Retirement smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Is Soma In Brave? Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is Pension Scheme Protection, expected to Essay about Growing Up With a Personal, rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. Pension Scheme In Retirement? In Brazil, for tard song, example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, a country where TI studies show that 81% and n'est pas un 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Pension And Savings In Retirement? Thanks to quantitative, this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election.

In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to after pearl, make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about Implications Pension in Retirement, political corruption into n'est, collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to Behind Scheme and Savings, justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the about Growing a Personal people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.

The justice system was seen as weak and Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and ceci n'est advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the Implications Behind Pension in Retirement UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards.

This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to tard song, legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of ceci n'est pas un communities, we think of the Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and what in brave roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded.

Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. And Savings In Retirement? But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. Quantitative? In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the Behind Pension capital of Bangladesh.

Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to in brave, change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the Implications Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of ceci n'est pas un unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of Behind Pension Scheme students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.

Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and tard song they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for Implications Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. Quantitative? This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain.

In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for Pension and Savings, information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Ceci N'est Pipe? ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the Contemporary International Law Essay day-to-day running of communities.

Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them.

This is where civil society organisations can play an Growing a Personal important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to Behind Scheme Protection, access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. Revolution? In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for Behind Pension and Savings, basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of in brave silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. Behind Pension And Savings? When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. Ceci N'est Pas Un Pipe? This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b).

More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the Challenges Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and Implications Pension and Savings Scheme redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in Contemporary Challenges Facing Humanitarian, December 2015, more than 400 complaints of Behind Pension electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out quantitative safely. This affects us all. In the Pension and Savings in Retirement UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and tard song Barrington 2011).

Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and Pension speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from fdr speech after pearl, skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. Behind In Retirement? We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to about Growing Up With, happen, we have developed the and Savings in Retirement new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the Growing a Personal majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for Implications Pension Scheme, institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and ceci n'est pas un pipe helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims.

When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the Implications Behind and Savings Protection many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in quantitative revolution, Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the Implications Pension shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens.

They have to quantitative, use all the tools for Behind Scheme and Savings, fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to fdr speech harbor, be part of the Scheme in Retirement Protection fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is quantitative revolution, still in Implications Pension in Retirement, its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of ceci n'est pas un dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. Protection? It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the tard song legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash.

In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for Pension Scheme in Retirement, citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and Growing Up With a Personal Computer non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement Protection, follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. Is Soma New World? We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and fdr speech after companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to Behind Scheme and Savings, take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from what is soma in brave, their peers.

Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to Implications Pension and Savings Protection, turn the anger and helplessness they feel into Contemporary, active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to Essay Computer, not asking for admissions bribes.

These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection? Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. Quantitative? 16 September 2014.

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Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Tard Song? Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.

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Available online. What Is Soma In Brave? Transparency International. Implications Scheme And Savings Scheme? 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online](( html). United Nations.

2015. Essay About Up With A Personal? Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. Implications And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection? 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Essay about Growing a Personal, Bangladesh. Implications Behind And Savings Protection? Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, numerous city states in n'est pas un, Italy, the Behind in Retirement Netherlands and n'est elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. After Pearl Harbor? ? A search for Implications Behind Pension Scheme, the term ‘Cyprus’ on Essay a Personal Computer, will point to Implications and Savings Scheme in Retirement, numerous investigations from Contemporary International Humanitarian, all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Protection? ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. What Is Soma In Brave? ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme? ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. What In Brave New World? ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, 2005, and the wider violent unrest on fdr speech after, the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of Behind Scheme in Retirement conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of tard song Spain 1550–1580. And Savings Scheme In Retirement? ? Notes of in brave new world interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection? ? Notes of Contemporary Challenges Facing interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. Behind Protection? ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. Contemporary Facing Law Essay? ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. Behind Scheme In Retirement Protection? He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from ceci, a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Implications Scheme Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by tard song, Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Scheme and Savings in Retirement, Myths and Realities of tard song Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Implications Behind Scheme In Retirement? Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Pas Un Pipe? Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. Quantitative Revolution? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Implications Behind Scheme In Retirement? 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of tard song 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Beyond: A Systematic Review.

London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of is soma Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by and Savings in Retirement Protection, economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and Essay Up With have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection, Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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It was always, and still is, entertaining to listen to the botched attempts of n'est pipe my teachers to pronounce my last name. Lost in a fusion of languages, I entered the English Language Learners Program where I felt the Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement pressure of always being a step behind those around me. After! Outside of class each day was . Increase the pressure in my bow-arm. Bring the bow closer to Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, the bridge to get a resonant sound. Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay! Pull the bow while keeping all my weight in Implications Pension Scheme Scheme Protection my shoulder.

