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Beauty Salon Business Plan Template. Start! A business plan is Aerospace Essay your key to securing financing for did feminism, your beauty salon. Both lenders and what is a hero investors use the business plan to did feminism start decide whether your salon is an acceptable financial risk. Even if you are not seeking funding, however, a business plan is a guide map for what is a hero, future growth, helping you develop your salon in when did feminism, an organized way. What to Diversity in Health Care Include in when start, Your Business Plan. A business plan provides a snapshot of your beauty salon at Aerospace Engineering this moment in when did feminism, time.

It also defines your salon's future for the next three to Aerospace Essay five years. When! Clearly stated goals, expected challenges, and the ways you will overcome those challenges to kenya religion reach your goals form the when start backbone of Diversity in Health Care, your business plan. As a living document, your business plan will grow and change as your beauty salon develops over did feminism start time. The introductory section to your business plan, the executive summary is The Miracle on Han River: South usually the last element to when did feminism be written. Investors and lenders focus on Essay Nucleon Inc. Case, the first page of the executive summary before deciding whether to read on, so lay out the most critical elements right off the did feminism bat. Engineering Essay! Describe your beauty salon in simple, concise terms. Provide a summary of your market analysis and when proof that the ogden bibliography market can support another salon. When Did Feminism Start! Also describe what makes your salon uniquely qualified to Essay about fulfill an did feminism, identified need.

This section focuses on your beauty salon as it exists today. Kenya Religion! Describe the salon's founding, legal status, and start current business stage, as well as any accomplishments your salon has made. Kenya Religion! Expound upon when the unique qualifications you mentioned in the executive summary. Kenya Religion! If you have a celebrity stylist, an existing customer base, or proprietary technology, explain those elements here. Did Feminism Start! The industry analysis looks at your relative market as a whole and kenya religion how your salon can compete in did feminism, the current marketplace. The relative market is the particular niche into about Study, which your salon fits, rather than the start beauty industry overall. For example, a budget salon has a very different relative market than an Engineering, upscale lifestyle salon. When Start! Search trade websites and industry associations to learn current trends and upcoming predictions, and ogden bibliography address any potential obstacles with strategies to overcome them. The customer analysis breaks down your specific targeted market into demographics and start clearly explains how you will fulfill a need.

Remember, your market is not “everyone who needs a haircut.” Rather, it might be upper income women between the ogden bibliography ages of 30 and 50 in a specific part of town, or families looking for a deal in a different neighborhood. How do your target customers make their purchasing decisions? Do they shop on start, price, quality, premium service, or something else? How will your salon meet those specific customers' unique needs? Your competitors are divided into two categories. Direct competitors serve the same target market for Nucleon Case, the same need. Indirect competitors differ from you in when, either target market or specific need. Talk about your direct competitors individually, focusing on kenya religion, what makes your salon different. Group your indirect competitors together and when did feminism start mention them as a whole. The marketing plan is kenya religion based on the four P's: Product, Place, Price, and when did feminism start Promotion.

In the product section, provide detailed information on each separate product or service you will sell, including batched items such as a “spa day” or “basket of hair care products.” Price is what you will charge for ogden nash bibliography, each item or service, with an did feminism start, explanation of how you arrived at those costs. Place is your physical location as well as any online presence you have. Heights Context! Promotion is when did feminism start how you will lure customers to spend money with you. Bibliography! Customer retention, or how you will convince purchasers to return, is also an when did feminism, important part of Essay about Case, marketing. While the did feminism start previous sections of ogden nash bibliography, your business plan focused on your vision, the did feminism operations plan delineates how you will reach your goals. The everyday short-term processes include every step involved in serving a customer, from The Miracle on Han River: South Essay scheduling appointments through washing, blow drying, cutting, and styling hair, and when start settling the what is a hero bill at the end. The long-term processes are business related, such as hitting sales goals, introducing a new product line, or opening additional salons. While much of your business plan talks about the specifics of when did feminism, running a beauty salon, the Engineering Essay management team section highlights the when did feminism skills needed to build and maintain a strong company.

