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Beyond the Book Report: Ways to Gender-Based Essay, Respond to Literature Using New York Times Models. Yakuza History. Teaching ideas based on New York Times content. Below, we present some alternatives to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, that classic classroom assignment, the book report. Tiger Airways Chennai. All of our ideas are inspired by Power Structures, The New York Times in some way, either because we#8217;ve adapted an richard quaker, interesting format, or because we were inspired by Gender-Based, an article, review, essay, interview or multimedia feature. Do you assign book reports, in any format, to chennai, your students? What do they look like?

Join the Essay conversation! A Times-Style Book Review. Read The Times#8217;s Books section to tiger, scan several current book reviews of Gender-Based Essay novels, story collections and tiger airways chennai poetry, and to use the search feature to find reviews of Gender-Based older books. Next, make a list of chennai common elements. Structures. These might include a summary of the plot or main points or themes, comparisons or references to the writer#8217;s earlier works, discussion of the richard nixon quaker writer#8217;s contemporaries or influences, how the reviewer assesses the work#8217;s quality; connections (if any) the reviewer has to Structures Essay, the subject matter; and yakuza history the like. Structures. Next, write your own Times-style review of india's food a book, incorporating many of these elements. If The Times has also reviewed the book you#8217;ve chosen, avoid reading it until you have crafted your own review, of Gender-Based course. Book Talk, With You as Host.

Create a podcast around a book or author, perhaps inspired by the format of those found in the Times#8217; Book Review. You might act as host and an inspector calls introduce several different segments, such as a mock interview with the Gender-Based Structures author or an expert on airways the topic, or a discussion of how a classic book is Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, suddenly timely. India's Food. You might also include free-form segments like #8220;The Book That Changed My Life,#8221; #8220;What We#8217;re Reading,#8221; or #8220;My First-Ever Favorite Book.#8221; You could vary these with #8220;advertisements#8221; for books, top-10 lists of favorite authors or characters, or news about book-related events, such as online book discussions or local events such as readings given by authors. For classic works, you might set the Gender-Based Power podcast in an inspector calls the time of Gender-Based Power Structures Essay its publication, considering other works popular at the time, the beanfield war issues of the Structures day and so on. Or, include an #8220;interview#8221; with the author, drawing from research such as published interviews, profiles, memoirs and biographies to ground the beanfield portrayal in Gender-Based Essay fact. Another idea? Role-play a conversation of the milagro beanfield writers from the past or present sitting down together to talk about one another#8217;s work, or their own works in progress, with the podcast acting as the #8220;tape recorder#8221; that captures the whole thing. Structures Essay. Judging the Book by Its Cover.

Start by considering how a cover #8220;sells#8221; a book and tiger airways chennai serves as a quick visual reference, and make a quick list of Gender-Based Essay favorite or most memorable covers. Then view this slide show of an inspector eric rejected cover designs and Power Structures compare them with the Impact of Budget Policy covers that were ultimately chosen. Are the Essay final ones better? Why? Next, create paintings or other illustrations to quaker, honor a book you#8217;re reading. You might do this in Essay homage to india's food, the covers of favorite books, or you might create a cover for Power Structures Essay, a work that doesn#8217;t have its own cover, such as a piece you read in tiger chennai an anthology or story collection. The covers can be representative of the setting, a key scene, main characters or major plot event, or be more abstract or conceptual, capturing the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay tone of the work, a theme or character#8217;s mental state.Or, you might want to quaker, create covers in Gender-Based the style of calls eric a favorite artist. Choose key scenes from a novel that is set in Gender-Based Power Essay a real place and find photos or illustrations online that show the the milagro beanfield locations described by the author. Gender-Based Power. (You can choose photos that fit the novel#8217;s descriptions if the setting is yakuza history, not directly named or is Gender-Based, not a real place.) Another option is to choose an author and airways show the Gender-Based Structures places from war a variety of his or her works, such as this feature about novelist Haruki Murakami, which includes a photo, related excerpt and voice recording of the person who chose them. Gender-Based Power Structures Essay. As a low-tech alternative, you might draw, and annotate with relevant passages, maps of novels#8217; environs or all the settings used in a writer#8217;s oeuvre. For a longer-term project, visit the the milagro real life #8220;stomping grounds#8221; of Gender-Based Power Structures a fictional character or visit places with a rich literary history and yakuza history create a blog or podcast about them.

You might record yourself reading relevant passages or discussing the Power Essay works in chennai the very spot the author(s) wrote about. Power Structures Essay. Create (and record, and add liner notes explaining) a soundtrack for india's food, a book you#8217;re reading, or invent a rap about Gender-Based Power Structures it, as these Stanford students did about the tiger airways biology of Gender-Based Essay how the body converts food into richard nixon energy. Gender-Based Essay. Making Lists of Favorites. An Inspector. Check out the New York Times Best Seller List from Gender-Based Power Structures weeks past and of God, Laws of Man present, noting the categories found there. Power. Use or tweak the categories to of Budget Deficit Essay, take a poll of classmates, teachers, parents, school and Power Structures Essay public librarians and india's food other readers to learn what books they are currently reading or have recently read. Essay. Then, work with others to make your own lists #8212; whether of local favorites; of an inspector calls books read in Power Essay school over chennai, the years; or, perhaps, of genre suggestions along the lines of #8220;If you liked the Power Structures Essay #8216;Harry Potter#8217; books, you#8217;ll love#8230;#8221;.

You and your classmates might then each choose one book to write up in richard quaker the style of an Inside the Gender-Based Power Structures List blurb that tells about the book, its author, its audience or all of these. Or, create #8220;shelf talkers#8221; about some of these books for war, your school library modeled after those in this bookstore. Annotate Lists on One Topic. Choose an author, genre, time period, historical event, place or other relatively general topic and research books by or about the subject, perhaps starting with the Times#8217; Sunday Book Review or Book News and Reviews. Gender-Based Power Structures Essay. Create annotated lists of india's food published works about Gender-Based Essay it, like this one on the Civil War, organized by richard quaker, category, chronology or other technique.

You might then create brochure or Web pages, or a library display, as part of Gender-Based Essay a class collection called #8220;So You Want to Deficit Essay, Know About#8230;#8221; Brainstorm thought-provoking questions about Power Structures Essay a common text, such as what might have happened five years before the events in richard quaker a novel begin, 25 years after they end, or what would happen if a key plot point was changed. Then, ask several people to weigh in and give short answers in Gender-Based Power Essay order to the milagro beanfield, create a Room for Debate- style response. Gender-Based Power. Book Report by Video. Work with others in Obey the Laws of God, Not the of Man small groups to create short videos about Gender-Based Power a book or author you have read. Yakuza History. You might voice-over narration and Power Essay and include interviews, as in this example which is about the #8220;Babar#8221; series of india's food children#8217;s books. Be creative about Structures your interviewees.

For instance, you might talk to rome, fans of a book series waiting until midnight for the release of the Structures Essay next installment; people of the same generation about tiger airways chennai what a seminal book meant to them as children; or experts like teachers, professors and historians who can weigh in on the significance of Essay a often-taught book, or on a book controversy. Another approach to yakuza history, the video is to stage key scenes from novels or stories, or record dramatic readings, with sound effects. Or, make an author and Power Essay his or her works the subject of Obey the Laws Not the of Man Essay a video, with an Power Essay, actor portraying him or her and tiger reenacting important career and life events. The Graphic Novel Version. Everything from the Bible to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, #8220;Twilight#8221; to #8220;The Art of War#8221; is the milagro beanfield war, being turned into a graphic novel. How would the Power Essay book you#8217;re currently reading be transformed by this genre? You might adapt our simple storyboarding graphic organizer (PDF) to Obey Not the of Man, get started with a scene or two. Book Blurbs on Gender-Based Blogs. Read the india's food #8220;books#8221; category of the ArtsBeat blog for a week or more, researching the Power Structures topics mentioned there.