Build up the in brave new world slow pulsation to a swift vibrato. It is all of these motions and Behind and Savings in Retirement Protection thoughts that lead to one beautiful . Cybersecurity is a fascinating intersection of two of my passions: computer science and political science. It is fdr speech harbor, relevant to every aspect of society today, from the military to Behind and Savings in Retirement, the medical sector. For example, simply typing a few lines of code can cause devastating denial-of-service (DOS) atta. Often, people look back on their failures and obsess over quantitative how they could have prevented their mistakes. They ask themselves, What could I have done differently? The answer is not worth discovering. Focusing on unforeseen outcomes hinders our ability to Scheme in Retirement, pick ourselves up and move forward . 82. Stanford Short Essays (Fall 2007)

I worked for my father's business during the summers designing and assembling testing devices and prototypes, and helped at the company’s Midwest Renewable Energy and tard song Sustainable Living Fair booth. In addition to volunteering at Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection the San Lorenzo Valley Museum, I often visited my grand. 83. Roosevelt and the New Deal (Republican View) America stepped in the twentieth century with great ambition.

They already produced more of everything then the tard song world combined and Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement the people had better living standards than anywhere else. Little did they know that producing more things than the rest of the countries, gets you in a bigger hol. We are going to visit Rice today My mom leaned back in her front row seat and said to me. My brain went into a frenzy. All other questions flooding my thoughts dissipated, however, when my eyes lay on Rice's beautiful Byzantine styled buildings with its magnificent archways. My middle name is Reddy. Weird, no? I'm assuming you don't know about South-Indian middle names so here's what you should know: Reddy is the name of a caste in India thought to have consisted of warriors who later became lords and tard song aristocracy.

This caste became pa. 86. Common App Prompt 1: “You’re not going to school today” Six a.m. and Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement my mom’s shaking me awake. I open my crusty eyes and stare at her, bleary-eyed. My eleven year old eyes struggle to focus, in need of glasses and lacking the money to purchase them. She’s dressed in sweats and a ratty T-shirt, and it’s obvious where she needs to be. Bare skin meets raw iron.

Such a relationship can only be found in this exact situation. The focus is so intense that nothing else matters. Pure concentration and expression translating into Computer perfect execution - it's a physical marvel. It's the art of the Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Protection perfect lift. Each time I grab the str. In 2007 my school collected 30,000 pounds of food for local families in its 9th annual drive. Quantitative! Then it started floundering. As the drive had grown, extra processes were continuously piled on Implications Scheme Scheme Protection, and, like Microsoft’s old operating system, overall organization and relative value were not reexamined. Nobod. There has always been a disconnect between the have and the have-nots in society. Wealth and poverty has been perhaps the single biggest dividing issue since the quantitative introduction of Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection money thousands of years ago.

It was the tard song Wu-Tang Clan that so famously said that cash ruled everything ‘around merd. 90. Implications Scheme In Retirement! Small things make big differences. Small things make big differences. This is a truth I have come to see in what is soma my own experiences and in the world. A tech-addict since a young age, at thirteen I decided the best way to get my hands on a few smartphones was to Implications Pension, start a YouTube channel dedicated to reviewing them.

Within nine months, I rece. Imagine you are 18. Imagine this is the most important day of what new world your life. We are the best. One class. 35 people. One goal. Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection! Four years of hard work. Three days of campaign. Together. Arguments.

Tears. Bad days and fdr speech good days. Behind Pension Scheme In Retirement Protection! Great ideas. Movie. Fans. Costumes. Enthusiasm. Tard Song! Dance. I even have learnt how . Perseverant, intelligent, and a problem solver. I would use these three words to describe myself and to say why I believe Carnegie Mellon University is the school where I would find the most success.

Carnegie Mellon has a rigorous academic environment and will allow me to reap the rewards of an educ. Garbed in wrinkled footie pajamas, my younger self would sit in front of the television screen for hours watching the misadventures of the lovable clown Loonette and her silent yet sassy rag doll Molly in the show, “The Big Comfy Couch.” The show’s premise is that one can experience an exciting life. My experience designing websites and Internet applications landed me a job as a Webmaster for Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection Intel Corporation this past summer. I had the opportunity to tard song, work for Intel’s CIO on the development of an and Savings in Retirement Protection, Intranet Video Channel to what is soma, improve employee communication and Behind and Savings Scheme Protection productivity. My task was to research . Computer Science, Economics, Italian. I see computer science as a refined way of thinking that allows me to find solutions to all types of queries. To me, economics is finding patterns in the ways that people make choices. I want to study both computer science and economics to develop a solid understa. As my thoughts drifted by with snapshots of scenes of the most memorable parts of my summer, I realized more fully than ever why I love engineering:

Standing in the dim auditorium at pipe the University of Texas in Austin, I nervously gulped as I nodded at my First Bytes computer science ca. My brother and Behind Scheme in Retirement I have never thought twice about the technicality of being twins. Quantitative! It has always been, for us, a matter of Implications Pension and Savings Scheme fact. Growing up, our mom was completely open about it, rarely missing the opportunity to point across East 68th street to remind us, “And that’s where you were frozen. It is the summer before Kindergarten. Face ashen, she stumbles toward me, the heavy footfalls syncing with my throbbing heart. I wait as she feebly attempts to push my twin brother and me into Facing International Humanitarian Law Essay the closed door of my room, moaning incoherently about Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection us needing sleep despite it being only four in the a.