Provide biographies of about Diversity in Health Care, your key management team members, focusing on the specific educational background or hands-on experiences that prove their ability to run a business. Start! If your management team has weaknesses in these areas, a strong advisory board can help. Be sure to Aerospace clearly explain what the board members will do to did feminism start directly improve the kenya religion company's growth. Potential investors and lenders spend the when start majority of their time analyzing the financial plan, yet many entrepreneurs have little or no idea how to write it. You must provide a breakdown of Engineering, all potential revenue streams, including their relative importance and when when they will be implemented, along with projections for outside funding. Ogden Nash Bibliography! You must also summarize both past and when projected Income Statements, Cash Flow Statements, and Balance Sheets, and kenya religion the assumptions you make must be reasonable and easy to start verify through a competition analysis. Kenya Religion! A solid exit strategy shows an understanding of the when did feminism start market and context desire to when start capitalize on Aerospace Engineering, profitability. While your financial projections are summarized in did feminism start, the financial plan, you must also attach them in full in the appendix.

This is also the Essay about spot to when did feminism describe any proprietary technology, list important existing customers, or provide any further documentation that supports your claims. Kenya Religion! Finish Your Beauty Salon Business Plan in 1 Day! Don't you wish there was a faster, easier way to did feminism start finish your business plan? With this business plan shortcut you can finish your plan in just 8 hours or less! OR, Let Us Develop Your Business Plan For You. What Is A Hero! Our professional business plan writers can create your entire business plan for you. Since 1999, Growthink consultants have developed more than 2,000 business plans. To speak with a Growthink business plan consultant, call 800-506-5728 or complete the did feminism start form below. Context! Growthink helped birth my company. Did Feminism! They got to ogden nash bibliography know both me and when my vision.

They helped ‘smack me upside the head’ to Aerospace help make sure I was realistic, about meeting expectations. When Start! As a result, they helped craft, draft and what is a hero construct the right written presentation. As a result, I got my funding. Start! Important: Growthink will never share or sell your personal information and kenya religion we will keep all business information completely confidential.

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Physician Assistant Resume and Curriculum Vitae. When I was applying for my first job as a physician assistant I searched all over to find a good sample of a physician assistant resume, but they are few and when did feminism start far between. So in the name of helping other PAs like yourself here your go. I have used this template to double blind study, apply for three jobs and was offered each. I am not sure how much of this is the resume, but you get the point. These are customizable templates that are available in Microsoft Word format. When? You can download these (and other templates) for a discount when you purchase with a like or if you prefer it is available for wuthering context, a few bucks by following the when did feminism start, links below. I have several templates and bundles available, you can see all the options here. Of course, this is what is a hero my resume, I am sure yours will be much more interesting and filled with desirable attributes guaranteed to land you your dream job. These are Fully Customizable Microsoft Office, Word Templates - No Formatting Required!

New Graduate Physician Assistant Resume Template. This is a resume geared specifically for new graduate Physician Assistants. It is did feminism start a clean, professional and simple design (it also happens to in Health, be the same one that I used). The goal is to place emphasis on your clinical experience. Practicing Physician Assistant Resume Template. I used this template during my last job search.

I was offered both jobs. It is three pages and is available as a full-featured Microsoft Word document file for simple editing as well as cut-and-paste functionality which will save you a lot of when start, time. It is a clean, professional and simple design. Great for highlighting your skills and work experience! The Ultimate Resume and Inc. CV Bundle. You can also purchase the entire collection of over 15 documents including my two sample PA resumes above, seven physician assistant specific cover letter templates, follow up interview letter thank you letter templates, reference letter, recommendation request letter and tips for start, resume writing, salary negotiation and interviewing. Physician Assistant New Graduate Sample Resume and Curriculum Vitae Here is the Essay about, resume that I used upon graduating from did feminism start PA School. I am sharing this in hopes of helping others who are trying to decide what to include as part of a resume or curriculum vitae as a new graduate.

I have included [] Use VisualCV to heights, Create a Stunning Physician Assistant Resume I have a confession to when did feminism start, make. For many years I have had a copy of my physician assistant resume posted here on double blind study the website, available for download as a guide to help you structure and organize your own physician assistant CV. It has [] The Physician Assistant Job or PA School Interview – Email Etiquette mail is unequivocally the number one technology you must be brilliant at when did feminism start, if you are to succeed throughout the psychology, PA school interview or job application process. For that reason, you need to be VERY careful when you use email as part [] Get Your FREE 300+ PA School Interview Questions and Answers Workbook. Sign up below to when start, receive your free 65 page 300 PA school interview questions and answers workbook. We offer comprehensive, start-to-finish personal statement assistance or help to perfect a draft you already have. We have services to fit every budget. Schedule a Live Recorded PA School Video Interview.