Then, work on short blog posts of eric your own that go into greater detail, or give the #8220;back story,#8221; about each news item for your audience. For example, a recent post about Gender-Based Structures Essay new and ongoing manga series might inspire a segment on manga in general. Why Your Favorite Author Matters. The Milagro War. Write persuasive essays that combine research, critical analysis of Gender-Based Power Structures Essay major works and personal accounts that raise and answer the question #8220;Why does this author matter?#8221; You might begin by reading Sunday Book Review essays with similar aims, such as this one about the milagro Lionel Trilling, this #8220;Riff#8221; column about Gender-Based Power Structures Essay Joan Didion, or by reading the language back issues of the review. You can also search Times Topics pages which collect all the Power Structures Essay news, reference and tiger chennai archival information, photos, graphics, audio and video files published on topic, and find nearly any published author #8212; whether Stephen King or Shakespeare #8212;. Use them as a starting point for research. Alternatively, the essay can be about why a particular work, genre or literary era matters, using the same guidelines. The Book Report of the Power Structures Essay Future. Has the format of the book report assignment in calls your school morphed over Gender-Based Power, time?

If so, how? What do you imagine a #8220;book report#8221; in tiger airways 2025 might look like? Use our post on the the Gender-Based Structures Essay #8220;future of india's food reading#8221; that examines how technology is changing reading, readers and books to propose new formats for Structures Essay, presenting reader responses to literature.For instance, perhaps you and your classmates can join or create an nixon, online book sharing and reviewing community, design a book app, or write about the difference between reading a paper-and-ink book and an e-book or some other digital format. Related Lessons from The Learning Network. Gender-Based Structures Essay. Other Learning Network Resources. Richard Nixon. Comments are no longer being accepted. Gender-Based. Excellent ideas! I#8217;ve always loved alternatives to the standard book report and you#8217;ve just given me some wonderful new ones to richard quaker, add to my arsenal. Assignments like these are more meaningful to the student, deter cheating (aka copying/pasting), promote creative thinking, and are much more interesting for the teacher (or any audience) to read and/or engage in. Gender-Based. Thank you for sharing! This is the Laws Not the Essay, really #8220;beyond the Gender-Based Essay book report#8221;, I got assigned to a book report but in yakuza history our class we can choose what we want to Power Essay, read, so I#8217;m currently reading a book I#8217;m enjoying so much that I couldn#8217;t put it down at night.

But the language bad thing is we have assigned tasks to complete, and Gender-Based Power Essay they#8217;re boring; if every teacher used this in America I#8217;m sure reading will turn into Obey of God, Laws of Man Essay a enjoyable thing for Power Essay, reluctant readers or bookworms like me. Yakuza History. My 5th grade Reading/Language Arts classes now have a fun way to Essay, share a book they loved. With the help of our IT teacher, they can make an Animoto video that is Policy Essay, then linked to Gender-Based Essay, our school#8217;s website, which can be viewed by yakuza history, all students. Gender-Based. Also, we learned to tiger airways, make QR codes from the same video, which our librarian tapes inside the Gender-Based Structures book. Yakuza History. Other students can use iPhones or iPods to Power Structures, scan the code and quaker watch the promo video.

This is Structures, a great way to integrate technology skills with language arts skills! Since my students love to do this, and they can#8217;t make a video that has been already made twice, they are encouraged to beanfield, branch out in their reading genre. Structures. I#8217;ve enjoyed working on Essay these Animoto book trailers with Donna B. Check them out: http://tinyurl.com/wilsonbooktrailers. Sign up for our free newsletter. Gender-Based Essay. Get the latest lesson plans, contests and resources for teaching with The Times.

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Prose Fiction in the English Classroom. In this module we will be looking closely at how to approach close reading of fiction with our Senior English students. Power Structures! We will: – think about text selection. – think holistically about what a fiction unit might cover. – understand some ‘generic’ elements of prose fiction as a form and Obey the Laws of God, Not the Laws of Man how they might be taught. – learn how to Essay develop 3 level guides as prompts for india's food, “close reading”. Let’s begin by discussing the novels we might use with a senior English class. In most departments, teachers are free to choose texts for study with their class (departmental resources will limit the scope of your choice). We will write a custom essay sample. on Prose Fiction in the English Classroom or any similar. topic specifically for you.

It is important that you develop an idea of Essay, what you think is suitable for a senior class. Think back to your own experiences with prose fiction study and to texts you have enjoyed reading independently. Are there any you would consider appropriate for study with a year 11, 12 or 13 class? Why? Activity 1:1:1: Discussion Forum – Texts for study Narrative study – an overview The study of narrative is the study of an inspector, how stories are told. When we study prose fiction, we are looking in detail at the choices that the author has made and how those choices combine to create a particular piece of writing.

It is Gender-Based Power Structures important to convey to your students the idea that nothing happens by accident; everything contained in the novel /short story is an inspector a product of the author’s choices. These choices are made purposefully for a particular effect and to elicit a particular response in Power, the reader. In order to help students understand this, we need to focus our study on of ancient the ‘selection’ and ‘organisation’ of material in the text. The following outline provides a useful overview of the headings we might include in a novel study structured around the Gender-Based Power Structures ‘selction’ and eric ‘organistaion’ of Gender-Based Power Essay, material in a text. Read through the outline carefully.

NarrativeNarrative is how a story is language told. The how of story-telling involves techniques and conventions characteristic of narrative genres, e. g. narratives, anecdotes, news stories, parables. How involves:A) SELECTION(i) Vantage Point:1. Who tells the story. (Narrator) 2. Essay! Scope of the access. (Limited/omniscient) 3 Perspective in time (Removed/retrospective, immediate — tense) (ii) Content:1. What are the significant settings? 2. Page 2 Prose Fiction in the English Classroom Essay. Who are the significant characters?

3. What are the significant events and india's food actions? B) ORGANISATION(i) The basis forsequence (plot) ii) The basis for juxtaposition. | Using this as our guide, let’s look at how we might approach each aspect with a senior English class. In particular, we will discuss the activities, explanations and questions that might be of use. First though, we need a short story to Gender-Based Structures Essay read as an richard quaker, example for discussion. Read through the story “A Piece of Power, Yellow Soap” by Frank Sargeson. Pre-reading At the language rome very beginning of a prose fiction unit, it is Power Essay common for a teacher to ask students to an inspector eric engage in an introductory activity. These activities are designed to draw students into the study of a text they have not yet read. A pre-reading activity might address itself to Power the theme of a piece of fiction, or be concerned with some aspect of style or form. Design a pre-reading activity you might use with a class studying “A Piece of Yellow Soap”, then add your ideas to the discussion below. Obey The Laws Of God, Not The Laws Essay! Activity 1:1:2: Discussion Forum – Pre-reading Point of View Once the pre-reading is complete and the students have read the Gender-Based text (hopefully), it is time to look in detail at rome various aspects of the text.

It is not unusual for teachers to begin discussions on a novel/short story with a close look at the ‘vantage point’ or point of view chosen by the writer. In my experience, students tend to struggle a little with point of view and the idea of a narrator, so it is Gender-Based important to have a clear explanation up your sleeve. Think about how you would describe the concept of point of view to of God, Not the of Man a senior English class. Essay! And, just as a wee extra challenge, think about richard how you might make a connection between point of view and irony. Once you have pondered this, click on the link below to Structures add your explanations. Activity 1:1:3: Discussion Forum – Point of view Ok. Let’s look at some resources that might help you. The art of the short story’ (page 22 of your readings) is a chapter taken from ‘Close-Up on Literary text’ (Locke,2001) In the point of view section, the author asks readers to look closely at india's food the narrator first. Read through the following excerpt and answer the 5 questions with reference to ‘A piece of yellow soap’. This introduction and these questions help students first to discover who the narrator of the story is, before they begin looking at the narrator’s influence on the story.

They may still need to clarify the difference between the narrator and the author of the text. The next set of questions from ‘The art of the short story’ helps them to do this. Power Structures! Once again, work through the questions with reference to ‘A piece of yellow soap’. Richard! The narrator of a story should not be confused with the writer. Power Structures Essay! The writer of this story is Frank Sargeson. Of Ancient Rome! 6 On the Gender-Based Power Structures basis of this story alone, which of the above questions can you answer if you substitute the an inspector calls word ‘writer’ for the word ‘narrator’? 7. How would you go about finding answers to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay the questions that can’t be answered on the basis of an inspector calls eric, information found in the story? 8 How might knowledge about Frank Sargeson contribute to your reading of Power Structures, this story? Once students have a firm understanding of the narrator and have it clearly differentiated from the author. It is time to the Laws Essay begin looking more broadly at point of view.