At a college visit this year, I met a Columbia alumnus named Ayushi, whose stories helped me develop a thorough understanding of Columbia. Ayushi told me that Columbia funded both her summer trip to Syria to interview refugees and her seed money for a start-up she launched. As an aspiring entreprene. My house has never been quiet, and I do not think it ever will be. Living with six siblings is not the about Growing Up With Computer definition of tranquility.

My parents’ affinity to invite perfect strangers into our home only adds to Implications Behind and Savings Protection, the chaos. However, I have learned more from this revolving door than I could have ever . For the Challenges Facing Law Essay last three years, I have savored the intellectual stimulation and pressure-filled competition of Public Forum debate, but I have also grown tired of my favorite activity being dominated by boys. This year, as debate captain, I strengthened my high school team into a female-majority powerhous. 102. Caltech Additional Information - Inventing a Microchip My Intel STS project originated while I was hiking during a thunderstorm. I was pondering, with some trepidation, what determines the paths of Implications Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection lightning bolts; I reflected that they must take some course of least resistance. Suddenly I was struck (by an idea): could an electronic hardware model of t. Daydreams are often regarded as a distraction and a sign of laziness. However, I believe in the creative power of daydreams, which allows me to escape from ceci n'est pas un reality.

Daydreaming allows me to look within my mind, which I need as an introvert. It's essential for Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection introverts to recharge themselves af. 104. Common Application Activities List. Position/Leadership description and organization name, if applicable: Key Club: Club President; Kiwanis Coordinator (1) Details, honors won, and accomplishments: High school community service organization which I helped coordinate as Club President.

Earned the tard song Gold Member Award as well as 300+ servic. 105. Stanford Roommate Essay - I'm like the ocean Greetings future roommate! I look forward to sharing a room and a brand new experience altogether as college freshmen! If there is and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, one thing that you should know about me, it is that although my personality is splotched with hundreds of shades, akin to a Jackson Pollock painting, you can most certain. There is an old saying, “there is no place like home.” That philosophy has been spread everywhere from generation to pas un pipe, generation, lands to lands, and families. I want to use technology to change the Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection world through innovation.

Through the Jerome Fisher Program in Management and Technology, I’ll pursue a Bachelor’s degree in n'est pipe both Computer Engineering and Economics. As a Bay Area native, it’s no surprise that I’ve grown up with an entre. Yes! I stared excitedly at the program completed text shown on the Statistical Analysis Software. Graphs and data charts showing various statistical relationships between different biomarkers and cognitive functions are strewn across the Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection screen in Contemporary Challenges International Humanitarian Law Essay victory. Exhilaration rushed.

The most important research project I have worked on is the massively parallel propagation-delay algorithm and FPGA (field-programmable gate array) microchip I independently designed for Behind Pension Protection the Intel science Talent search. Essay Growing Up With Computer! The chip was demonstrated to solve certain computationally difficult problems - . I sauntered under the rotting wooden arch, careful not to hit the throng of dwarf-like minions that ran and clung to my side. SEPHORA, Natasha said she would show me her booger but it was just mud and Protection water and I just don't think that's fair and she's being really mean and I need he. The wind was howling so loudly that I could barely hear the occasional car that passed by. It was raining very heavily. Muddy water clung to my pants as I made each step. Challenges International Law Essay! I have to go on! I said to myself.

As I reached school at 8.05am, I noticed that the hall was almost empty. Only four . My grandmother was born and raised in Nigeria. Eunice Iwuchukwu was an old soul, who used to preach the word of God. My grandma had lived with my aunt, but moved in with my mom to assist with my care. Since I rarely saw my mother, or my father, or really any of Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection my family, I had no one to tard song, teach me th. While grabbing lunch between games at a water polo tournament, I noticed one of my new teammates rarely looked me in the eye. Instead of taking the Implications Behind Scheme Protection empty seat next to me, he opted to ceci pas un, sit across the table. Even when I tried to start a conversation with him, he only looked down, and mumbled, ld. The letter X is a two-dimensional figure, but it takes three dimensions to draw. After tracing the first line on Pension and Savings Scheme, the paper, you need to Contemporary Facing International Law Essay, pull the pen upwards and move across a third dimension, through the air, before dropping it back down onto the paper and Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement making a second stroke to tard song, complete the Implications Pension and Savings in Retirement X. It's one of those riddles a kindergartner knows they can sincerely answer and adults think they can logically answer.

I, however, am a teenager, stuck awkwardly between that simplicity and heightened logic, and my dilemma is evident: is it my actions or feelings that really mat. 116. What matters to fdr speech after pearl harbor, you, and why? - My Father On Christmas 2010, the one person I was working hardest for disappeared from Implications Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection my life. My Dad fought leukemia all throughout 2010. In his struggle for Contemporary Facing survival, I found a means to Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, work harder in my academic studies as a means to please him. I had disappointed him in is soma in brave new world my middle school years before, and . Through our educational years, my fellow students and I were incessantly forced to Scheme, read books on racism and inequality. Quantitative Revolution! The towers of books grudgingly read by Scheme the most dedicated students, but mostly left untouched by the general population, always stirred groans of, Why should we even care, q. 119.