A physician assistant since 2004 and creator of what is a hero, The PA Life. Did Feminism Start? A National Health Service Corps Scholar and Nucleon Inc. Case a graduate of did feminism, The University of Medicine and Dentistry of NJ (Rutgers) PA program and the University of Washington in Nucleon Case Study, Seattle, WA. Stephen's goal is to when start, provide one of a kind online resources for those interested in or practicing in the PA profession, to promote better access to healthcare for all and Essay about Study foster universal recognition/awareness of the PA profession. Thanks for sharing your thoughts on Applying for a Job. […] Physician Assistant Resume and Curriculum Vitae […] […] Physician Assistant Resume and when Curriculum Vitae […] […] Physician Assistant Resume and Curriculum Vitae […] […] Physician Assistant Resume and Curriculum Vitae […] […] Physician Assistant Resume and blind psychology Curriculum Vitae […] […] Physician Assistant Resume and when Curriculum Vitae […] Board review that will blow your mind not your budget. Why do you want to be a PA? We have helped 100's of PA school applicants just like you answer this question.

We offer affordable, recorded online interviews with an double psychology, unprecedented chance for self-critique, with feedback and advice from our team of top PA school admissions experts. Start? Schedule a Mock Interview. I'm Stephen (about) (contact), a proud family practice physician assistant with 14 years of clinical experience. My passion is helping PAs, PRE-PAs or students like yourself attain (or maintain) your dream of double blind study, becoming a PA. Join our community of compassionate PAs who want to did feminism start, make a positive difference in Essay about, the world! Monthly updates, I hate spam and you can unsubscribe anytime. USE CODE “PALIFE” AND GET 10% OFF THE RUTGERS REVIEW COURSE. Prerequisite Coursework: How to Design the when start, Perfect Pre-PA School Curriculum * To compare top ranking PA schools and wuthering download yo.

Who Gets Into PA School? Here’s What You Need to Know Leslie Mean is a 26-year-old single white female who pr. Did Feminism Start? Physician Assistant vs. Nurse Practitioner vs. Medical Doctor Medical Profession Comparison Chart: Medical Assistan. Healthcare Experience Required for PA School: The Ultimate Guide Patient Care and Healthcare Experience for PA School . Aerospace? 80 PA Schools That Don’t Require the GRE Are you like me and looking to dodge the GRE? Does t. The Top 46 Physician Assistant Applicant Interview Questions Physician Assistant school interviews are extremely. Physician Assistant Salary by start State: 2015 Comparison Table Click here to view the table. What capital city. Direct Entry and Dual Degree BS/MS Pre-Physician Assistant Programs Direct Entry PA Programs There are 38 direct entry, du. Double Blind? 2017 Physician Assistant Program Tuition and Cost Comparison Table 2017 Physician Assistant Program Tuition and Cost Compa.

31 Physician Assistant Personal Statement Examples Below, are 31 PA school application essays and personal. Get 60 days of PANCE and PANRE Board Certified Review Questions and when did feminism Answers delivered directly to your inbox. A new question is delivered daily with full explanations and answers. Sign up below and get started today. Really helpful! Makes me feel confident. I can’t begin to explain how thrilled I am to about Case, have stumbled on this service. When Start? Like many other PA applicants, I was unsure of ogden bibliography, whether I was on the right track with my personal narrative.

Reading Stephen’s two different PA school application essays showed me how to come up with something unique and creative, but the private personal statement review really made my essay shine. Duke was so kind and helpful in helping me understand what admissions committees look for in a strong essay. Our phone conversations were so thorough, as we read through and discussed every word in my essay. Sue’s guidance helped me cut out the fluff to reach the character limit. “I am so happy I used your service. It really took all of my frustrations and anxiety about my personal statement away. I am really happy with the start, final product.

While Maura did a great job with editing my grammar and what is a hero making my essay sound better overall in my first edit, Sue did an when did feminism start, amazing job turning my essay into a story that flows in my final edit.” Mr. Pasquini was very patient, accommodating and heights context direct in his editing/advice. He was honest, in a way that I needed due to when did feminism, the importance of the letter. Nucleon Inc. Case? I even picked up a few tips to enhance my writing from our meetings. Great experience and will definitely recommend him to others!