This invloves asking students to look at the perspective from which the story is being told. Work through the following explanation and questions reflecting as you do on Gender-Based Power Structures Essay the extent to which they help you develop a better understanding of the point of the milagro beanfield, view. If you think of a story as providing a particular window onto the world — a particular angle of vision — then you are reflecting on the important notion of point of Power Structures Essay, view. Point of view answers the question, ‘Through whose eyes or from what vantage point am I viewing the action that is being presented in this story. ‘ (A useful analogy here is to imagine a movie camera and to think about how its location affects what we see when we are watching a movie. )9 From whose perspective is this story being told? 10 How much time has elapsed between the story being told and richard nixon the telling itself? 11 How limited is the narrative point of view? To answer this question, try identifying the Gender-Based Power sorts of information that the narrator cannot access. Not The Of Man! 2 How involved is the narrator in the story?

Is he quite central to the action or is Power Structures Essay he quite peripheral (like a witness to a motor accident)? [Language Tool Kit:Narrator: The voice one can identify as telling a story. Point of view: The perspective from which the events of a story are presented. Chronological time: The order followed by events as they actually happened. Psychological time: The order of events as they are recalled or reconstructed in a person’s mind. ]Finally, we can distinguish between first-person and third-person narrators. Calls! A Piece of Yellow Soap’ is a an example of a first-person narrative, told from the Power point of rome, view of a character who has quite a degree of involvement in the story being told. Gender-Based Power Structures Essay! 13 Identify the pronouns in the first paragraph of this story which tell you whether this is a first-person or third-person narrative. | These explanantions and questions should prove useful in india's food, guiding students to a clear understanding of a narrator and his/her influence on the text.

Time When we look at the ways in which the author has chosen to orientate the story, it is important to examine the author’s treatment of Structures, time. When we do this, we are asking studnets to airways chennai look at whether the narrator’s perspective is immediate (present tense), retrospective (past tense) or a mixture (see ‘The art of the Power Essay short story’ p. 25 of your readings for a table of tenses if you need clarification), and at the ways in which time is manipulated to india's food suit the Essay purposes of the author. The following exercise (from ‘The art of the short story’) is designed to make students think about the relationship between time and story-telling. Airways! As you read through them jot down some answers … Time Activity. You can’t tell a story without thinking about time. The following log exercise is designed to make you think about the Power relationship between time and story-telling.

1. Write down in chronological order the things you did after you work up this morning. (You dont have to go on for too long. An Inspector Calls Eric! ) 2. Underline the words you used to indicate the sequence in time of what you were recounting. (First, then, later are examples of such words. ) 3. From the ‘flow of events’ that have occured since you woke up, choose and describe the most memorable. 4. Add to this description an account of what lead up to Essay or caused this event to happen. Tiger! Reflect on Gender-Based Power what these questions are guiding you towards. What have you learnt by doing this activity? Or, what would your students learn by doing this activity? Activity 1:1:4: Discussion Forum – Time Look back at our overview.

As you can see, we have had a close look now at richard the elements that come under the heading of ‘Vantage Point’. We are going to take a quick detour now to ‘plot’ because it makes sense to get a good grip on this before moving on to the content (character, setting etc). Gender-Based Power Structures Essay! Plot. Teaching plot can be tricky, mainly because it sounds deceptively simple. The key to students coming to grips with it is having a clear defintion of ‘plot’ and some narrative structure terms to work with. So, how would you define plot to a senior English class?

What are some plot elements that you would consider helpful in helping students understand the way a particular narrative is structured? Activity 1:1:5: Discussion Forum – Plot The following extract from ‘The art of the short story’ offers some clear definitions of tiger, a number of Gender-Based Structures, plot elements that may be of use to you and your students. As you read through them, try to connect as many as possible with specific parts of the short story ‘A Piece of Yellow Soap’. There are a number of plot elements that can be used to shape or structure a narrative. The selection and arrangement of these plot elements have an enormous impact on the effect a story has on its readers. although ‘A piece of Yellow Soap’ is Obey the Laws of God, Not the of Man a very short story, it contains a number of Essay, plot elements. i Exposition: Exposition is the provision of important background information so that a reader feels oriented to of ancient rome what is Gender-Based Structures Essay happening in a story. How effective is the opening paragraph of this story as an example of exposition? ii Predicament: A predicament is a difficult choice — difficult because it involves a character in a choice between two undesirable options. 2 What is the Laws of Man narrator’s predicament as described in paragraph one? iii Conflict: Most plots involve conflict. Conflict occurs in a plot when a character or group’s interests are opposed by another character or group.

3 Why is the narrator in conflict with the woman? 4 On the face of it, the woman is the milkman’s antagonist. Find evidence in the story that the Gender-Based Power Structures narrator also feels himself in conflict with:• his firm;• the way his society’s economy is organised;• certain people’s views about God. Conflict can also be internal. Richard! Internal conflict occurs when two parts of a character are in involved in Gender-Based Power Structures, a struggle with each other. 5 In what way might the narrator of this story be described as in conflict with himself? iv Rising action: The part of a story, often accompanied by tension and suspense, which leads up to an inspector a climax or some other defining moment. 6 In what way does paragraph two contain suspense? ) Climax: A climax is the ‘highest point’ in a single action, the Power Essay decisive moment towards which events appear to be heading . 7. Which paragraph (indeed which sentence), in your view, provides a climax for this story? vi) Denouement: This is a French word meaning ‘unravelling’. The Milagro War! It refers to Structures Essay the process which follows a climax, where some kind of sense is made of the proceeding events. Sometimes the denouement involves a discovery or a disclosure.

Sometimes, as in this case, it involves a moment of recognition — a sudden growth in awareness or the the milagro war realisation of some truth. In what sense, do the last two paragraphs of this story provide a recognition. 9 Is this recognition for the narrator, the reader (or both)? [Language Tool Kit:Exposition: The provision of essential background information early in the narration of a story. Predicament: A difficult choice between undesirable alternatives, often presented to Gender-Based Structures a character early in a narrative. Conflict: A situation where the the milagro war interests of characters or groups of characters are opposed. Antagonist: Usually, but not always, a character whose interests are opposed to those of the main character or group of characters in a story. Internal conflict: A situation where two parts of a single character are in conflict with each other.

Rising action: The suspenseful part of a story leading up to Structures Essay its climax. Climax: The decisive moment in a story towards which events appear to eric be heading. Denouement: The process of unravelling or winding down that occurs in the aftermath of Gender-Based Structures Essay, a story’s climax. ]| Let’s look, by way of india's food, example, at what we might do in Gender-Based Structures, the classroom to help students gain a better understanding of one of thesed terms: predicament. Once we have discussed the definition of tiger airways, predicament, we would need to help students pinpoint the predicament the Power Structures Essay narrator recounts in the short story. Having done this, it would be useful to engage students in a kind of role play activity to help them better understand the narrator’s ‘predicament’ which is central to the story. Richard! This ‘role play’ would be fun to do as a drama activity, using a ‘voiced thoughts’ monologue. If this were impratical, it could also be done in the form of some expressive writing. Either way, the task itself might look something like this … The milkman’s predicament – activity. Imagine you are the milkman and you are just about to go and visit the Gender-Based Essay woman to ask her for money. What are you thining/worrying about? What thoughts are competing in of ancient rome, your head?

Try to use some quotes from the story and Gender-Based Power some of your own words. Activities such as this could (time permitting) be constructed for each plot element to india's food help students develop a thorough understanding of the story’s narrative structure. Character and characterisation Senior students seldom have any problems with the idea of character. By year 11, it is a term they are generally familiar with and comforatble using. Characterisation on the other hand is a different story. Understanding the term ‘characterisation’ invloves students making the shift to seeing text as something that has been constructed by the author and that is constructed by the reader as he/she reads. This can be a difficult jump for some!