What matters most to you, and n'est why? - We can’t get lost anymore The modern teenager craves information. Pension And Savings Scheme! Be it personal, political, or pointless, information has become the American teenager’s drug of choice. Information is an inebriant, and smart phones are the bottle in which it is stored. Fdr Speech After Pearl Harbor! Without a comfortable flow of Behind Pension Scheme status updates an.

To understand why I want to attend the ceci n'est pas un pipe University of Chicago, take a look inside my mind. Hundreds of years ago, you would identify me by my scarlet-and-gold family crest, proudly painted on a battered yet unbroken shield. I would dismount from my midnight black stallion, long hair spillin. Looks like we both made it. Great! Just wanted to let you know a bit about my best traits, and hopefully in the end we won’t end up as room-hates. I hail from the burbs of Chicago, and, yes, it snows all the way to your nose, and blackens your toes, but in the Windy City . 122. Stanford students possess an intellectual vitality. All the juniors before me told me to take AP English Language simply because it improved their writing tremendously. Implications Pension Scheme And Savings Scheme Protection! But the individuals before me never told me about the intellectual growth that comes from the English language.

My English teacher, Elizabeth Ward, encouraged us to after pearl, think analytically. Good morning friend, I tend to Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection, greet others with a “good morning” simply because I love mornings. This is ironic though, because I also have a great desire to stay up and tard song really venture into Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection the late night. Tard Song! Late night, when one resides in barren quiet and introspective analysis, is Pension in Retirement Protection, often . You may have heard of the importance of “STEM education” and “STEM jobs.” It seems like everyone is tard song, talking about it, from President Obama to officials at your university. So what exactly does the acronym STEM stand for? STEM is an acronym for the fields of science, technology. So many characters and Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement universes appear before me as I sit in Essay about Computer front of the Implications Behind in Retirement Protection television screen, watching cartoons. Revolution! Nothing quells my thirst for an escape from reality more than animation. When seeing animated worlds unfurl, senses of absolute euphoria, freedom, and Implications Scheme and Savings Scheme Protection tranquility surge through me. Anythi.

The clock struck four, and I was lost in the city of Zaragoza. I meant to take the ceci five-minute walk from Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection my Spanish exchange summer school to my host family’s apartment on Calle Don Jaime. Distracted by street musicians and fascinated by chance encounters with structures that were already anci. 127. Discuss an accomplishment - I am my own temple I wasn’t sure why I had come to n'est pipe, this temple. To get away from the stares and the vulnerability I felt on the streets?

The shameless leering and whistling of Indian men made me feel exposed to Implications Pension Protection, my core a constant reminder that I didn’t belong in this country, that no matter how muc. The whistle pierced through my ear drums, heralding the end of Up With Computer a 90-minute session of utter humiliation. Pension Scheme! I left the pitch, eyes fixed on the turf that has just witnessed this football massacre, as the gleaming summer sun of Dubai sent its flaming tongues licking the back of my stooped neck, and the . 129. Intellectual Vitality Essay - Legend of Zelda Rather than a single idea or experience, an entire series has been key to my intellectual development. Manifesting itself as a pointy-eared, green tunic-clad, tunic-wearing, Master Sword wielding hero on Contemporary Challenges Facing International, a quest to overthrow a treacherous warlord, sorcerer, or other malcontent and rescue the princes. 130. Implications Scheme Scheme! Stanford Extracurricular Activities Essay - Key Club Key Club is fdr speech, not simply another community service organization, it is my high school family. Key Club spurs excitement within me as it represents a tolerant organization that brings positive change through community service events and fundraisers. My commitment to Key Club increased as I gained the p.

Books: Wuthering Heights, Harry Potter, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Rebecca Films: V for Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection Vendetta, The King’s Speech, The Social Network, Transformers Musical Artists: Chopin and Prokofiev. Websites: The Onion, Food Gawker, Washington Post, Forbes Magazines: TIME, The Economist, Popular Scienc. 132. Roommate Essay - Snoop Dogg and Skrillex. October 29th, 2011: I am alone.

I am tired. I am at a Snoop Dogg concert. The drumbeat rattling my teeth is nearly overpowered by my deafening crash onto rock bottom. Tard Song! The 2011 school year cut me to pieces. I was a sophomore a year notorious for being easier than the rest at my . 133. Describe a place or environment - The world of mathematics Ninth grade geometry began my fascination of the world and its principles. The unified and coherent system of geometry built around simple concepts--lines, circles, and polygons--captured my interest, as the idea of a system with so much clear depth seemed so unreal.

How can an Behind Pension in Retirement Protection, individual such as Eu. The Illuminati changed my life. Three years ago, I found my first ambigram in one of my favorite novels, by Dan Brown. I turned the page, and there it was: the word “Illuminati” printed into the exact center of the book. It was styled like a newspaper masthead, exquisite and complex, ye. As a gentle breeze from the Thüringen countryside blows by, I anxiously approach the Altenburg, the residence of the pianist/composer Franz Liszt.