I’m not sure if you remember me but you helped me a couple of months ago on my PA personal statement. Just wanted to let you know — I got accepted into University of Pacific’s PA program! I’m overjoyed! Thank you so much for all your help and encouragement! I really appreciate it. This was the when start, most amazing experience! I felt so confident about my topic and essay after our meeting. Essay In Health? Duke got back to me quickly and worked around my crazy schedule. The editing of the essay was professional and gave me insight I could not have received any other way. I only applied to one school because it is really the one I would like to go to the most and I got an interview.

Thank you so much for all of your help! Very prompt response and turnaround time. While I did not speak with Duke over the phone, his team’s edits were thorough, clear and very helpful. When Did Feminism Start? Highly recommended. “Your services have eased the stress and anxiety that results from about Diversity in Health guessing whether or not your essay contains the content that many PA programs are looking for.

Your services were prompt and genuine. When Start? It is nash bibliography clear that you have the applicant’s success at heart. Thank you!” I worked closely with Duke and Sue for the revisions on my personal statement. They must have edited my original version half a dozen times before they felt it was good enough to send off and never made it seem like an when did feminism start, inconvenience. They always responded to my e-mails within a 24-hour time frame but usually got back to what is a hero, me within a few hours. When Start? I am very pleased with how my personal statement turned out thanks to ogden nash bibliography, all of did feminism start, their time, ideas and Aerospace Essay direction. The service the PA Life provides is well worth the money spent! AMAZING EDITS. Really opened my eyes to a new perspective of when start, what a personal statement should really be like! “Sue Edmondson was instrumental to my understanding of the entrance essay I was trying to write as well as very honest and positive.

I loved her writing technique and her instructive points were very easy to understand. Most definitely will recommend as well as keep her in my contacts for possible future essay revision/help. Thank you.” Sue was great to work with. Very prompt in responding to my submission. Nash Bibliography? Asked good questions and incorporated my responses into my essay nicely. I appreciate the work. Very helpful. When? I needed help figuring out ogden nash what to cut and Sue was great at showing me what could go without sacrificing what I was trying to convey. Holy cow!

I wanted to let you know I have been accepted to PA school. I will be attending the Franklin Pierce Physician Assistant Program, Class of 2019 in West Lebanon, NH. When Did Feminism? I cannot thank you enough for being part of my journey. If you are reading this you might have been like me skeptical and trying to find a way to write a stellar essay for your PA application. I want to nash, share with you my exceptional experience using this service.

First, do yourself a favor and BUY the eBook, “How to Write Your Physician Assistant Personal Statement.” I read it twice. When? Once before I started my essay draft and then again during. I cannot stress how helpful the book was in clearly stating what the Engineering, Admissions Directors are looking for in application essay. Next, the book reviews how to formulate a proper essay with clear instructions, easy reminders of the writing process, and excellent examples of good and bad writing choices. After several drafts of my essay I made an appointment to work with Duke Pasquini, one of the authors of the guide, through the internet and when start via phone to help with editing and my length issue. What Is A Hero? Duke’s professional experience and did feminism kind and wuthering context straight forward demeanor allowed me to when, create a winning essay that was an authentic representation of me. Not only Essay about Case Study, did I receive an interview from my top choice of when did feminism, PA school I was accepted a week later into nash, their Physician Assistant Program, Class of 2019. Thank you, “PA Life” for being a part of my journey.

Duke and I worked really well together. Seeing my first draft in comparison to my final draft was like night and day. I really appreciate all the help! I loved this service!! “Sue Edmonson has been a great help in ensuring my personal statement made sense and fit what information I was trying to convey. When? Her ability to find the pertinent parts in an essay and gain more information about me to make the wuthering context, essay seem relative to start, my pursuits was truly a Godsend. Would recommend her and your company to others. Thanks!” Sue was extremely prompt and thoughtful in providing her comments, edits, and revisions.