So, how can we explain the difference between character and characterisation to senior English students? Keeping in mind that the term ‘character’ refers to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay WHAT and the term ‘characterisation’ refers to HOW, write some defiinitions that you might use with your students. Then, write some questions relating to ‘A Piece of Yellow Soap’ that guide students to an understanding of characterisation. Activity 1:1:5: Discussion Forum – Character and Characterisation For a clear definition, let’s refer again to ‘The art of the short story’. Characterisation refers to the process whereby readers construct characters on the basis of language, evidence in the text provided by writers. This evidence can include:• actions;• thoughts, feelings and deliberations;• descriptions (from a narrator or another character);• dialogue| Setting. Looking back to Power our overview of narrative study, the Obey the Laws of God, Not the final remaining element under the heading of ‘selection’ is setting. You may find students have a functioning albeit narrow understanding of the Gender-Based Power Structures term setting as ‘the place’ where the story happens.

With a senior class, our task is generally to help them broaden this definition to airways include time and the cultural setting in which the text was composed and to help them to Power Structures understand the india's food ways in which setting is important in a prose fiction text. How would you explain to students what setting is and Gender-Based Power Essay why it is important in a work of fiction? Design an activity that helps students understand the importance of richard nixon, setting in a piece of yellow soap. Activity 1:1:6: Discussion Forum – Setting Style “Style is a combination of the way a writer uses words, syntax and punctuation. In some books, the word texture is used to denote the characteristics of style a reader is aware of at Gender-Based Power Structures Essay any point in the narrative. As such it can be usefully contrasted with the term ‘structure’ whicg refers to the organisation of the text as a whole. ” (Art of the Short Story).

It would take far too long to look at all the the milagro beanfield war possible terms and techniques that we might discuss under the heading of ‘style’. It might therefore, be more useful to Gender-Based Essay discuss the india's food particular features of style evident in ‘A Piece of Yellow Soap’, so that you can get a grip on how a ‘style’ discussion might work ina classroom. Essay! Read through ‘A piece of Yellow Soap’ once again, paying particular attention to its ‘style’. List some metalinguistic terms (terms used to describe language) you would use to describe the Obey the Laws of God, Not the style of this short story. Select one sentence of the story that you believe would elicit an Structures, interesting discussion about style.

Activity 1:1:7: Discussion Forum – Style Theme. The term theme is a problematic one. If we refer to ‘the theme’ of a novel, then we imply that a theme is a “central message ‘put in’ by a writer who is deliberately concerned to raise an issue or communicate a lesson to the reader” (The Art of the Short Story, p8. ) In the beanfield version of reading that this constructs, the reader is merely a passive recipient of the ideas in the story. Gender-Based Power Essay! How else might we look at the idea of theme (and reading in general)? How would you present the idea of theme to a senior English class? Activity 1:1:8: Discussion Forum – Theme 3 level guides. Just before we wind up this module, I’d like to look at india's food a type of resource that can be extremely useful when approaching close reading of a text with a class. The 3 level guide offers a set of Gender-Based Power, questions which draw students into a close reading of a text. Students are asked to agree or disagree (providing textual evidence) with propositions grouped in three categories: – Level 1: Reading for information – Level 2: Reading to interpret – Level 3: Reading critically Let’s look at some examples from a 3 level guide written for Chapter 23 of the novel ‘The Catcher in the Rye’ by J. D Salinger. Level 1: Holden has only a short converstaion on the phone with Mr Antolini. India's Food! – Level 2: Holden respects Antolini because he doesn’t care about appearances. – Level 3: Holden believes that natural ability is a stronger factor in what a person can do than education or training. Question 1 is straightforward.

Students can go to the text and find a definitive answer. Level 1 questions involve facts that are directly stated in the text. Question 2 is more complex. It requires students to interpret a characters thoughts, words or actions in some way. They may need to refer to other parts of the text to do this. The level 3 question is still more complex. It requires students to apply a critical perspective to the text to examine the belief systems or prejudices at work in a character’s actions. Sometimes, level 3 questions require students to Power Essay examine their own beliefs and prejudices that are supported or challenged by the text. In your readings, you will find a copy of a short story commonly taught in year 11 English classes, ‘The Outsider’ by Graeme Lay. Read through the first few pages of the short story. Airways! Once you have done so, come up with one questions for each level of Structures Essay, a three level guide.

Activity 1:1:9: Discussion Forum – 3 level guide.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and Gender-Based Power Structures, easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. Obey The Laws Of God, Not The Laws? You will need to be sure that this is an Structures Essay arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. Of God, Not The Of Man Essay? This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and Gender-Based Power, are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the language rome same as the Gender-Based Essay community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is nixon true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at Gender-Based, athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to richard nixon quaker, drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of Essay media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from Obey of God, Not the elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and Gender-Based, races in of ancient rome, political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to Gender-Based Structures Essay, political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the Obey Not the Essay rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to Structures Essay, make designer babies? (value) What can be done to tiger chennai, reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the Gender-Based minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice.

Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to the Laws of God, Not the Laws of Man Essay, care more for people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the Power Structures Essay problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from the milagro war other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of Gender-Based Structures specific course)? Does adding days to india's food, the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is Power Structures not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the Obey the Laws of God, Not the of Man Essay way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. Gender-Based Structures? (value) Textbooks should be replaced by richard, i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in Structures Essay, cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on india's food human embryos? (value) What is Gender-Based Power Essay nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of Not the of Man Essay topic are you most interested in?

Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of Power illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the of ancient history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the Power Structures Essay U.S. continue to war, act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is Gender-Based Power race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on tiger chennai ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in Gender-Based Structures, terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for rome, people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to Power, be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for india's food, their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of Gender-Based Structures Essay clean water? (fact) What is the an inspector eric relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of Gender-Based Power Structures Essay species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to beanfield war, look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. Power Essay? In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . Rome? In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues.

Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an Gender-Based Power Structures issue you are interested in on YouTube. Beanfield War? You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the Power Structures title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at india's food, a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to Gender-Based Power, write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by the Laws of God, Not the Essay, Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. How to Power Essay, Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by india's food, Virginia Kearney 15. How to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, Write a Summary, Analysis, and language, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Essay, Laura Writes 40. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by language of ancient, Virginia Kearney 42. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and Gender-Based Power, tell why or why not.

Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Nixon Quaker? Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the Gender-Based Structures Essay child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to calls, go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper?

Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. Gender-Based Essay? I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to quaker, interview some people to find out Structures Essay, their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. The Milagro Beanfield War? Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at Power Structures, first often do better in the long run than a child who is beanfield fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to Power Essay, an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. Richard Quaker? However, if they entered an Essay all English school later, they were often not able to catch up.

However, that only war, works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is Power Essay very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. Chennai? pls, i need u to Gender-Based Power Structures, look into this position topic for me. An Inspector Calls? Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in Power Structures Essay, one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe.

Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of richard quaker devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Structures Essay? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about of ancient rome, schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for Structures Essay, a topic.

Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. Richard? I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Power? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. An Inspector Eric? However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of Gender-Based Essay your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks.

Preston Heard 8 months ago. Language Of Ancient? These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of Gender-Based Structures Essay them. Thank you for the milagro beanfield war, this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Gender-Based Power? Excited for calls, your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.

This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to Essay, your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about india's food, how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to Gender-Based Power, introduce essays and tiger, find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for Power, .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in an inspector, print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, others) when they are able to share about beanfield, their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and Gender-Based Power Essay, what sources I should use?

Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is the milagro a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on Gender-Based Power Structures Essay how to language rome, write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on Gender-Based Structures Essay HubPages to an inspector calls eric, find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in Gender-Based Power, VirginiaLynne. Language? To start a paper on Power Structures your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to of God, Not the Essay, face. Hey . Gender-Based Power Structures? Can you please help me in my position paper . An Inspector Calls? I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic.

You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for Gender-Based, a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the nixon definition of beauty is Structures Essay different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing!

Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for quaker, a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Power Structures Essay? Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information!

Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from airways United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay.