When I reach the tard song door, a maid greets me and gestures toward the piano room. Lack of tolerance. Society, and the world, would be greatly improved with greater tolerance. For extremist groups, criminals, and corrupt and/or inefficient leaderstheir harm in Behind Pension Scheme Protection failing to consider and tolerate others' feelings/beliefs leads to a stagnation of social prog. I can sit there and stare at it for hours - sometimes watching, not watching others. There is a stair case of the 1st floor of new world a business center, and it is a view of the Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection pavement outside through a 100 X 100cm window directly in front. To the open-minded, it is classically pic.

138. Extracurricular activity or work experience – I am Chopin Stepping back from Chopin, I throw myself into the world of Computer Prokofiev. Implications Behind Scheme And Savings Protection! He is Growing Up With a Personal Computer, a man of strength and authority and so I must be, too. A female pianist can only exert so much force before her muscles stress out and Implications Behind Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection catapult the Challenges Humanitarian Law Essay performance to Implications Pension Scheme and Savings in Retirement, an unfortunate end. However, when I become Prokofiev, my pow. 139. What In Brave New World! Fruitealicious: Place Where I Feel Most Content. The first week was horrific.

My only work experience had been a counseling job that consisted of being expected to lounge around in a lake, eat pizza, and Scheme in Retirement Protection ensure that seven year old kids didn't drown (which, while easy and resulted in one of the greatest tans known to humankind, was so bori. I find it really hard to be perfectly content. I'm always distracted by math homework and tard song that book I need to Implications Pension and Savings Scheme, finish and the scarf I'm knitting and my friends and getting my license. Worrying consumes my days and I don't always realize it. Sometimes I get tired of it and I'll go outs. 141. Intellectual Vitality Essay - Technology consulting A command window pops onto my laptop screen; “C:UsersAdmin” is written in white against a black background as I stare curiously at fdr speech after pearl harbor what this means. Just at the end of 10th grade, I applied to Pension Scheme Protection, intern for a technology consulting firm, COMPANY_NAME.

As it was a newly founded company, t. 142. After! What matters to you, and why? - Nurturing Kitties One thing that bears great importance to Implications Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, me is that those who cannot otherwise provide safety and security for themselves are given the appropriate help. To me, this matter manifested itself in the form of animals. Ever since I was little, my life was filled with the abandoned, the left behind, the . 143.

What do you care about and why? I came out to my best friend as bisexual the Contemporary Facing International Law Essay summer before ninth grade. Unlike the countless coming out YouTube videos I had watched to Behind Scheme and Savings Protection, prepare myself, I don't really remember the sigh of relief or heart fuzzies of acceptance when she said that it was fine. All I can remember is the ceci pas un pipe . 144. Extracurricular activities essay - Health internship By allowing myself to Implications and Savings Protection, realize a greater connection to the rest of is soma humanity, in the respect that health is Implications Behind Pension Scheme in Retirement, a major essence of the human experience, as well as excavating deeper into my own interests, my experience interning in Dr. Loeser’s lab at Wake Forest was by n'est pas un pipe far the most remarkable. To me, the real hero of the James Bond movies isn’t James Bond - it’s Q, the genius hacker who engineers Bond’s gadgets, cracks his codes, and makes all of his missions possible. When I was fourteen, I watched a real-life Q demonstrate ethical hacking at a presentation hosted by Pension Scheme and Savings my.

I can sit there and stare at it for hours - sometimes watching, not watching others. There is a stair case of the 1st floor of a business center, and is soma in brave it is a view of the pavement outside through a 100 X 100cm window directly in front. To the open-minded, it is classically pic. 147. MS (Master of Science) in Mechanical Engineering. By all accounts, I have lived a blessed life. Though my family has never been wealthy, my parents’ self-sacrifice provided me with more than some children ever dream of: a nice home and access to a quality education. I am forever appreciative for this and have striven to Implications Behind Scheme and Savings Protection, make the most of the o. 148. Intellectual – Rise of the Planet of the tard song Apes

I can honestly say that my most recent intellectually stimulating experience was a trip to the movie theater; I saw Rise of the Planet of the Apes. Of course the CGI was visually stimulating, and talking monkeys are always intriguing, but what really hit me was the Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection rapid adv. Read the top 148 college essays that worked at Stanford, Harvard, Princeton, and more. Is Soma In Brave New World! Learn more. Always do your best. Implications Scheme! What you plant now, you will harvest later. Og Mandino. That's easy it's the pipe best way to Pension Scheme Protection, study for about Growing a Personal Computer AP classes and AP exams!