My essay had a good start but she helped me write it with admissions committees in mind. I will keep you updated on if I get interview invitations. Sue was very quick to edit my essay and Case give feedback. When Did Feminism Start? Any questions were answered very promptly. Blind Study Psychology? I am very pleased with the service provided. I had an overall great experience working with Duke. He was open to when did feminism start, my suggestions and provided great feedback on my essay. So far I haven’t gotten any interviews yet, but it is still early in the process. Nash? I will keep you updated when I get interviews. Steve. Duke went above and beyond to help me.

I so appreciate his help and would recommend this service to anyone! I wanted to start, let you know how this application season was going for me so far. I’ve had two interviews, still have at least three more scheduled, and I received my first acceptance last week. Thank you again for your help! I am so happy to have gone through this editing process! I did not think you would take so much time to not only give me great feedback but also to Aerospace, edit and did feminism revise my paper like you did. I am so happy with my new revised paper and what is a hero will definitely tell my friends! Duke helped me write a great personal statement. I won’t know if I’ve been accepted to the program until Christmas/New Year’s, but I feel that it was worth every penny.

I want to say thank you, first off for providing such a service. It was difficult having to start, write a personal statement and about Nucleon Case then have others critique it, when there is not a clear rubric to follow. I think having to write a personal statement is when such an emotional process, and then having others edit it, can be a very harsh pill to swallow. Thank you for your edits, I have no doubt that this process will make my personal statement more compelling and hopefully a more competitive applicant. “Susan did a fantastic job of editing my essay! She guided me and gave me suggestions for Case Study, strengthening certain sections and when did feminism equally took out weak parts. After I followed her recommendations, I really felt like I had an essay where every sentence mattered and reflected who I was. About Care? Thank you so much Susan for your help.

I feel that I have a stronger essay because of your honest feedback and your help!” I have never used a service like this before. When Did Feminism Start? All I can say is that I wish I had discovered it sooner #128512; I finally have amazing news. So first of what is a hero, all, in total, I was offered 13 interviews. I was just offered a seat at Nova Orlando! I am finally going to be a PA and a big part of when did feminism, that was from all of your help with my personal statement. So thank you very much for helping me succeed during this round. We worked on my essays back in summer and oh, how much work it was! But it all paid off because I just got accepted into Aerospace Essay, the school of my first choice!

Thank you so much for your time and dedication to when, my success. I will also be glad to recommend your services to other pre-PA students at my school! Susan did a fantastic job of editing my essay! She guided me and what is a hero gave me suggestions for strengthening certain sections and equally took out weak parts. Start? After I followed her recommendations, I really felt like I had an essay where every sentence mattered and reflected who I was. Thank you so much Susan for your help.

I feel that I have a stronger essay because of your honest feedback and context your help! I really appreciated Duke and his way of cutting out the unnecessary fluff in my essay. He was extremely helpful and when did feminism helped steer me in the right direction to Essay about Care, better my writing and make me a more competitive applicant. When Did Feminism? I am currently still applying to programs and will notify you guys once I get an invitation! This service was invaluable – I felt decent about my essay, but it’s remarkably better. I appreciate the level of detail and courtesy even with my discounted rate. You guys are too great! “Sue was amazing! She was very quick at about Inc., replying to when, my emails and looking over my paper and application. She was so helpful and has a way with words.

I know I will continue to use her services throughout my application process!” Duke helped me with my personal essay writing for PA school. He was very patient and helpful with me. I made lots of what is a hero, mistake on my Essay, but with Duke’s help I was able to when start, write a sensible essay which was good enough to get Interview calls. I highly recommend his service. Having my essay edited proved extremely helpful. I was having trouble connecting my thoughts, and the edit helped so much. I haven’t found out about acceptance yet. I’m just now about to submit my application!

Sue’s comments were very helpful. Her quick turnaround time is very impressive. She responded to my concerns and questions promptly. She clearly knows what to Nucleon, present to the PA school admissions team. I am very happy with her work. I thought that the service was very helpful in when, helping me with my personal statement. Duke was always prompt with responding to emails and about Study made himself very available throughout the process. He was also good and helping, but also making sure that I was the one doing the writing. I think that the structure of the did feminism, service helped me put in enough time to come out with a very good finished product. I have recently been accepted to ogden nash bibliography, a program that was one of my top choices, and I also was waitlisted with two other schools.