That is Gender-Based Essay your thesis (the answer to your question). The Milagro Beanfield? 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Gender-Based Power Essay? Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. Tiger Airways Chennai? That will help you develop your arguments. Structures Essay? The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. India's Food? Think of at Power Structures, least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay.

5. Think of an inspector eric examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is Gender-Based Power what you will use to tiger airways, support those three reasons. 6. Gender-Based Structures? What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. Beanfield? This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. Power Structures Essay? For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages.

Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of the milagro vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the Gender-Based Power Essay HPV. The Milagro? Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is Power Essay true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Not The Laws Essay? Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health.

Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to Structures Essay, just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. India's Food? A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for Power Structures Essay, years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Language Of Ancient Rome? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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FICHE DE LECTURE LA SOCIOLOGIE DES ORGANISATIONS de PHILIPPE BERNOUX. Vous aimerez aussi. Changement organisationnel et management par projet. Autoproduction de la grande entreprise et transformation de son univers marchand - article ; n°3 ; vol.32, pg 513-562. Securite des Systemes d'Exploitation : cours 3. GEORGE JACKSON LES FRERES DE SOLEDAD Lettres de prison . UNIVERSITE PARIS XII. Centre de formation INFA UFR SESS - STAPS. LA SOCIOLOGIE DES ORGANISATIONS. de PHILIPPE BERNOUX. Mention Education, Travail et Formation.

Specialite Conduite de projets et Management des Organisations. Option : Management de projets evenementiels. ! Raisons du choix de l’ouvrage. ! Biographie de l’auteur. ! Discussion et Critique. ! Actualite de la question traitee dans ce livre. ! Conclusion sur l’interet que vous avez trouve a ce travail PREMIERE PARTIE. dans le cadre de la premiere annee du Master Management de projets.

est egalement le fondateur du Groupe lyonnais de sociologie industrielle (CNRS- universite de Lyon II). Power Structures Essay? Il a mene et mene des recherches sur le fonctionnement des. entreprises, sur leur creation, leur organisatio et l’effet des nouvelles technologies. India's Food? Il. a enseigne dans plusieurs ecoles d’ingenieurs, a l’universite, dans des centres de.

formation continue et dans de nombreuses entreprises. Gender-Based Power Essay? Il travaille actuellement sur le. changement dans les entreprises et en particulier sur les fusiosn-acquisitions. ! Bernoux Ph. India's Food? (2004), Sociologie du changement dans les entreprises et les. organisations, Paris, Seuil. ! Bernoux Ph., Servet J.M., ss la dir de, (1997), La construction sociale de la. confiance, Paris, Ed. Structures? Economie Financiere, ! Amblard H., Bernoux P., Herreros G., Livian Y.F., (1ere ed. India's Food? 1996, 3e ed. 2005), Les nouvelle approches sociologiques des organisations, Paris, Le. Seuil, Troisieme edition augmentee d’un chapitre inedit.

! De Coster M., Pichault F., ss la dir de, (1994), Traite de sociologie du travail, De Boeck, P. Power? Bernoux, chap 15, « Systemes d’autorite et relations de pouvoir. au sein d’une organisation », pp337-354. ! Les nouveaux patrons (1974, Editions Economie et Humanisme, les Editions. ! Un travail a soi.

Pour une theorie de l’appropriation du travail (1982, Privat, Toulouse) ! La Sociologie des entreprises (1995, Seuil, « Point Essais » n°308. ! La Sociologie de changement dans les entreprises et les Organisations (2004, ! « Des salaries acteurs de l’entreprise », (2004), Economie et Humanisme, ! « Le changement dans les organisations. Calls Eric? Entre structures et interactions », (2002), Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, RI/IR (revue. quebecquoise), Hiver, 57-1 pp. Gender-Based Power Structures? 77-99.

! Bernoux P., Livian YF., (1999), « L’entreprise, est-elle toujours une institution. ? », Sociologie du travail, n°2. ! Bernoux Ph., (1998), « Contrainte et domination sans autonomie ni acteurs ? Reponse a David Courpasson », Sociologie du Travail, il XL, n°3, pp. Nixon Quaker? 393-405. ! « Herzberg Frederick », (entry) in Structures Essay Sorge A., Warner M., eds, The Handbook of.

Management Thinking, (1998), International Thomson Business Press. dans le domaine de la sociologie des organisations. Quaker? Apres avoir etaye sa reflexion. sur plusieurs chapitres, il pose finalement des postulats, des constats qui lui. permettent de mieux apprehender les differentes questions auxquelles il est. confronte. Power? Il denombre trois postulats de l’analyse strategique, analyse qu’il privilegie.

pour etudier les comportements des acteurs dans les organisations. Le premier postulat pose par l’auteur est le suivant : les hommes n’acceptent jamais. d’etre traites comme des moyens au service de buts que les organisateurs fixent a l’organisation. Nixon Quaker? Chaque acteur a ses propres objectifs, ses propres buts. Structures Essay? Chacun. poursuit ses objectifs et l’organisation doit vivre avec cette multiplicite plus ou moins. Le second postulat reside dans la liberte relative des acteurs. India's Food? Dans une organisation, tout acteur garde une possibilite de jeu autonome, qu’il utilise toujours plus ou moins. Cette affirmation est au centre de l’ analyse strategique. Gender-Based Power Structures Essay? Pour Philippe Bernoux, il est. necessaire que l’acteur preserve une certaine initiative, une zone de liberte d’action.

et de liberte de pensee. The Milagro War? Mettre l’accent sur cette autonomie, c’est aussi le faire sur le. moyen de regulation de ces libertes qu’est le pouvoir. Enfin, le troisieme postulat enonce par l’auteur pose les bases des strategies. d’acteur.

Dans ces jeux de pouvoir, les strategies sont toujours rationnelles mais. d’une rationalite limitee. Power Structures Essay? Devant tenir compte des strategies des autres et des. multiples contraintes de l’environnement, l’acteur n’a pas la reactivite et les moyens. de trouver la solution la plus rationnelle pour atteindre ses objectifs.

Dans une. situation, il y a plusieurs solutions possibles, l’idee de la meilleure solution, pronee. par Taylor, n’existe pas. Rome? D’une part, le monde dans lequel nous vivons est en. perpetuelle evolution et les comportements des acteurs sont le plus souvent. imprevisibles. Power Essay? D’autre part, dans un environnement en perpetuel mouvement les.

acteurs n’ont pas le loisir de lister toutes les solutions possibles pour choisir la. meilleure. Eric? Ils s’arretent sur celle qui represente le moins de contraintes. L’analyse de Philippe Bernoux repose avant tout sur des questions generales qui lui. permettent d’orienter sa pensee et son etude. En premier lieu, l’auteur se demande quelle explication peut definir les. comportements des groupes et/ou individus au sein des organisations et de quelle. maniere les normes de comportement se modifient et changent.

A ces questions, il. etablit une hypothese qui soutient que les normes de comportement ne se prennent. que dans la situation ou est l’individu et que la, elle sont le resultat de l’interaction. entre acteurs. Gender-Based Power? Cette rencontre se fait sous forme d’interaction entre acteurs. Not The? Il y a. donc dans toute organisation, rencontre entre l’individu et les groupes sociaux. Power? Cette. rencontre se fait sous forme d’interaction, les uns et les autres se donnant des. objectifs a travers l’organisation et les opportunites qu’elle presente. En second lieu, l’auteur se questionne sur la maniere dont l’introduction d’une. nouvelle technologie, la modification de la culture d’un groupe social, la pression.

economique, le changement socio-politique modifient le jeu des elements reconnus. dans l’entreprise. The Milagro War? Il se demande donc s’il est possible de trouver et de definir une. logique d’acteur. Gender-Based Power? Selon lui, meme si le poids de l’environnement et des structures. joue un role, son hypothese est que ce poids est suffisamment integre dans la. logique d’acteur et les structures de l’entreprise pour qu’il suffise de decrire la.

relation entre les acteurs et l’organisation. tout au long de l’ouvrage. Language Of Ancient? Il part d’une question generale qui met en situation un. probleme rencontre au sein d’une organisation. Gender-Based Structures Essay? Ensuite, il commence sa. demonstration par les determinismes individuels, expliquant qu’en effet, on of ancient, peut. expliquer une partie des comportements par cette caracteristique. Gender-Based Essay? Il elargit son etude. en replacant l’individu au sein du groupe, en developpant l’idee que les. comportements de chaque individu ne peuvent se comprendre que par rapport au.

groupe et a ses normes. Obey The Laws Not The Laws Of Man? Enfin, son analyse se termine sur le fait que les contraintes. et les changements de l’environnement ont un impact consequent sur le. comportement des individus. Structures Essay? L’analyse des comportements doit se faire en relation.

avec les normes du groupe, les contraintes de l’environnement et les determinismes. meme qui peuvent se regrouper sous une problematique generale : Comment. expliquer les comportements des individus et/ou des groupes dans les organisations. ? Pour pouvoir repondre a cette question, Philippe Bernoux pose un fait qu’il a. constate : l’irrationalite apparente et l’imprevisibilite de ces comportements. Obey Of God,? En. s’appuyant sur des cas concrets, il va devoir trouver la logique a l’oeuvre des. comportements des individus. Les comportements individuels dans les organisations sont generalement expliques. par le temperament individuel. Gender-Based? Or, selon Philippe Bernoux, cette explication n’a. qu’une valeur limitee.

Pour l’auteur, dans toute organisation, et plus particulierement. dans l’entreprise, les comportements ne se comprennent que dans un ajustement. permanent entre l’individu, son temperament, ses besoins, ses desirs et le groupe. De ce fait, Philippe Bernoux estime que les comportements doivent etre etudies en. double relation avec les individus et les normes produites par le groupe. Les comportements peuvent etre egalement influences par des determinants.

collectifs dus a l’environnement comme la culture nationale par l’intermediaire de. relais institutionnels et organisationnels,, et par des caracteristiques personnelles. L’auteur propose egalement de prendre en compte les motivations individuelles et de. groupes. India's Food? Les premieres sont celles qui poussent les individus a agir en fonction de. leurs besoins. Essay? Selon les secondes, l’action est fonction du role donne par la societe ou l’entreprise. Language Of Ancient Rome? De ce fait, parler de motivation revient a s’interroger autant sur. l’organisation que sur les individus qui la composent. Gender-Based? Toutes les influences.

enumerees par l’auteur n’ont donc d’impact que si l’individu est situe dans. l’organisation et mis en relation avec les autres. L’hypothese emise par Philippe Bernoux est donc que les normes de comportement. ne se prennent que dans la situation ou est l’individu et que, la, elles sont le resultat. de l’interaction entre acteurs.

Il y a donc rencontre entre l’individu et les groupes. sociaux, lesquels vont se donner des objectifs a travers l’organisation. Of God, Not The Of Man Essay? Entre eux va donc s’etablir une relation de contribution-retribution, formelle et informelle. Structures? L’individu. va donc determiner son comportement en fonction de ses interets par rapport a ce.

que l’entreprise peut lui offrir, mais egalement l’harmoniser avec celui du groupe. Rome? Par. la suite, le groupe va definir une strategie globale que l’auteur appellera une logique. d’acteur. Gender-Based Power? Cette logique d’acteur se traduit, dans une organisation, par des relations. de pouvoir quotidiennes, qui peuvent etre, a la fois, organisationnelles et culturelles. Ces relations participent egalement a la constitution de normes de comportement. Ces normes de comportement peuvent evoluer et changer sous l’influence de. pressions internes et externes.

Les pressions internes s’exercent lorsque les. contraintes auxquelles sont soumis les quatre facteurs determinants (les logiques. d’acteur, les normes de comportement, l’organisation et les rapports de pouvoir) ne. renforcent plus le systeme mais le font eclater. Obey The Laws Laws Of Man? L’environnement peut egalement. modifier ce systeme de normes (par exemple, l’introduction d’une nouvelle. technologie). Power Structures Essay? Les logiques d’acteur peuvent etre elles-memes influencees par le.

changement de l’environnement, du systeme socio-politique, par une nouvelle loi. Dans cet ouvrage, l’auteur etudiera plus precisement la maniere dont l’introduction. d’une nouvelle technologie, la modification de la culture d’un groupe social, la. pression economique, le changement socio-politique modifient le jeu des elements. reconnus dans l’entreprise.

L’auteur souligne trois grands types d’explication sociologique : ! Le determinisme individuel qui explique le comportement a partir de variable. caracterisant l’environnement de l’individu, voire de l’individu lui-meme. ! Le realisme totalitaire : le comportement est concu comme le produit des. structures sociales caracterisant les societes dans leur totalite. India's Food? Le.

comportement sera explique par les normes et les moyens que la societe lui. ! Le modele interactionniste souligne le fait que les comportements sociaux. sont le fait d’acteurs agissant intentionnellement en vu de fins choisis par eux. en appliquant des strategies pour les atteindre. Essay? On met l’accent sur le fait que. les comportements ne resultent pas de determinismes, mais d’une intention. strategique de l’acteur.

Pour Philippe Bernoux, l’approche interactionniste est superieure aux autres, car le. poids de l’environnement et des structures est suffisamment integre dans la logique. d’acteur, pour qu’il puisse s’attarder sur les objectifs, les strategies, les logiques. d’acteur afin d’expliquer les comportements sociaux. Chapitre II : Les premieres organisations de la societe industrielle. survenues dans les premieres societes industrielles. The Laws Of God, Not The Of Man? Selon Philippe Bernoux, toute. organisation concrete et chaque theorie de l’organisation s’inscrivent dans un. systeme de valeurs.

C’est pourquoi il en presente les plus significatifs : ! L’accumulation de capital. L’?uvre de Max Weber repose sur ses reflexions sur le developpement de la societe industrielle. Power Essay? Le systeme capitaliste repose sur l’entreprise industrielle dont le but est. de faire le maximum de profits grace a l’organisation rationnelle du travail et de la. production. Of God, Of Man? Le propre de l’entrepreneur capitaliste est qu’il desire accumuler sans. limites, sans aucune fin. Gender-Based Power? Cette reussite materielle s’impose au nom d’une vision.

ethique du monde. Beanfield War? Cette accumulation de richesses va de pair avec une morale. austere, puritaine, mefiante vis-a-vis du monde et de la jouissance qu’ils pourraient. procurer. Structures? On assiste a une conjonction entre l’etat d’esprit protestant et celui du.

capitalisme, celui-ci suppose que la plus grande part du profit ne soit pas. consommee mais epargnee afin de permettre le developpement des moyens de. ! La naissance des valeurs bourgeoises. Karl Marx s’est interesse a la question du conflit que l’accumulation des richesses. exacerbait entre les detenteurs des moyens de production et ceux qui, ne les. possedant pas, etaient exploites par les premiers. Beanfield War? La bourgeoisie est le produit d’un. long processus de developpement, de toute une serie de revolutions survenues dans. les modes de production et d’echange. Power Structures? Chaque etape de l’evolution parcourue par la. bourgeoisie etait accompagnee d’un progres politique correspondant, permettant.

ainsi la creation de la societe industrielle. ! La substitution de l’idee de contrat social a celle de theocratie. L’organisation du XVIIIe siecle est heritee du modele moyenageux. The Laws Not The Laws? Les deux. analogies pour decrire cette societe sont celle du corps humain et celle du contrat. social. Power Structures? Dans les deux cas, chacun occupe une fonction particuliere et personne ne. doit y deroger. Language Of Ancient? Cet ordre predestine a ete voulu par Dieu, il ne fait donc pas le.

modifier. Gender-Based Power Structures? On est dans une societe rigide et moralisee. ! Individualisme et hedonisme Auparavant, l’homme n’avait conscience de lui-meme que comme membre d’une. race, d’un peuple, d’un parti, d’une famille ou d’une corporation. Rome? Par la suppression. de la loi Le Chapelier, la societe retrouve un equilibre naturel par le libre jeu du. marche ou les meilleurs gagnent et ou les faibles perissent.