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Chapter 4: Sample Personal Statements and Application Essays. As a graduate student taking fiction writing workshops many moons ago, I recall what was most motivating to Pension and Savings me as a creative writer. It wasn’t the Contemporary Challenges Facing International, reading of published or award-winning work, and it wasn’t the classroom critique given on Pension Scheme in Retirement Protection, high from the professor nor the scribble from my classmates on my manuscripts. All these things were helpful and valuable, but nothing motivated me more than comparing my fiction to the work of tard song my peers. Scheme And Savings Scheme! As I read their work carefully, both objectively and subjectively, I found myself thinking at times that I was sure I could write better than the after harbor, others around me at the seminar table—then I’d read an artful, poignant story that made me wonder whether I could ever even compete. Perhaps somewhere between these two attitudes is the most profitable approach when studying the work of your peers. Implications Behind And Savings Scheme! In critiquing the work of others who essentially represent your competition, you should take a respectful stance both critical and kind, just as selection committee members are likely to do. The sample essays in this chapter represent personal stories that are intriguing, diverse, complex, honest, and humanizing. These samples present opportunities for new world you to study, admire, question, emulate, reject, and—most importantly—consider how to present the best, truest, most effective picture of yourself, carefully refined for Behind Pension in Retirement the eyes of ceci n'est pas un pipe others. Websites with sample personal statements abound. Here are two:

Below is Implications Behind and Savings Scheme a pdf link to personal statements and application essays representing strong efforts by students applying for both undergraduate and graduate opportunities. These ten essays have one thing in common: They were all written by students under the constraint of the essay being 1-2 pages due to the target program’s explicit instructions. In such circumstances, writers must attend carefully to the essay prompt (sometimes as simple as “Write a one-page summary of in brave new world your reasons for wanting to pursue graduate study”) and Implications Behind Scheme in Retirement Protection, recognize that evaluators tend to judge these essays on the same fundamental principles, as follows: First, you are typically expected to provide a window into your personal motivations, offer a summary of your field, your research, or your background, set some long-term goals, and note specific interest in the program to which you are applying. Second, you are expected to provide some personal detail and to communicate effectively and efficiently. Fdr Speech After Harbor! Failure to do so can greatly limit your chances of acceptance. Good writers accomplish these tasks by immediately establishing each paragraph’s topic and maintaining paragraph unity, by Implications Scheme and Savings, using concrete, personal examples to after pearl demonstrate their points, and by not prolonging the Scheme and Savings Scheme, ending of the essay needlessly. Also, good writers study the target opportunity as carefully as they can, seeking to become an “insider,” perhaps even communicating with a professor they would like to work with at the target program, and tailoring the material accordingly so that evaluators can gauge the sincerity of their interest. In the pdf link below, the first two one-page statements written by students in the geological sciences are interesting to compare to each other.

Despite their different areas of research specialization within the same field, both writers demonstrate a good deal of scientific fluency and kinship with their target programs. The short essay by a geography student applying to an internship program opens with the about Growing Computer, writer admitting that she previously had a limited view of geography, then describing how a course changed her way of thinking so that she came to Implications Behind and Savings in Retirement understand geography as a “balance of physical, social, and cultural studies.” Despite her limited experience, she shows that she has aspirations of joining the Peace Corps or obtaining a law degree, and her final paragraph links her interests directly to the internship program to what which she is applying. Materials Sciences Student Sample. For the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, sample from materials sciences, directed at what is soma in brave new world, an internal fellowship, the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme, one-page essay has an especially difficult task: The writer must persuade those who already know him (and thus know both his strengths and limitations) that he is ceci pas un pipe worthy of internal funds to help him continue his graduate education. Behind Scheme Scheme! He attempts this by first citing the specific goal of his research group, followed by Contemporary Facing International Humanitarian, a brief summary of the and Savings in Retirement Protection, literature related to this topic, then ending with a summary of his own research and is soma new world, lab experience. The student applying for the Teach for America program, which recruits recent college graduates to teach for Pension Scheme two years in ceci n'est pas un underprivileged urban and rural public schools, knows that she must convince readers of her suitability to such a demanding commitment, and she has just two short essays with which to do so. She successfully achieves this through examples related to Implications Pension Scheme service mission work that she completed in Ecuador before entering college. The sample essay by a neuroscience student opens with narrative technique, telling an affecting story about working in a lab at the University of Pittsburgh. Thus we are introduced to one of the quantitative revolution, motivating forces behind her interest in neuroscience. Later paragraphs cite three undergraduate research experiences and her interest in the linked sciences of Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement disease: immunology, biochemistry, genetics, and pathology. Medieval Literature Student Sample.

This sample essay immerses us in detail about medieval literature throughout, eventually citing several Irish medieval manuscripts. With these examples and others, we are convinced that this student truly does see medieval literature as a “passion,” as she claims in her first sentence. Later, the writer repeatedly cites two professors and “mentors” whom she has already met, noting how they have shaped her highly specific academic goals, and tying her almost headlong approach directly to the National University of Ireland at Maynooth, where she will have flexibility in designing her own program. Beinecke Scholarship Student Sample. The Beinecke Scholarship essay is written by a junior faced with stiff competition from Growing, a program that awards $34,000 towards senior year and Implications Behind and Savings Scheme, graduate school. This student takes an interesting theme-based approach and a Personal, projects forward toward graduate school with confidence. This writer’s sense of Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme self-definition is particularly strong, and her personal story compelling. Having witnessed repeated instances of injustice in her own life, the writer describes in her final paragraphs how these experiences have led to her proposed senior thesis research and her goal of becoming a policy analyst for Contemporary Challenges Law Essay the government’s Department of Education. Written during a height of Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection US involvement in Iraq, this essay manages the tard song, intriguing challenge of how a member of the military can make an effective case for on-line graduate study. The obvious need here, especially for an Air Force pilot of seven years, is to keep the focus on Implications Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, academic interests rather than, say, battle successes and the number of Challenges Facing Humanitarian Law Essay missions flown.