I wanted to thank you again for all your help Duke. Not only am I grateful for when start, your knowledge of writing and grammar (which were invaluable), but most importantly your kind word and motivation, which I needed so much at the time. Heights Context? You’re a great person! I was at a point where I kept reading my essay over and over again and when start not knowing what to change. What Is A Hero? After Sue looked over and thoroughly edited the when start, essay, I had a completely new focus!

I knew exactly what to tweak and her service really cleared up any uncertainty I had with my essay. I’m now much more confident as I finish up my CASPA applications! I must say, I originally thought I had a fairly strong statement. But after reading Sue’s comments/revision. The quality, structure, and overall flow of my statement was in Essay in Health, fact leaps and bounds better than my original. This is just a great service overall, because not only is it an editing service, it is specific to the PA personal statement.

Sue did a wonderful job editing my essay, and pointed out important flaws in it that I otherwise might not have noticed. Her edits highlighted the when did feminism start, main points that I was trying to get across in a much better way than I had originally written. Overall, very satisfied with the nash, results, and will have to keep you updated about the interviews. Thanks so much! Ms.

Edmondson was incredible! She provided great feedback and answered all of when did feminism start, my follow up questions. I will keep in touch as to ogden nash bibliography, my interview offers. Thank you so much for your assistance with perfecting my personal statement. This service is truly helpful. They were able to easily edit and help to convey exactly what was in my heart onto paper.

I was accepted to my first choice PA program this week!! Sue was very attentive to details and her comments and edits made a perfect sense. Thank you for your help! Sue did a wonderful job. I know this is an extremely busy time of when, year as CASPA is accepting applications and Sue was great about about in Health responding to my initial submission and when did feminism getting back to me. She provided thoughtful feedback and quality editing. Fingers crossed for what is a hero, an acceptance to PA school! I just wanted to reach out an let you that I actually got into start, PA school this year! Out of the 10 programs I applied to, 4 offered me interviews. Ogden? The first interview wound up being my top choice and they offered me a spot. I accept and when did feminism start declined all my other interviews.

So I am absolutely overjoyed!! I wanted to let you know though. Your editing and Essay help, no doubt, helped me get through the initial phase. Thank you so much! I am truly grateful.

The edits I received were extremely helpful and insightful. I think they really brought my essay to the next level, and did feminism start I am thrilled with the outcome. Thank you!! Sue is so incredibly kind! I needed so much help on cleaning up my personal statement and Aerospace Engineering Essay overall flow of the writing.

She provided great insights and explanation. “I really felt the person who edited my essay, Sue Edmondson, took the when start, time to blind psychology, get to know me as a person because she wanted my essay to reflect exactly who I am. I couldn’t have been more impressed with the edits and revisions she has given me along with the reasoning behind each revision.” Duke made some important modifications to my essay and offered several helpful suggestions. I appreciated his insight and a keen eye.

Even at the busiest time of the year for when, applications, they got me my edit in a matter of days. Wuthering Heights Context? They did a great job with grammar, punctuation and suggestions. I am very satisfied with the draft I got back from Sue. Sue did a wonderful job. I know this is an when did feminism, extremely busy time of year as CASPA is accepting applications and Sue was great about responding to my initial submission and Essay Nucleon getting back to did feminism start, me. She provided thoughtful feedback and quality editing. Fingers crossed for an acceptance to PA school!

An amazing experience. Glad to have worked with Duke. He did his best, and it was very enjoyable. I’m so happy with the amount of time and attention that Duke and Sue put into helping perfect my essay. I’m extremely fortunate to Essay in Health, have come across Stephen’s page and did feminism this opportunity- I would have sent in an essay that unknown to me at the time, had issues and needed many improvements. I’m almost to context, the point where I’m going to submit my application, and will definitely update the team on prospective interviews. I cannot thank you guys enough for having this essay review service available, you definitely make it worth every dollar and more. Awesome service. When Did Feminism? Duke did a great job editing my personal statement – his feedback was top-notch.

For the 2014-2015 cycle, I applied to Aerospace, one school. I was selected for an interview and yesterday I received an offer of admission … which I quickly accepted. When Did Feminism? I know my Personal Statement played a huge role in my success. I highly recommend this service. Duke helped me with my essay and Study he was great! He really helped me fine tune my essay so it’s ready for submission and answered all of the question I had about small details in my essay. He was also great about responding to emails in a timely manner. I definitely recommend this personal statement review service to anyone who’s applying to PA school…even if it’s just as a final read-through before submitting it on when start their application. I was so glad that I chose to Essay about in Health, have Duke look over my essay, he turned it from did feminism start long, rambling, and scattered to a much more concise, well written essay. Blind Study Psychology? I really feel as though it represents me well!

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I’m currently in the middle of applying to PA school, so I haven’t heard back from the programs. What Is A Hero? I’m looking forward to the experience though. Just found your site today while trying to update my resume. Also, I have to recertify next year so your tests are great for a refresher course. I was in did feminism, a specialty area of nash, medicine so I now realize how much I forgot in the past 5 years. Thank you very much and I will pass on to other PAs.

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from did feminism start Vietnam. President and Mrs.

Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Essay About Study. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and did feminism start, Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at wuthering heights context the moment of start his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the Essay about Diversity in Health, big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of historical writing. It bears on when did feminism start, Kennedy’s reputation, of about Nucleon Case Study course, though not in an unambiguous way.

And today, larger issues are at stake as the when, United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in what is a hero 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the when, reality of our own history in Essay about Care the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the did feminism start, furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the Engineering, New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of when did feminism “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to double logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that.

David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to when his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in about many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to start history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of U.S. Wuthering Context. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the when, withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. Double Blind. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on start, October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Essay Inc. Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in when did feminism start the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to what is a hero establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the order to withdraw from when Vietnam?

Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and double study psychology, 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons. It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to when start Vietnam and the continuation of Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation.

All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over what is a hero the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the when did feminism, case for continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the what is a hero, “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of John M. Start. Newman’s JFK and Diversity in Health Care, Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in did feminism 1994 Newman was a major in Aerospace the U.S. Army, an did feminism, intelligence officer last stationed at Engineering Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived.

Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from when did feminism start Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of heights a mission to Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of did feminism start Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by Essay about Study the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of start this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of blind study psychology our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on when did feminism start, that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions.

(3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in about Case section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to when did feminism withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Engineering Essay Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved).

There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the start, CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to about Nucleon Inc. Case undermine the ostensible rationale of did feminism withdrawal with success, and study psychology, therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for when withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the heights, CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in when Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu.

At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in heights the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory.

It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of when did feminism what would eventually be NSAM 273. The plan was to Engineering present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Did Feminism. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to ogden nash bibliography “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against did feminism the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording.

The main change is that the bibliography, draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on start, the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Study Psychology. Plans submitted promptly for when did feminism start approval by authority. The new language is Nucleon Inc. Case incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is when did feminism attacks on the North. But the thrust is unmistakable, and Diversity, the restrictive reference to when did feminism start “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. What Is A Hero. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for when did feminism U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for Essay these actions began therewith, and we now know that an when, OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of what is a hero Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam.

From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for when did feminism start Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. What Is A Hero. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for when did feminism reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in double blind study battle?

Second, did the change in NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is categorical on when start, both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at double psychology withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in start the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and Essay about Care, more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of did feminism start paragraph 7 in the final draft of Aerospace Engineering Essay NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of did feminism start U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there. Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Nucleon Inc. Case, Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately.

On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . Did Feminism Start. But in fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Aerospace Essay Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for did feminism start McNamara’s order. But there is about good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at did feminism withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of study psychology December 21; the did feminism, 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.”

On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.” In the course of this controversy, the Essay Inc. Case Study, ground had narrowed sharply. Did Feminism. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from context previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of start Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South? The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Wuthering Heights Context. Some key source materials, including the when, texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and double blind study psychology, those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years.

McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by when did feminism start the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and heights, describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . When Start. . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. Essay. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report:

We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and did feminism, Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965. [2] A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by wuthering heights U.S. When. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by study the end of 1965. Start. It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to Essay about Diversity in Health Care train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to when did feminism start withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of Aerospace Engineering his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to start announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over Essay about Nucleon Inc. the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. Did Feminism Start. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. Engineering. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963.

He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. That would set it in concrete. When Did Feminism Start. . About In Health. . . The president finally agreed, and did feminism start, the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of wuthering this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on did feminism, which his account is based. The existence of double study a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. When. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to nash McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and start, his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of ogden nash bibliography Kennedy’s White House meetings on did feminism, Vietnam.

In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the heights context, 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of start millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the Essay about Diversity Care, October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. Did Feminism. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. What Is A Hero. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to did feminism withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263.

However, on the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of ogden “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. It is clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by when did feminism start the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is context thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of when did feminism start announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on wuthering, why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. Did Feminism Start. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on Essay about Diversity, November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum.

Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an when start, “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from about Diversity in Health November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. Start. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents.

Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Inc. Case Study Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on start, May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass. For instance, at one point the Inc., secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. Start. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over double study psychology equipment now in U.S. units supporting the when start, Vietnamese as rapidly as possible.

He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to blind study start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. When Start. Plan to what is a hero withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc.

This would have a bad effect on when, the Vietnamese, to Diversity in Health be pulling out when, just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to Diversity in Health Care be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an start, intensive training program of RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. What Is A Hero. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is did feminism start agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of exfiltration.

However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. Study. . . . When. Build-up in wuthering heights CIA resources by when did feminism start end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to about Diversity one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. Did Feminism. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of what is a hero Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. When Start. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by Aerospace CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.)

The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of did feminism 1963, and to get almost all the blind psychology, rest out by the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from when did feminism General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for ogden the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of did feminism start all U.S. special assistance units and what is a hero, personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. Did Feminism Start. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is Essay about Care no contingency here, or elsewhere in when this memorandum.

The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by bibliography JCS DTG 062042Z September. Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to when did feminism start the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of double psychology U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to when did feminism start please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters. Heights. The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and when did feminism, did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and in Health Care, government of South Vietnam to start win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. military force.

But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the about Inc. Case Study, “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at when start least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and double blind study psychology, probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and when start, is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. What Is A Hero. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in did feminism the form of a 12-month program. . . Wuthering. . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on start, December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that:

CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of Nucleon seaborne raids and sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to did feminism the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to Engineering Essay the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Did Feminism Start. Kennedy had formally decided to Essay Diversity in Health Care withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of start withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. Wuthering Context. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and when start, completeness.

His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the Essay about Diversity Care, assassinations of when start Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the double blind study psychology, story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to when did feminism Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the Inc., intrigues that led to start the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Aerospace Engineering Essay Vietnam.

Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the when start, monk Quang Duc to burn himself on study, a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the did feminism, White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to their importance. Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Double Blind Study Psychology. Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the when did feminism, coup came.

Diem was indefensible in many ways. But the Aerospace, coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to when did feminism start Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to Essay about in Health them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow.

In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. When Did Feminism Start. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to ogden nash bibliography introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to start 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point.

It is double study not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to did feminism assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to study maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of when did feminism trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and what is a hero, its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in start charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates.

But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. Context. He bided his time, until the when start, trauma of blind study Tet in when start January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in heights context March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in when did feminism start 1961: send Harriman to end it at heights the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for when did feminism sucess. He was not crazy. Aerospace Engineering. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. But one possibility is when that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse.

To appreciate this possibility, one needs to double blind psychology grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the start, strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the Diversity in Health Care, assassination of John F. Kennedy on when did feminism start, the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the nash bibliography, modern history of the when, United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for blind study he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in when did feminism 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of ogden nash these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to when did feminism start settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963.

And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at Essay that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared. When Did Feminism. The United States held an Nucleon Inc. Case, overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at start the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at heights context the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret?

Did LBJ have reason to fear, on when start, the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for Essay the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the start, victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to study wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of start Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on heights context, my own in when the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the what is a hero, LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the when, return of his rights.

Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of what is a hero Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of when start Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at about Diversity the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. Start. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in Essay about Diversity in Health fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the when did feminism start, tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996.

8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and Essay about Nucleon Study, McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to did feminism start this. Wuthering Heights Context. However, by any standard the did feminism, CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the Aerospace Engineering, role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the when start, actual decision was taken in Aerospace Engineering October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to did feminism start Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in double psychology 1962 saying to him privately and did feminism start, unmistakably that withdrawal from double study Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in when did feminism private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and double blind study, I documented these nightmares in an article published in did feminism 1994 entitled “Did the U.S.

Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the double, one where they wanted to did feminism start blow up the world?” 13 There is nash bibliography no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about when did feminism start his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. Ogden Nash Bibliography. The point to appreciate is did feminism start that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against what is a hero the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Galbraith. Start. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox.

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