L’interet individuel. remplace la providence divine. Selon Jeremy Bentham, toutes les actions humaines sont interessees et. fondamentalement motivees par le desir du plaisir et l’evitement de la douleur. Gender-Based Power? Le. travail apparait donc comme une necessite penible et deplaisante que l’homme. chercher a fuir. Language Rome? La crainte de la famine est l’incitation au travail la plus repandue ; le. reste, en particulier, l’interet au travail est tout a fait secondaire. ! Le scientisme rationalisateur.

Les hommes ont place une confiance illimitee dans l’application de la science au. developpement des societes humaines. Structures Essay? Neanmoins, personne ne s’est inquiete des. consequences de l’action de ces machines omnipresentes sur la personne humaine. Le machinisme industriel, etant une des plus amples transformations de la civilisation. par la science, ne pouvait etre suspecte dans ses consequences par une generation. si profondement marquee par Darwin et Spencer. Tiger Chennai? Le second aspect du scientisme. du XIXe siecle reside dans l’idee que la science triomphe par la rationalisation.

Des debuts du machinisme industriel a l’ere de l‘automation et des industries de. process, le travail dans l’entreprise industrielle a subi une certaine evolution, en trois. ! La premiere phase commence aux debuts de l’ere industrielle que l’on appelle. la phase de la machine-outil. Power? C’est la modification de cet outil qui dirige les. etapes de la production. Calls? Ces machines universelles sont capables d’effectuer.

differentes fonctions. Power Structures? L’ouvrier travaillant sur ces machines a acquis un savoir- faire par experience representant un tres grand capital, qu’il transmet a son. equipe, dressant ainsi une hierarchie basee sur l’experience. Nixon? Ce savoir lui. confere donc un pouvoir technique qui lui permet de s’imposer par rapport a la. ! La deuxieme phase est celle de production en grande serie qui passe par une. decomposition du travail. Gender-Based Structures Essay? Les differentes operations que faisait. successivement l’unique machine universelle de la phase A sont. decomposees et attribuees a differentes machines, specialisees donc dans.

une seule operation. Airways? Dans cette phase, l’ouvrier n’a plus besoin d’experience. Vous avez desormais acces a des centaines de milliers de livres et documents numeriques ! Telechargez notre application pour lire meme sans reseau internet :

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evidence essay 100% Original Essays, Dissertations, Assignments at a Fair Price. +44 203 633 4229. Were it not for the House of Lords decision in R v A the provisions on sexual history evidence in Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, YCJEA 1999 would have failed to strike a satisfactory balance between the interests of defendants and complainants. The objective of this essay is to war dissect the statement as to Power Structures whether the House of Lords decision in R v A on sexual history evidence in Youth Justice Criminal Evidence Act, (YJCEA), 1999 in tiger chennai, reality strikes a balance between defendants and plaintiffs and thereafter make a critical evaluation as to whether the rules on sexual history evidence are satisfactory.

The starting point for discussion in this essay has to be R v A (No2) [2001] UKHL 25[1] for the reason it would otherwise be not possible to assess the impact of provisions of S.41 of Gender-Based Power Structures, YJCEA read with Human Rights Act, 1998 (HRA). The facts of the case are that on 14 June, 2000, the defendant was alleged to have been raped the complainant and as a result of which in December, 2000, he was indicted to stand trial in the Crown Prosecution Court on tiger, the charge that he had committed an offence of rape. The defendant’s defence took a position that the sexual intercourse took place with the consent of the Gender-Based complainant and further argued that the language rome complainant had initiated consensual sexual intercourse which had commenced on 14 January, 2000; such a relationship was part of a continuing sexual relationship which in particular was going on in his flat between 26 May 2000 and 14 June, 2000 with the last instance of Gender-Based Power, such sexual activity taking place a week before 14 June, 2000 when the rape was said to have been committed. The issue arose when the india's food Counsel for the defendant sought leave for cross-examining the Power Structures complainant about the airways alleged previous sexual relationship between them in Gender-Based, order cull out evidence about that. In the matter of india's food, cross examining, the trial judge ruled that even though the complainant could be asked any questions of any sexual activity within a last few hours of the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay incident happening, she could not be questioned of any previous relationship. Nonetheless, the trial judge also opined that his ruling may breach the provisions laid down under Article 6, viz, the right to fair trial under the chennai European Convention of Structures, Human Rights as implemented in the Human Rights, Act, 1998. As a result, the defence was granted permission to appeal to the Court of Appeal, on which Rose LJ opined that the evidence of sexual activity with the defendant was permissible under Section 41 (3) ( a), YJCEA, 1999 as it went to the defendant’s belief of consent, but further granted the appeal to the House of Lords by posing the question “May a sexual relationship between a defendant and complainant be relevant to the issue of consent so as to render its exclusion under section 41 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act, 1999 a contravention of the defendant’s right to fair trial?” The question before law lords related to the issue of the rights of tiger airways chennai, defendants for Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, fair trial. On this, they had pronounced their verdict by upholding the rights of defendant and holding against the legislation by giving judicial discretion its place by further stating that when it comes to sexual history evidence, it should be left to the judicial discretion. In other words, it is for the trial judges to draw the tiger airways line when it comes to sexual history evidence. It can be interpreted that the Gender-Based Structures Essay House of Lords made a distinction between stranger rape (real rape) and other rapes where the defendant was previously known to the complainant.

The legislation may serve a purpose when it comes to real rape, the one that could take place with third parties, but does not meet with the chennai rights of the defendants in relation to fair trial for the reason that S.41 (3) (c) of YJCEA, 1999 should be interpreted along with S.3 of the HRA, 1998 and on Structures Essay, this ground they had dismissed the appeal of the Crown Court. In the process, they had also clearly answered the the milagro beanfield war question that evidence in Essay, regard to the complainant’s sexual history would be admissible, where in, when in particular it was relevant of the issue of airways, consent and to exclude it would render the Power Structures trial to become unfair. They decreed that this deemed to be a matter for language of ancient, the trial judges to determine. It can be stated from the foregoing discussion that the House of Lords decision in R v A on sexual history evidence in Youth Justice Criminal Evidence Act, (YJCEA), 1999 in reality strikes balance between defendants and plaintiffs. 2.2. A critical evaluation on the rules of sexual history evidence. This section of the paper discusses as to how the sexual history evidence has been treated in the common law, thereafter go on to investigate how the stand of the law on the inclusion of this evidence changed subsequent to the submission of Heilbron Report in the year 1975 which catalysed in the year 1976 into Gender-Based Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act.

In the process, it would evaluate the theories and arguments related to these developments, especially the Obey creation of Gender-Based Structures Essay, Section 2 that applies to the use of sexual history evidence. Under the common law, the use of a woman’s sexual history in rape trials seems to have crystallised in the 19 th century.[2] According to Temkin such evidence could be brought into two distinct categories, wherein the first one relates to an argument that the complainant cannot be considered as a trustworthy witness and the second one surrounded the india's food issue as to whether she had consented to sexual intercourse with the Gender-Based Structures Essay defendant on the occasion in question. According to Kibble[3], the india's food premises that evidence of prior sexual relations with the defendant would be admissible seem to be rarely challenged. From the decisions arrived in regard to R v Riley[4] and R v Crockcroft[5], it can be concluded that wherever there is evidence to contradict the denial of complainant of previous sexual intercourse with the defendant, it is Gender-Based Power admissible. However, when it came to evidence of sexual history and tiger cross examination wherein the offence was supposed to have been committed by Power, a third party, the law stood on a different footing.[6] Evidence relating to richard nixon the sexual relationship in the past was considered relevant to determine the credibility of the woman in question which was put by Temkin[7] as something to do with the lack of truthfulness or reliability as a witness. Essay? Even though the cross examination about previous relationship is allowed to be carried out by Not the Laws of Man Essay, defence, the Power Structures Essay answers given by the complainant would have to be treated as final and further evidence cannot be pulled out to contradict her. The R v Morgan[8] case had set the background for rape law even though it was not focused on the use of richard nixon quaker, sexual history evidence.

The decision on Power, the case was labelled as an tiger event that sparked a second feminist activism pertaining to the rape law[9]. Such an Gender-Based Essay upsurgement arose out of the Obey the Laws Not the Laws of Man decision of the House of Lords which declared to the effect that a man could not found guilty of rape if he had an Gender-Based Essay honest belief, however unreasonable it may be, that she was consenting. The decision caused such a widespread concern that it resulted in the milagro beanfield, the appointment of Heilbron Committee with a mandate to give consideration to the law of rape and advice the Home Secretary of the changes in the law considered to be desirable. The report was critical of the manner in which the complainant’s sexual history was put in use to prejudice the jury to twist the case against her.[10] The committee recommended when it comes to Gender-Based Power Structures history of sexual evidence, a distinct difference should be made between the defendant’s previous known and third party (and hence unknown to the complainant). Nonetheless, it also opined that evidence that revolves around only to create a negative opinion of the complainant should not be allowed for the reason her general character cannot be considered as an indicator to determine as to whether she had consented on any given occasion. It felt that there is Not the Essay a lack of Power Structures Essay, statutory definition of beanfield war, rape law which has led to its evolvement through case laws only.

The committee came to Structures the conclusion that the evidence available to the defendant should be allowed and the restrictions in this regard should be enforced by the judge. This highlights the war limitation of the report in so far that it seemed to relying solely on the discretion of the Gender-Based Power Structures judge in making a decision as to what should and should not be allowed in. Section 2 did carry some of the similar formula as advocated by the Heilbron Committee which is evident from the fact that it gave the india's food judges the ultimate power when it came to deciding which evidence would be allowed and which would be excluded. This brought it to the status of a broad ‘discretionary legislation’. A look at the empirical evidence in regard to the manner Section 2 was interpreted by judiciary and from the available opinions of the scholars show that it was unsatisfactory for the reason it used the word ‘reasonably’ when the Gender-Based Structures Essay need was for more decisive statement and that operative provisions of airways, it was making way to irrelevant questions which were aimed at discrediting the Gender-Based Power complainant.[11] The outcomes in the cases of R v Lawrence[12] and R v Mills[13] attest to this. Easton [14] points to the milagro beanfield the fact that whenever evidence was refused, the route of appeals was followed to gain a successful entry for allowing it.

It also proved the survival of myths and Power Structures Essay stereotypes of the old laws. [15] This led to the milagro war the formation of an impression that victims of Gender-Based Power Structures, rape law who were already victimised were further victimised by language of ancient, the criminal judicial system. The dissatisfaction arising out of Section 2 led to the Home Office report of Gender-Based Power, 199 9and paved the way for the implementation of S.41 of YJCEA, 1999. When it comes to of ancient as to why a new legislation in this area became imperative, there are two extreme opinions among the scholars. For instance, according to Birch[16], it arose arising out of the failure of the courts to give proper effect to Section 2, where as Temkin[17] views this as haring back to the old days when Section 2 had prevailed which is seen as a wishful thinking. The need for the law came on the realisation that the rules of the admissibility of the evidence should be in consonance with the definition of Structures Essay, rape contained in the Sexual Offences Act, 1956, which has sprung from the fact that there cannot be two inconsistent statues prevalent at any point of beanfield war, time. The focus of Section 41 was on providing detailed legislative guidelines to the judiciary in order to provide an idea to the judges when they may use their discretion which incidentally is the approach followed in other countries as for Gender-Based, example, Australia, Canada and beanfield war Scotland.

In other words, its aim was not to remove the discretionary powers vested with the judiciary. The moot question here is whether YJCEA has achieved its objective in relation to Gender-Based what it wanted to beanfield do with regard to evidence of Power Structures, sexual history. Of Ancient? The answer appears to be no for the reason the original provisions were diluted considerably on Structures Essay, the ground that they were too restrictive. An evidence of this can be done in the changes made to clause 41 (3) (b) (i) which if it had been allowed in its original format would have ONLY allowed behavioural evidence within 24 hours of the Obey the Laws Laws of Man alleged incident. This was replaced with “at or about the same time”. A similarity element was also added in the amended Bill on a presumption that it would be unreasonable to preclude evidence which watered down the view of the government that a complainant’s sexual history in not relevant for the consideration of the Structures Essay treatment of the tiger issue of Gender-Based Power Structures, consent on the occasion in calls eric, point.[18] From the Gender-Based Structures above it becomes clear that the rome aim of the Power Structures Essay legislation under reference could not be achieved in a satisfactory manner to Obey of God, Not the Laws of Man a degree in reality which the government might have wanted to realise its intentions. This legal essay considered two issues as provided in the introduction and sought to provide answers to both of them. It emerges from the discussions that the issue of rape is Power more of a social issue for which legal prescriptions in toto is difficult to be found. Adler, Zsuzsanna, Rape on Trial (Routledge Kegan Paul Ltd, New York 1987.

Birch, Di, ‘Rethinking Sexual History: Proposals for fairer Trials’ (2002) Crim LR 531. Easton, Susan, ‘The Use of the milagro beanfield war, Sexual History Evidence in Rape Trials’ in Gender-Based, Childs, Mary Ellison, Louise, ‘Feminist Perspectives on Evidence’ (Cavendish Publishing, London 2000) at p. Language Of Ancient? 169. Kelly, Temkin and Griffiths, ‘Section 41: an evaluation of new legislation limiting sexual history evidence in rape trials.’ Home Office Report 2006 at p 12. Kibble, Neil, “The Relevance and Admissibility of Prior Sexual History with the Structures Essay Defendant in Sexual Offences Cases” (2001) 32 L. Cambrian Rev 27 at tiger airways, p. 32. Lees, Sue, Carnal Knowledge Rape on Trial (2nd Edn The Women’s Press, London 2002)

McGlynn, Clare, Feminist Activism and Rape Law Reform in England and Wales: A Sisyphean Struggle? In McGlynn Munro, ‘Rethinking Rape Law’ (Routledge – Cavendish, 2010 Temkin, Jennifer, Rape and the Legal Process (2nd Edn Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002) Temkin, Jennifer ‘Regulating Sexual History Evidence – The Limits of Discretionary Legislation’ (1984) 33 I.C.L.Q p. 942. Temkin, Jennifer, ‘Sexual History Evidence – Beware the Backlash’ (2003) Crim LR 217 at Power, p 218. [1] [2001] R v A UKHL 25. [2] Temkin, Jennifer ‘Regulating Sexual History Evidence – The Limits of Discretionary Legislation’ (1984) 33 I.C.L.Q p. 942.

[3] Kibble, Neil, “The Relevance and Admissibility of Prior Sexual History with the Defendant in Sexual Offences Cases” (2001) 32 L. Cambrian Rev 27 at p. 32. [5] (1870) 11 Cox C.C. 410. [6] Report of the Advisory Group on the Law of india's food, Rape (the Heilbron Committee) Cmnd 6352 (1975) at para 101. [9] McGlynn, Clare, Feminist Activism and Rape Law Reform in England and Wales: A Sisyphean Struggle? in Gender-Based Power Structures, McGlynn Munro, ‘Rethinking Rape Law’ (Routledge – Cavendish, 2010).

[10] Easton, Susan, ‘The Use of Sexual History Evidence in Rape Trials’ in Childs, Mary Ellison, Louise, ‘Feminist Perspectives on tiger airways chennai, Evidence’ (Cavendish Publishing, London 2000) at p. 169. [11] Kelly, Temkin and Griffiths, ‘Section 41: an evaluation of new legislation limiting sexual history evidence in rape trials.’ Home Office Report 2006 at p 12. [12] (1977) Crim. L. R. 492. [13] (1978) 68 Cr App R 327 (CA) [15] Temkin, Jennifer, Rape and the Legal Process (2nd Edn Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002); Lees, Sue, Carnal Knowledge Rape on Trial (2nd Edn The Women’s Press, London 2002) and Adler, Zsuzsanna, Rape on Trial (Routledge Kegan Paul Ltd, New York 1987. [16] Birch, Di, ‘Rethinking Sexual History: Proposals for fairer Trials’ (2002) Crim LR 531. [17] Temkin, Jennifer, ‘Sexual History Evidence – Beware the Backlash’ (2003) Crim LR 217 at p 218. [18] The Home Office Minister Lord Williams of Mostyn, HL Deb 15 December 1998 cc238-9. Get an Instant Price. No Signup Required.

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