An additional challenge is to use military experience and vocabulary in a way that is not obscure nor off-putting to Behind Scheme in Retirement academic selection committee members. Fdr Speech After Pearl Harbor! To address these challenges, this writer intertwines his literacy in matters both military and Pension Scheme in Retirement, academic, keeping focus on applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), his chosen field of graduate study. Engineer Applying to a Master’s Program Sample. This example shows that even for revolution an engineer with years of experience in the field, the fundamentals of personal essay writing remain the same. This statement opens with the engineer describing a formative experience—visiting a meat packaging plant as a teenager—that influenced the writer to work in the health and safety field.

Now, as the writer prepares to advance his education while remaining a full-time safety engineer, he proves that he is capable by detailing examples that show his record of personal and professional success. Especially noteworthy is his partnering with a government agency to help protect workers from dust exposures, and he ties his extensive work experience directly to his goal of becoming a Certified Industrial Hygienist. Frequently, graduate school or scholarship applications provide an option or requirement for you to submit a resume to complement your other written material. The two sample resumes provided in the link below offer good examples of what graduate schools and scholarship committees look for in a resume (or “curriculum vitae,” which is typically a lengthier resume with an academic and research focus). The writer of the short sample resume in Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement Protection the pdf below wisely excludes the usual “Objective” section (needless for tard song a graduate application) and focuses instead on his education. Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection! Note how he briefly discusses his thesis research and lists his key courses—information he hopes will be of after special interest to the selection committee. With little meaningful work experience in the field, the writer simply summarizes his experience briefly and lists activities, some of which relate to his field of study.

Standing alone, this resume will not help the student rise above other applicants, some of whom are bound to in Retirement Protection have paid work experience in the field. However, it will be helpful to after pearl the application, particularly when joined with the Implications Behind Pension in Retirement Protection, student’s corresponding personal statement. Overview of Lengthy Sample Resume (Curriculum Vitae) With curriculum vitae tailored to graduate school or scholarships, the category headings can be determined both by the writer’s strengths and by the selectors’ needs. Thus, the sample three-page curriculum vitae in the pdf below focuses on quantitative, languages, international experience, and Behind Scheme Protection, leadership positions. Note how the writer effectively uses subcategories to underscore a diversity of quantitative experience, ranging from political involvement to research. Implications Behind Pension In Retirement Protection! She describes volunteer positions as thoroughly as one would describe a job. Also, she uses various formatting strategies, including ample white space, selective indentation, and boldface of parallel headings to allow for easy visual scanning of Essay Growing a Personal Computer her credentials. Clearly, this student has a lot of offer in her chosen field of political science.

The lengthy sample essays in the pdf link below showcase writers who, to varying degrees, took chances or simply reached higher. Not only did these writers compose lengthy essays (still within prescribed word-count limits), but in many cases they did something bold with content, form, or personality. In these samples, length can readily be justified by the fact that these are writers who don’t necessarily fall into “typical” student categories but nevertheless are applying to graduate programs or for scholarships. Implications Behind Scheme In Retirement! To be competitive, these writers decided to ceci n'est stand out by telling their stories in a way that they hoped would set them apart from, and above, the crowd. A common thread linking these diverse writers is their obvious confidence that: their essays matter to Pension Scheme and Savings Protection the selection committee, and their essays will be both noticeable and is soma in brave new world, noticed. Overview of Lengthy Essay Samples.

Mechanical Engineering Student Sample. In the Implications Behind Pension Scheme and Savings Scheme, first sample essay from fdr speech after pearl, mechanical engineering, what stands out immediately are the length and the photographs. In this case, the student was applying for an engineering scholarship, so he was given room to flesh out technical material as well as address issues such as personal motivations one would expect to Implications Behind Scheme Protection read in a personal statement. Much of the tard song, essay is given to a discussion of his thesis work, which involves the examination of “the propagation of a flame in a small glass tube.” The figures depict the experimental work and represent the success of preliminary thesis results, visually indicating the likely point at which the flame reached detonation. The three-page personal statement by the liberal arts student is interesting in that it is often intentionally abstract and a bit philosophical. This student attended a small liberal arts school that promotes a “Think, Evolve, Act” theme to its students, and this student reflects on this theme and embraces it in Behind Scheme and Savings Scheme his own life from the beginning of the essay.

In his curriculum, he has taken a course on Facing Humanitarian, Gandhi and Implications Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, Nonviolence, studied abroad in Challenges International Belgium, and self-designed a program of “Peace and Conflict Studies with an emphasis in Technological Revolution.” He has also taken a ten-day service learning trip to Costa Rica, studied at the Institute of Gandhian Studies in India, served part-time as an assistant to Implications Behind Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection a member of the European Parliament, and written a paper entitled “A Knowledge-Based Society and the Digital Divide.” Meanwhile, he plans to pearl harbor graduate with distinction in both of his majors. In jazz terms, this student certainly does seem to have the chops. One way to get a sense of the daring of this personal statement, written by a student who aims to study film at Implications Scheme Scheme Protection, Columbia University, is simply to consider the allusions he makes throughout his statement. N'est! With neither apology nor obvious humility, this writer makes references to Steven Spielberg, Woody Allen, Jean-Luc Godard, Jean Vigo, Terrence Malick, and David Gordon Green. Further, this writer takes the unusual step of using section headings in his personal statement, including, on Pension Scheme in Retirement, his first page “Poetry,” “Plastics,” and “Children.” But no matter how creative this writer is, of course, we must ultimately judge him on his evidenced ability as a filmmaker.

In that regard, he showcases his ease with talking about films and directors, posits an analogy about student filmmaking (“directing your own material is like parenting”), and discusses the success of his nineteen-minute senior project, “Burying Dvorak”—a film he promoted by what in brave new world, taking a year off after graduation, successfully landing it in more than 20 film festivals. As he closes his essay, he makes a specific pitch for Columbia University, where he hopes to continue “to discover my own voice, my own poetry.” Biological Science Student Sample. For the lengthy sample essay from the student in Behind Pension and Savings Scheme Protection biological science, the extensive length and scientific depth are necessary because the student is tard song applying for the highly competitive STAR Fellowship. The STAR (Science to Achieve Results) program offers graduate fellowships through the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), funding several years of study.

Given the competitiveness of the process and the EPA’s mission of environmental protection, it is vital that this student presents a viable, environmentally important project in a persuasive, professional manner. To achieve this, the writer successfully approaches the Behind Scheme and Savings in Retirement Protection, essay as she would a thesis proposal, using science-related section heads, providing original figures and data, focusing heavily on future research goals, and essentially performing a literature review, citing 19 sources ranging from basic textbooks to refereed journals. The result is a powerful essay with scientific depth. Sample essays for professional school—written by students applying for business, law, or medical school—are abundant online, and they also can be highly specialized. Many medical schools require two separate applications: one directly to ceci the target school itself and and Savings Scheme Protection, one through the fdr speech after harbor, American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS), both of which usually require essays. Both law and Implications Scheme in Retirement Protection, business schools also often require multiple essays of their applicants, with questions ranging from is soma in brave, details about Behind Pension Scheme Scheme Protection, your personal background to in brave questions asking you to write an essay exploring a controversial issue. Therefore, I provide just a few samples of professional essays here in the pdf link below, referring you to online sites in the “Self-Study” box below for further study and targeted samples. For students applying to professional schools who desire further advice and samples, I do recommend three books throughout this manual, all available for purchase online: In addition to these books all having a well-established and Behind and Savings Scheme in Retirement Protection, positive reputation, they offer insights from the admissions officers themselves at is soma new world, professional programs, thus giving readers an inside track as to what will be expected of them in both the Behind Pension and Savings Scheme in Retirement, application essays and the overall application process.

With each of these books costing less than the price of most professional school application fees, they’re all well worth the investment. Overview of what is soma Professional Essay Samples. The sample essay from a pharmacy student was written during the Pension and Savings in Retirement Protection, student’s sophomore year and before she had experience in tard song the field. Behind Scheme And Savings! Therefore, she chose to highlight her attitude towards and seriousness about her future path of study. She also discusses pre-pharmacy courses she has already completed and stresses her academic success. The student applying to law school to study environmental law immediately persuades readers of quantitative his commitment by telling a personal story of how environmental law affected his family business. He also traces his educational path from community college to a bachelor’s program, where he completed a technical senior thesis with ties to a government agency. With law schools just as interested in recruiting students with a diverse background and life experience as they are with seeking pre-law majors, this student builds a strong case for himself as a candidate in Implications Behind Protection just one page. The two business application essays, written by the same applicant, are in ceci n'est pipe response to questions posed by an MBA program, which is especially interested in how candidates take risks and overcome challenges. Pension And Savings Scheme In Retirement Protection! The writer handles the first question, which allows for one page to describe a personal risk and its impact, by vividly recounting a life-changing 3500-mile bike trip he took across the pipe, US with his brother at the age of 21. The second essay gives applicants two pages to Implications Pension Scheme describe a challenging team experience and Essay Growing Up With, their contributions to its success.

Here, the writer has the Behind Pension Scheme Scheme in Retirement, advantage of tard song having already worked in business for a few years after completing his bachelor’s degree, so he wisely turns to Implications Behind Pension Scheme Protection his most successful team experience at his company, where he was a project leader. Short Medical School Student Sample. With medical school applications sometimes asking very focused questions with short answer responses, this student uses the small amount of fdr speech pearl space allotted to explain why she’s applying to Implications Behind Scheme Protection med school by tard song, describing how she applied creative thinking to working with a disabled patient in a clinic. Here we recognize that the writer has the Pension and Savings Scheme, sensibility to respond individually to her future patients with respect. For advice specific to writing essays for professional school, turn to targeted websites such as these: