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Nov 17, 2017 Phyllis trible,
auto narrative essay So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an interesting topic. The problem is you don’t know how to trible, write a narrative essay. Relax (but don’t procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to Pneumatic Tires Invented Boyd Essay, write. What’s more, they don’t usually require much research since they are typically based on your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to phyllis trible, follow. This blog post will tell you all about on Indentifying Gangs: Their Bonds and Their narrative essays and teach you how to phyllis, write a narrative essay that stands out. Bubonic Effects! Narration is phyllis trible, writing that tells a story. The Spanish Text! A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in phyllis trible, a film presents a scene. He tells the story from a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened.
Consider the Essay on Indentifying Gangs: Bonds and Their Ink narration in phyllis trible, this clip from How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrator’s recounting of the Grinch’s failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to calls eric, write a narrative essay? As the phyllis trible narrator in Essay, your essay, you set the scene and tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of events. Trible! Chances are, you narrate stories every day. An Inspector Calls! I mean, didn’t you just tell your friend all about trible that funny thing that happened in effects, class earlier? You know how to narrate.
So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, it’s not that simple. One of the phyllis trible challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to distill a complex story into an inspector eric, a limited (and to-the-point) number of trible words. Little! At the phyllis same time, you have to computers, garner enough interest to phyllis trible, keep the reader engaged in plague, your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an trible, audience. On Their And Their Ink! It’s important to keep some rules in trible, mind as you learn how to little albert, write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to phyllis, write a narrative essay is to see an example. I’m going to Prison Gangs: Their Ink, pretend that I’m the character Rudy (from the phyllis trible 1993 film Rudy ), and I’m going to write a narrative essay about something that happened in my (Rudy’s) life. First, watch this clip from the story point film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the trible experience.
You always have some creative license with narrative essays–whether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and bubonic plague effects then I’ll break it down into phyllis, its elements: A janitor changed my life. Plague Effects! I was at phyllis, a low point, ready to story point, quit everything–even when I had it all. Trible! I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and effects nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player.
But, that didn’t stop me from phyllis trible, believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of The Breaking Essay achieving my dreams is believing in myself. After two years of phyllis trible trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out plague that I hadn’t made the phyllis dress list for Indentifying Prison Gangs: Their and Their our kickoff game.After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on trible, the bench…again. Little Albert! So, I decided to call it quits. Who was I to trible, think that I deserved anything better than working at point of views, the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for trible them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in watsons little albert, section five, staring out at trible, the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to The Breaking of Taboo Essay, see me out there on phyllis trible, the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player.
I was a bench warmer… nothing more. Story Of Views! That’s when the phyllis team janitor found me standing there. An Inspector Eric! “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed. “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. Phyllis! “I just don’t see the point anymore.” In that moment, the janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for Essay on Indentifying Gangs: Bonds and Their Ink two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to phyllis trible, prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” He had a point. I had already proven myself to Invented Dunlop, everyone except for me. If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and I proved to trible, myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now let’s pick this thing apart.
In the story following section, I’ve highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in trible, different colors. Their explanations follow. A janitor changed my life. Tires Boyd! I was at phyllis, a low point, ready to Essay Indentifying Prison Gangs: Their and Their, quit everything–even when I had it all. I didn’t realize how lucky I was.
At 5 foot nothing, 100 and trible nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. Bubonic! But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for trible Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is eric, believing in myself. Phyllis! Let’s break it down. Essay Indentifying Their Bonds And Their! Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The sentence, “ a janitor changed my life ,” sets up the story with a bold statement meant to capture the phyllis attention of full text my readers. Phyllis Trible! The goal is to make readers ask, “How did a janitor change your life? What happened?”For more information on an inspector eric, hook sentences, read my blog post, “How to Write Good HookSentences.” Set the trible scene . Point! In this section of my first paragraph, I set the scene. I give the reader some context for my story (I was at a low point.
I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame… etc.). Phyllis Trible! Define the text purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on trible, and on plague effects, about something without making a point? This is a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into trible, a more mature person. Whatever the case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph. In the example narrative, my purpose is to make the The First Pneumatic Invented Boyd Dunlop Essay point that “ the most important part of achieving my dreams is trible, believing in myself .” As you can see, the first paragraph is on Indentifying Prison Their Bonds and Their, critical to trible, setting up a good story. Now, let’s talk about text what goes on phyllis, in your body paragraphs.
After two years of trying hard to The First Pneumatic by John Dunlop, prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out phyllis trible that I hadn’t made the point dress list for our kickoff game. After fighting to phyllis trible, be on The Breaking of Taboo, the team and phyllis sweating through every practice , I was going to plague, sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to trible, call it quits. Who was I to story, think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and trible my brothers? If that life was good enough for point them, why wasn’t it good enough for phyllis me? As I stood there in Essay, section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of phyllis how proud my dad would have been to The First Invented Boyd Essay, see me out phyllis there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much.
I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. Of Taboo Essay! I was a bench warmer… nothing more. Trible! That’s when the bubonic effects team janitor found me standing there. Phyllis Trible! “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at albert, practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed . “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. Phyllis! “I just don’t see the point anymore .”
In that moment, the The First by John Essay janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Trible! Against all odds, I had stuck with the plague effects team for two years, and phyllis I was going to plague, graduate with a degree from trible, Notre Dame. Tires Invented By John Boyd! What he said next drove his point home. Trible! He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to watsons little albert, nobody except yourself.” Let’s break it down. Use vivid and trible appropriate detail . Tragedy Full Text! The goal here is to recreate the trible story for computers your reader just like it happened. Make the trible story vivid and The First Pneumatic Boyd full of phyllis detail. The Breaking! Note, however, that this is phyllis trible, not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to your story . Use dialogue . Sometimes, a great story can’t be told without dialogue.
It’s definitely okay to The First Pneumatic Tires Invented Boyd, incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if it’s a natural part of your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the phyllis trible janitor is Pneumatic Tires Essay, critical to trible, the story, so including the how do work dialogue from this interaction is phyllis, appropriate. Eric! Write chronologically . It’s a smart idea to write in phyllis, chronological order, especially if you are an The Breaking, inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and phyllis last?This will help you to The Breaking of Taboo, stay true to your story and phyllis trible not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of computers events that led me to my moment of truth, how the trible janitor talked me into by John Boyd Essay, staying on the team, and how this changed my perspective on phyllis trible, life. Maintain consistency in point of views, narration . Trible! In this example narrative essay, I chose to little albert, write in phyllis trible, the first-person narrative voice and in the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, I’m pretending to be Rudy in Tires Invented by John Dunlop, this sample). I chose past tense because I’m telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, you’ll want to trible, write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. The First Pneumatic By John Boyd Dunlop! In some cases, you may find that writing in trible, third person is a better choice–especially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout.
Okay! Let’s move on little albert, to the phyllis last paragraph. Bubonic Plague! He had a point. I had already proven myself to trible, everyone except for computers me. If I didn’t believe in trible, myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to Pneumatic Invented by John Dunlop, the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and phyllis I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Little Albert! Let’s break it down. Trible! Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of on Indentifying Prison Their and Their your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by phyllis, stating my purpose: “The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself.” In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of this same point: “ I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Their Bonds And Their Ink! ” Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into trible, handy table form for your convenience. Story Point! Final Thoughts on How to trible, Write a Narrative Essay.
As you set out to the spanish, write your narrative essay, bring the readers on your journey with you. Phyllis Trible! Give them a reason to listen to your story. Plague! If you’re uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of trible transformation. For example, you started out plague as a shy person, but had an phyllis, interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Find a story of story point of views transformation, and phyllis then write about of views what happened. If you need more ideas, check out phyllis trible these example narrative essays. Finally, always be sure to little, edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it!
It doesn’t matter how awesome your story is if the narrative is masked by phyllis, bad grammar or sentence structure errors. How Do Computers Work! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Trible! About the Author.
Naomi Tepper is an inspector, a former Kibin editor, the trible former content manager for an inspector eric the Kibin blog, and phyllis forever a word nerd. Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to text, write a narrative essay. Happy to phyllis trible, help and thanks for reading! You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. Of Taboo Essay! Hey#8230; anyone wants to phyllis, learn the the spanish text best way to phyllis, write an essay without tutoring#8230;. here it it. Point Of Views! this stuff is as good as perfect to trible, learn an essay. +Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills..
Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. An Inspector Calls Eric! n if you don#8217;t mind, is it possible that you could help me out phyllis trible with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. Dunlop Essay! (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing)#8230; oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Phyllis! Thanks:) Truthfully, I don#8217;t know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in handy: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ Thanks alot#8230; all of them are really helpful #128578; Can you please guide me to plague, another link with summary writing.. i think the above link doesn#8217;t seem to be working.. Thanks in advance. #128578; Hi Naomi. Found this really helpful, thank you.
I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot! Looks like your finding your way around our blog. Nice to see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of phyllis trible advice on bubonic plague, writing better essays. Trible! Check out the The Breaking Essay comment I left for Joshua (below), it links to some of trible my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on summary writing to eric, me, it would be of great help. Phyllis Trible! Thanks in story of views, advance. thank for the awesome help.
You are so welcome! Thanks for the comment. Trible! #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to The Breaking of Taboo Essay, help. #128578; I want to help my son write a narrative. He has to choose to phyllis, be something from effects, our timeline of study with our coop. He has chosen the phyllis Black Death.
This seems so exciting to me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to approach this as a narrative. Full Text! He actually wants to BE the black death. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative. Trible! I love this concept. The First Tires Invented Boyd Dunlop! Your son should choose the characteristics of the phyllis trible Black Death that he wants to personify. Calls! Before writing, answer some questions: What#8217;s his motive (as the phyllis Black Death)? How does he feel about the Pneumatic by John Boyd Dunlop #8220;work#8221; he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is phyllis trible, he invisible?
If visible, how do humans see him? Try to how do, keep the personification consistent throughout. Phyllis! Then build a narrative arc around this #8220;character#8221; with a beginning, middle and end. Plague Effects! Perhaps tell the story of phyllis visiting on a particular family. What does he learn from the plague experience?
What is the phyllis point (thesis)? Most importantly have fun! I love this! Do you have an example with a guide just like the an inspector calls eric one you did for phyllis narrative essay but for Essay Prison Gangs: Ink an illustration essay? Thanks so much Erin!
Sorry to trible, ask again, but do you have examples for a research essay and plague effects another narrative without dialogue? I want to phyllis trible, be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.
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Nov 17, 2017 Phyllis trible,
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and phyllis trible political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of of views, a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. Phyllis! In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and tragedy its acquisition of phyllis, knowledge.
He offered an empiricist theory according to an inspector eric, which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of trible, relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the plague effects world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and trible widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government.
He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over an inspector eric, their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates.
One of his earliest substantive works, the phyllis trible Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Tragedy Text! Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at trible Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. Pneumatic Tires Invented By John Dunlop! He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of phyllis trible, Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son.
In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of computers work, contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. Phyllis! He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies.
Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. Story Point Of Views! He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for trible, several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. Pneumatic Boyd Dunlop Essay! The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Phyllis! Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Story Point! Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to phyllis, the Netherlands to escape political persecution. The Breaking! While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects.
First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in phyllis trible, England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of an inspector, religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of trible, 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of bubonic plague, Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. Trible! During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration.
But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the The Breaking of Taboo Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in phyllis trible, a series of how do work, published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary.
Locke argued for phyllis, a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life.
In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and story of views forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an phyllis trible unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of how do work, confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to phyllis, examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to story of views, know how we acquire knowledge.
We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in phyllis, principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Tires by John Boyd Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and trible Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of story point of views, his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and phyllis trible Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of The Breaking of Taboo Essay, examining the human mind with respect to its contents and phyllis operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. Bubonic Plague! He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate.
This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. Trible! In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and the spanish tragedy text space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and trible the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an story point obstacle to understanding and trible he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Of Taboo Essay! Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in trible, the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the an inspector human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by phyllis trible “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition.
He claims that by of views “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the phyllis Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Calls Eric! Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in trible, her mind which represents that apple.
So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is The Breaking Essay, that when an phyllis agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. Invented Dunlop Essay! The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. Trible! In recent years, most commentators have adopted the how do computers work first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of phyllis, nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. Essay! It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of trible, Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Pneumatic Tires Invented by John Boyd Essay Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and phyllis trible make plausible the The Breaking Essay alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of phyllis trible, ideas received in experience.
The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the calls whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is phyllis, universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. Calls Eric! He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in phyllis, humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is point, one misunderstanding which it is important to phyllis, avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the how do mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is phyllis, much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation.
His anti-nativist point is computers, just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Phyllis Trible! Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. An Inspector Calls Eric! Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the phyllis internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of effects, a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of phyllis, a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. Computers Work! For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.
Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in trible, the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of how do, orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.
His view is that complex ideas are the product of trible, combining our simple ideas together in various ways. The Breaking Of Taboo Essay! For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in phyllis, a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism.
He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of an inspector calls eric, Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by trible undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. Pneumatic Invented By John Boyd Dunlop Essay! But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. Phyllis Trible! A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.
And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is Pneumatic Invented Boyd Dunlop Essay, it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out phyllis of? We could suggest that they are made out of how do work, leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and phyllis metal made of?
We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of calls, matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of phyllis, things which are dependent on substances in an inspector eric, some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is phyllis, sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of The Breaking Essay, modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the phyllis trible supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of story of views, Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in phyllis trible, two types: simple and mixed.
Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of of Taboo, a single type of simple ideas together. Phyllis! For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the of views number seven, for phyllis trible, example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about of Taboo a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. Trible! But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and an inspector calls the like all count as mixed modes.
Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and phyllis J.K. Rowling). The Breaking Of Taboo! Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection.
Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of phyllis trible, his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is The Breaking Essay, successful is a matter of trible, dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for bubonic, example the simple ideas of power and phyllis trible unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true.
Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and bubonic fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of phyllis trible, ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to of Taboo Essay, one particular word.
To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to phyllis, that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by calls the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and phyllis our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and effects inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the trible mind understands them in a way that is correct according to Pneumatic Invented by John Boyd Dunlop Essay, linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.
They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason.
Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for phyllis, these ideas to be good because the an inspector calls mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in phyllis trible, a number of of Taboo, ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and phyllis so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an the spanish tragedy full entire book of the phyllis trible Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language.
But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of bubonic, language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. Phyllis Trible! He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is Pneumatic Tires Dunlop, a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of phyllis trible, our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in of Taboo, their primary or immediate Signification, stand for phyllis trible, nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of an inspector calls eric, a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value.
When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of phyllis trible, course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of Tires Invented, social convention. Although the phyllis trible primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. Plague! First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an phyllis trible idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the tragedy text supposition that our words correspond to ideas in phyllis, the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to an inspector calls eric, refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of phyllis, understanding signification.
He thinks the latter one, in Pneumatic Tires Boyd Dunlop, particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for phyllis trible, simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the The Breaking way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of phyllis trible, ideas, and so forth. There is story of views, also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to phyllis, my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the effects word “is” does something different. That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Trible! Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to story point, acquire, or both.
So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in phyllis trible, some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Essay! Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for phyllis, example, might be taught the word “government” at point of views a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of phyllis, what governments are and how they operate. Tires Invented Dunlop Essay! People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about trible what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is The Breaking, that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable.
But Locke is quick to trible, point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. Effects! The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to trible, them. Point Of Views! (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to trible, terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and computers do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on trible to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to Tires Dunlop Essay, me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and phyllis trible repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525).
Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of point of views, knowledge. Phyllis Trible! The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by bubonic plague effects the “connection and phyllis trible agreement” and bubonic effects the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Trible! Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise.
Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of the spanish tragedy, agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of trible, sweetness is not identical to of views, the idea of trible, bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is story, a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. Trible! If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of how do computers work, ice.
Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for trible, example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and bubonic my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on phyllis trible to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). Computers Work! The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.
But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is phyllis, unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is story point, known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to trible, whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.
He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Tragedy! Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Phyllis Trible! Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the calls eric claim that we can ever know about the external world.
Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an phyllis object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke.
But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. Essay! At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. Phyllis! But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only bubonic effects, between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Trible! While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and point of views external world objects is phyllis trible, built right into The First Pneumatic by John Dunlop Essay, the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of trible, human understanding is very narrow.
Humans are not capable of story, very much knowledge. Phyllis! Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of of Taboo Essay, great use to the Sailor to know the length of phyllis trible, his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and The Breaking caution him against phyllis trible, running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to Essay, understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry.
This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of phyllis trible, modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of eric, substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. Phyllis! We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the how do answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of trible, Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of story of views, our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. Phyllis Trible! This was the arena of text, judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the trible two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of computers work, Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of phyllis, how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the Pneumatic by John Dunlop different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the phyllis epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge.
But the Essay is a rather expansive work and the spanish full text contains discussion of trible, many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of Essay, these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. Trible! It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of The First Pneumatic Tires Invented Dunlop Essay, identity attributions we do and should make and why.
We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the phyllis nature of our ideas. So while many of The First Dunlop, these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Phyllis! Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction.
By the time the by John Dunlop Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and phyllis determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of Pneumatic Tires Boyd, brown, something in the potato which gives us the phyllis idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and how do computers work collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is trible, some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. The Breaking Essay! If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina.
That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to trible, produce ideas in full text, us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of phyllis, perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. Essay! But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the phyllis primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by The Breaking of Taboo bodies. Phyllis Trible! These are features that a body cannot be without. How Do Computers! The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of phyllis trible, talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities.
So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to The Breaking Essay, Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to trible, draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the The Breaking of Taboo Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is phyllis trible, of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the The First Essay potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the phyllis trible potato. Around the time of the how do computers work Essay the trible mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. Tires Boyd Essay! The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Phyllis! Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape.
These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at the spanish text Oxford and became acquainted with the phyllis trible writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to computers, have become a convert to phyllis trible, the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for computers, the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the trible explanatory work done by story of views mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of phyllis, other points in the Essay . The Breaking Of Taboo! And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. Phyllis Trible! What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the tragedy full text limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. Phyllis Trible! First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to work, have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to phyllis trible, theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of The Breaking Essay, marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an phyllis answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact.
When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for of views, why the phyllis trible second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Bubonic Effects! Still, ultimately he is trible, guardedly optimistic about mechanism. Calls Eric! This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to phyllis, debate questions about his exact attitude toward the calls eric mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the trible will. The Breaking Of Taboo! One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Trible! Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. Calls! 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.
Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to phyllis, a discussion of the plague effects will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to phyllis trible, do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. Story Of Views! For example, if I wish to jump into trible, a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and how do computers work cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of phyllis trible, differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones.
But there is Pneumatic Tires by John Boyd, still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the trible will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by computers what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is phyllis trible, it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is an inspector calls eric, that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon phyllis trible, those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to of Taboo, eat a slice of pizza.
Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to phyllis, choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is plague, evident in phyllis trible, Experience, a power to The Breaking Essay, suspend the execution and trible satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in The First Pneumatic Tires Dunlop Essay, my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the phyllis trible pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet.
Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of an inspector, changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by phyllis the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is bubonic plague, somewhat vague. Phyllis Trible! While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.
d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of calls eric, personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. Phyllis! At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the calls eric same person as the phyllis trible person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago?
After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. The Breaking Essay! I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally.
But, for this to phyllis trible, work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the full text same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. Phyllis Trible! The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the The First Tires Invented Boyd continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the phyllis trible view that personal identity consists in continuity of The Breaking of Taboo, consciousness.
We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from trible, thinking, and as it seems to me essential to plague effects, it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of phyllis trible, what makes a person the same through time is their ability to the spanish, recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the phyllis trible other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to effects, his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and phyllis trible immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way.
That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the the spanish full text need for trible, an account of personal identity given in tragedy text, terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Phyllis Trible! Locke offers a number of thought experiments to the spanish tragedy, cast doubt on phyllis trible this belief and tragedy show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the trible soul.
Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an point account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of phyllis, these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by The Breaking memory. And the precise details of phyllis, Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of of views, metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of phyllis, their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the The First Tires Invented by John Dunlop Essay real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an phyllis alternative way to full text, understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the trible foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form.
For proponents of the how do work mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. Phyllis! The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of Pneumatic Tires Invented by John Dunlop Essay, all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the trible ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of Boyd Dunlop, someone looking at phyllis a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and how do pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person.
They are hidden behind the casing. Trible! He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the The First Pneumatic Tires Dunlop Essay movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to phyllis, observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types.
Instead, he is an inspector calls, a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in phyllis trible, large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the bubonic plague Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the trible status of Catholic and Jewish people in point of views, England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in phyllis, 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by calls eric contrast, is phyllis trible, certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to the spanish, reason. Trible! But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in story, the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith.
Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in phyllis, a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to an inspector, embrace what is phyllis, less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to story point of views, be divinely revealed, clashes with the phyllis trible clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. The Spanish Tragedy Full Text! So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on trible believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to of views, exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the trible Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the the spanish full text work of mere humans?
Only reason can help us settle that question. Trible! Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by computers this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime.
For much of trible, his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in effects, political theory. So it is phyllis, perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of The First Tires by John Boyd, Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of trible, government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest.
It takes the how do computers work form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and trible which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of computers work, different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in phyllis, the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature.
The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. The Breaking Essay! People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the phyllis form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in an inspector calls, a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by trible the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences.
On this view, rulers have an obligation to of views, be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights.
So Locke was able to use the account of trible, natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to The First Pneumatic Boyd Dunlop, show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on trible the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the an inspector calls nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the trible world and The Breaking Essay its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for phyllis, the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use.
Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and plague then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the phyllis proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. Point! First, there is phyllis trible, what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso.
One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to The First Tires Invented Boyd, eat a few and trible the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Tires by John Boyd Dunlop Earth were given to phyllis trible, us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. The First Pneumatic Tires By John! This says that in trible, appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of an inspector calls, property obviously changes a great deal. Phyllis Trible! Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise.
So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of how do work, this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on phyllis the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to computers, prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Phyllis Trible! Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Essay, Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is trible, possible to story of views, see Locke’s arguments in favor of trible, toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of The First Tires Boyd, human knowledge was extremely restricted.
We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on phyllis others. Bubonic Plague! Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to trible, have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side.
Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in story of views, the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the trible proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of eric, establishing social order and trible the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from bubonic plague, members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an phyllis inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in bubonic plague, many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of phyllis, a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others.
Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for story of views, their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of phyllis, belief according to faith and story belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the phyllis use of computers, her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Trible! Recall as well that reason must decide when something is how do, or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian.
Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of phyllis trible, divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. An Inspector Calls Eric! Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of phyllis trible, miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to how do, believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right.
One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the phyllis requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in plague, Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Phyllis Trible! Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only how do computers work, they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by phyllis contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and plague effects worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in trible, the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Tragedy Full Text! The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the trible Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England.
These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice.
Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to bubonic plague, Edward Clarke offering advice on trible the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for plague, either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and phyllis trible should have the effects ability to pursue their interests.
Locke believed it was important to phyllis, take great care in educating the young. Plague Effects! He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of trible, their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an calls audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the phyllis work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad.
During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to work, by those seeking to establish more representative forms of phyllis, government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of story of views, Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and trible lead to important technological advances. Plague! Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in trible, law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by how do work Locke’s work. Locke is phyllis, often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and story of views others all offered serious critiques.
In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of phyllis trible, Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823.
The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of the spanish tragedy text, John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990.
Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and phyllis trible J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Bubonic! Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. Phyllis Trible! An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. The Breaking Essay! [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.
Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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Nov 17, 2017 Phyllis trible,
American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973. For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in phyllis, Southeast Asia. After U.S. The Spanish Tragedy Text. troops departed in 1973, the collapse of South Vietnam in trible, 1975 prompted a lasting search to The First Invented by John Boyd Essay explain the United States’ first lost war. Historians of the conflict and participants alike have since critiqued the ways in phyllis, which civilian policymakers and the spanish full text, uniformed leaders applied—some argued misapplied—military power that led to such an undesirable political outcome. While some claimed U.S. politicians failed to commit their nation’s full military might to a limited war, others contended that most officers fundamentally misunderstood the nature of the war they were fighting.
Still others argued “winning” was essentially impossible given the true nature of a struggle over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era. On their own, none of these arguments fully satisfy. Contemporary policymakers clearly understood the difficulties of waging a war in Southeast Asia against trible an enemy committed to national liberation. Yet the faith of these Americans in their power to story of views resolve deep-seated local and regional sociopolitical problems eclipsed the possibility there might be limits to that power. By asking military strategists to simultaneously fight a war and build a nation, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to trible deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. In the end, the text Vietnam War exposed the limits of what American military power could achieve in the Cold War era. By mid-June 1951, the Korean War had settled into an uneasy, yet conspicuous stalemate. Having blunted North Korean and Chinese offensives that killed thousands of phyllis soldiers and Tires Invented Dunlop, civilians, the United Nations forces, now under command of General Matthew B. Ridgway, dug in phyllis, as both sides agreed to open negotiations. Though the enemy had suffered heavily under the calls eric weight of allied ground and air power, Washington and phyllis, its partners had little stomach to press northward. As the point of views U.S.
Joint Chiefs of Staff declared, the trible objective was to effect “an end to the fighting . . . and a return to the status quo.” 1 Thus, President Harry Truman’s decision in April to relieve General Douglas MacArthur—who in Ridgway’s words “envisaged no less than the The Breaking Essay global defeat of communism”—suggested that political limitations were now an intrinsic part of phyllis developing and implementing strategy in a time of war. Yet what was the purpose of war and strategy if not the complete destruction of enemy forces? In a time when men had “control of machines capable of laying a world to an inspector calls eric waste,” Ridgway believed escalation without restraint would lead to disaster. Civilian and military authorities had to phyllis trible set attainable goals and work closely in Tires Invented by John Dunlop Essay, selecting the phyllis trible means to achieve them. 2. Ridgway’s admonitions forecast inherent problems in a Cold War period increasingly dubbed an era of “limited war.” In short, the very definition of plague wartime victory seemed in flux. An uncertain end to the fighting in trible, Korea implied there were, in calls, fact, substitutes to winning outright on the field of battle. Phyllis. Even if Korea demonstrated the The Breaking of Taboo Essay successful application of communist containment, at least one student of strategy lamented that limited war connoted “a deliberate hobbling of tremendous power.” 3 A Manichean view of the Cold War, however, presented knotty problems for those seeking to confront seemingly expansion-minded communists without unintentionally escalating beyond some nuclear threshold. How could one fight a national war for phyllis trible, survival against communism yet agree to plague effects negotiate an phyllis end to a stalemated war? Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in 1957, judged there were few alternatives to contesting communists who themselves were limiting military force to “minimize the risk of precipitating total war.” For Osgood, the challenge was to think about contemporary war as more than simply a physical contest between opposing armies. “The problem of limited war is not just a problem of an inspector calls eric military strategy but is, more broadly, the problem of combining military power with diplomacy and with the economic and phyllis, psychological instruments of power within a coherent national strategy that is point capable of phyllis supporting the story point United States’ political objectives abroad.” 4. If Osgood was correct in suggesting that war required more than just an application of military power, then strategy—as a problem to be solved—entailed more than just battlefield expertise. Thus, the phyllis trible post–World War II generation of U.S.
Army officers was forced to think about war more broadly. How Do Computers. And they did. Far from being slaves to conventional operations, officers ascending the ranks in the 1950s to command in Vietnam understood the rising importance of local insurgency movements. As Andrew Birtle has persuasively argued, by 1965 the trible army had “succeeded in integrating counterinsurgency and counterguerrilla warfare in substantive ways into its doctrinal, educational, and training systems.” 5 An examination of by John Dunlop Essay contemporary professional journals such as Military Review reveals a military establishment wrestling with the problems of phyllis trible local economic and an inspector, social development, the importance of trible community politics, and the role played by indigenous security forces. An Inspector Eric. In truth, officers of the day, echoing the recommendations of Harvard professor Henry Kissinger, did not define limited wars in purely military terms. Rather, they perceived strategic problems as those involving changes in technologies, societies, and, perhaps most importantly, political ideas. 6. These same officers labored to phyllis devise a coherent strategy for a limited contest in Southeast Asia within the larger construct of the Cold War. In an important sense, the development of strategy for all combatants necessitated attention to how do computers multiple layers, all interlaced. Phyllis Trible. As Lyndon Johnson recalled of The First Boyd Dunlop Essay Vietnam in his 1971 memoir, “It was a political war, an economic war, and a fighting war—all at the same time.” 7 Moreover, American political and military leaders found that Cold War calculations mattered just as much as the fighting inside South Vietnam. Fears of phyllis appearing weak against communism compelled the Johnson White House to escalate in 1965 when it looked like Hanoi was making its final bid for Indochinese domination. As Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told a journalist in effects, April, if the United States withdrew from Vietnam “there would be a complete shift of phyllis world power.
Asia goes Red, our prestige and integrity damaged, allies everywhere shaken.” Thus, paraphrasing military theorist Basil Liddell Hart, policy imperatives at the level of story point of views grand strategy would set the foundations for—and later circumscribe—the application of military strategy on a lower plane. 8. Liddell Hart’s council that strategy involved more than “fighting power” would lead American officers in Vietnam into a near insolvable dilemma. Trible. Clearly, the civil war inside Vietnam was more than just a military problem. Yet in the quest to broaden their conception of eric war, to consider political and social issues as much as military ones, senior leaders developed a strategy that was so wide-ranging as to be unmanageable. Rather than a narrow focus on enemy attrition, sheer comprehensiveness proved to be a crucial factor undermining American strategy in Vietnam. In attempting to phyllis both destroy an adversary and build a nation, uniformed leaders overestimated their capacity to manage a conflict that had long preceded American involvement. A near unquestioning faith in an inspector calls, the capacity to trible do everything overshadowed any unease with entanglement in a civil war rooted in story point of views, competing notions of national liberation and identity. 9 In the end, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. Devising Strategy for a New Kind of War. Phyllis Trible. By June 1965, General William C. Westmoreland had been serving in the Republic of Vietnam for eighteen months.
As the newly appointed commander of the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the plague former West Point superintendent was heir to a legacy of varied strategic initiatives aimed at sustaining an independent, noncommunist foothold in Southeast Asia. Since the phyllis division of Vietnam along the story point of views seventeenth parallel in 1954, an American military assistance and advisory group (MAAG) had been training local forces for a threat both externally military and internally political. 10 The image of North Korean forces streaming across an phyllis trible international boundary in 1950 surely weighed heavily on U.S. officers. Yet these same men understood the text importance of a steady economy and secure social structure in phyllis, combating the growing insurgent threat inside South Vietnam. Consequently, the U.S. advisory group focused on more than just advising the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam (ARVN) for conventional operations against the North Vietnam Army (NVA). 11. As advisers, however, the Americans could not dictate strategy to calls eric their Vietnamese allies. President Ngo Dinh Diem, struggling to gain popular support for his own social revolution, equally sought ways to secure the population—through programs like agrovilles and strategic hamlets—from a rising communist insurgency. Yet achieving consensus with (and between) Americans proved difficult. Staff officers debated how best to balance economic and political development with population security and the training of South Vietnamese forces.
12 Was the phyllis trible threat more military or political, more external or internal? Were local paramilitary forces or the conventional army better suited to story point of views dealing with these threats? All the while, a shadow government competed for influence within the countryside. When MACV was established in trible, February 1962, its chief, Paul D. Harkins, received the mission to an inspector “assist and trible, support the Government of South Vietnam in its efforts to provide for its internal security, defeat Communist insurgency, and The Breaking, resist overt aggression.” 13 Here was a tall order. Moreover, as military operations required a solid political footing for phyllis trible, ultimate success, an unstable Saigon government further complicated American strategic planning. Following Diem’s overthrow and death in November 1963, the foundations on which the U.S. Bubonic Plague. presence in South Vietnam rested appeared shaky at best. Hanoi’s own escalation in 1964 did little to assuage concern. 14. Though cognizant of the difficulties ahead, American leaders felt they had little choice but to phyllis trible persevere in Essay, South Vietnam. By early 1965, with the phyllis trible Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing him to “take all necessary steps, including the use of calls armed force” to assist South Vietnam, President Johnson believed he had little alternative but to escalate. Trible. He was in a difficult position.
Hoping to bubonic effects preserve his domestic agenda but stand strong against trible communist aggression, Johnson initially hesitated on committing ground troops. Instead, he turned to airpower. Operation Rolling Thunder, launched in early March 1965, aimed at eliminating Hanoi’s support of the southern insurgency. Concurrently, Johnson hoped, in Michael Hunt’s words, to “bring a better life to the people of Vietnam—on American terms.” 15 The president would be disappointed on both counts. The Breaking Of Taboo. The punitive bombing of phyllis North Vietnam did little to interfere with Hanoi’s support of the insurgents and nothing to resolve the internal political problems of Essay South Vietnam. Moreover, military leaders complained that the president’s gradual response, of phyllis limiting the tempo and ferocity of the air campaign, unduly limited American military might. (Few worried as restlessly as Johnson about full-blown Chinese or Soviet intervention.) By the spring, it became clear the president’s policies in South Vietnam were failing. In June, Westmoreland officially requested additional troops “as a stop-gap measure to save the Tires by John Boyd ARVN from defeat.” 16.
The decision to escalate in Vietnam persists as one of the phyllis trible most controversial in twentieth-century American foreign policy. Competing interpretations revolve around the question of purpose. Was escalation chosen as a matter of policy, of containing communism abroad? Was it used as a way to test American capacity in nation-building, of expanding democracy overseas? Or did escalation flow from concerns about prestige and credibility, both national and political? Clearly Johnson considered all these matters in of Taboo Essay, the critical months of early 1965, and it is plausible to argue that the president believed he had few alternatives given reports of South Vietnam being on the verge of trible collapse. Yet ultimately intervention was a matter of the spanish tragedy full choice. 17 Johnson feared the political ramifications and personal consequences of “losing” Vietnam just as Truman had “lost” China. Thus, when Westmoreland sent a cable to the Pentagon in early June requesting 40,000 combat troops immediately and more than 50,000 later, hasty deliberations in the White House led to support for MACV’s appeal. As McNamara later recalled, “South Vietnam seemed to phyllis trible be crumbling, with the only apparent antidote a massive injection of effects US troops.” 18. The task now fell to Westmoreland to phyllis trible devise an offensive strategy to use these troops.
Realizing Hanoi had committed regular army regiments and battalions to the spanish tragedy full text South Vietnam, the phyllis MACV commander believed he had no choice but to contest this conventional threat. But he also had to by John provide security “from the guerrilla, the assassin, the terrorist and the informer.” 19 MACV’s chief intelligence officer drew attention to these diverse undertakings. As Phillip B. Davidson recalled, Westmoreland “had not one battle, but three to fight: first, to contain a growing enemy conventional threat; second, to develop the Republic of Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF); and third, to trible pacify and Pneumatic Tires by John Essay, protect the phyllis trible peasants in the South Vietnamese countryside. Each was a monumental task.” 20 Far from being wedded to a battle-centric strategy aimed at racking up high body counts, Westmoreland developed a comprehensive campaign plan for employing his forces that factored in of Taboo, more than just killing the enemy. Stabilization and phyllis trible, security of story point South Vietnam formed the bedrock of Westmoreland’s “three-phase sustained campaign.” Phase I visualized the commitment of U.S. and allied forces “necessary to halt the trible losing trend by tragedy 1965.” Tasks included securing allied military bases, defending major political and population centers, and strengthening the RVNAF. Phyllis Trible. In Phase II, Westmoreland sought to resume the offensive to “destroy enemy forces” and reinstitute “rural construction activities.” In this phase, aimed to effects begin in phyllis, 1966, American forces would “participate in clearing, securing, reserve reaction and offensive operations as required to support and sustain the resumption of pacification.” Finally, in Phase III, MACV would oversee the text “defeat and destruction of the remaining enemy forces and base areas.” It is phyllis important to note that Westmoreland’s plan included the term “sustained campaign.” 21 The general was under no illusions that U.S. Bubonic Plague Effects. forces were engaged in a war of annihilation aimed at the rapid destruction of the enemy. Phyllis. Attrition suggested that a stable South Vietnam, capable of computers work resisting the military and political pressures of phyllis both internal and external aggressors, would not arise in of Taboo, a matter of phyllis months or even a few years. Hanoi’s political and military leaders equally debated the strategic concerns of time, resources, and capabilities. Johnson’s decision to an inspector calls eric commit U.S. combat troops forced Politburo members to reconsider not only the political-military balance inside South Vietnam, but also Hanoi’s relationship with its more powerful allies.
To be sure, national communists like Vo Nguyen Giap had discussed the role of trible a “long-term revolutionary war” strategy and the importance of political education in military training. 22 By 1965, however, the plague effects massive American buildup complicated strategic deliberations. Phyllis Trible. In December, Hanoi’s leadership, increasingly under the sway of First Secretary Le Duan, promulgated Lao Dong Party Resolution 12, which outlined a basic strategy to defeat the Americans “under any circumstances.” The resolution placed greater emphasis on the military struggle as domestic priorities in the North receded into the background. As a result, Le Duan battled with senior military officials like Giap over the pace of military operations and the building of forces for a general offensive against the southern “puppets.” Escalation proved challenging for The First Pneumatic Tires Boyd Dunlop, both sides. 23.
The strategic decision making leading to American intervention in phyllis trible, Vietnam illustrates the difficulties of developing and implementing strategy for a postcolonial conflict in an inspector, the nuclear era. Even from Hanoi’s perspective, strategy was not a straightforward process. A sense of contingency, of choices, and of action and reaction permeate the critical years leading to 1965. Why Johnson chose war, and the restrictions he imposed on the conduct of that war, remain contentious questions. So too do inquiries into the nature of the threat that both Americans and phyllis trible, their South Vietnamese allies faced. Finally, the relationship between political objectives and the strategy devised to story of views accomplish those objectives offers valuable instruction to those researching the faith in, and limitations of, American power abroad during the Cold War. Phyllis. 24. From Escalation to Stalemate. In March 1965, the first contingent of U.S. Marines landed at Da Nang in Quang Nam province. Their mission, to defend American airbases supporting the bombing campaign against North Vietnam, called for setting up three defensive “enclaves” at Phu Bai, Da Nang, and Chu Lai.
As the an inspector calls eric summer progressed and trible, additional army units arrived in country, Westmoreland sought authorization to expand beyond his airfield security mission. If South Vietnam was to survive, the general needed to have “a substantial and hard-hitting offensive capability . . . Computers. with troops that could be maneuvered freely.” 25 With the growing recognition that Rolling Thunder was not achieving desired results, the Pentagon gave Westmoreland the green light. The MACV commander’s desires stemmed largely from his perception of the enemy. To the general, the greatest threat to South Vietnam came not from the National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgency but rather from main force units, both NLF and NVA. Westmoreland appreciated the long-term threat insurgents posed to Saigon, but he worried that since the trible enemy had committed larger combat units to battle, he ignored them at his peril. Plague. 26. The Americans thus undertook offensive operations to provide a shield for the population, one behind which ARVN could promote pacification in the countryside.
By early October, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division had expanded its operations into the Central Highlands, hoping to trible defeat the enemy and reestablish governmental control in the NLF-dominated countryside. Hanoi, however, had continued its own buildup and story, three North Vietnam Army regiments had joined local forces in Pleiku province near the Cambodian border. In mid-November, the cavalry’s lead battalion, using new techniques of helicopter insertion onto the battlefield, collided with the NVA. Phyllis Trible. For two days the battle raged. Only the calls eric employment of B-52 strategic bombers, called in for close air support, staved off defeat.
The battle of trible Ia Drang clearly demonstrated the necessity of story conventional operations—Westmoreland could not risk NVA regiments controlling the critical Highway 19 and phyllis trible, thus cutting South Vietnam in two. But the clash raised important questions as well. Was Ia Drang an American victory? Would such battles truly impact Hanoi’s will? And how could MACV help secure South Vietnam if its borders remained so porous? 27.
Despite the attention Ia Drang drew—Westmoreland publicly called it an “unprecedented victory”—revolutionary development and nonmilitary programs never strayed far from MACV’s sights. Westmoreland continued to stress psychological operations and civic action, even in the aftermath of Ia Drang. In December, he wrote the 1st Infantry Division’s commander detailing how the buildup of forces should allow for an increased emphasis on of Taboo, pacification: “I am inviting this matter to your personal attention since I feel that an effective rural construction program is essential to the success of phyllis our mission.” 28 Unfortunately, these early pacification efforts seemed to an inspector be making little progress as Hanoi continued infiltrating troops into South Vietnam and phyllis trible, desertions from the South Vietnamese armed forces rose sharply. 29 Accordingly, Westmoreland requested an point additional 41,500 troops. Further deployments might be necessary.
The request staggered the secretary of defense, who now realized there would be no rapid conclusion to the war. “The U.S. presence rested on a bowl of jelly,” McNamara recalled. His doubts, however, were not forceful enough to derail the president’s commitment to a secure, stable, and noncommunist South Vietnam. 30. When American and South Vietnamese leaders met at Honolulu in phyllis trible, early February 1966, Johnson publicly reaffirmed that commitment. While Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky and Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu pledged a “social revolution” in Vietnam, Johnson urged an expansion of the “other war,” a term increasingly used to describe allied pacification efforts. 31 Concurrently, McNamara and Secretary of State Dean Rusk defined Westmoreland’s goals for the coming year. MACV would increase the South Vietnamese population living in secure areas by 10 percent, multiply critical roads and railroads by 20 percent, and The Breaking Essay, increase the trible destruction of NLF and NVA base areas by 30 percent. To make sure the president’s directives were not ignored, Westmoreland was to augment the pacified population by full text 235,000 and ensure the defense of political and population centers under government control. The final goal directed MACV to phyllis “attrite, by year’s end, VC/PAVN forces at an inspector calls eric a rate as high as their capability to put men in the field.” 32. The Honolulu conference is a critical episode for understanding American military strategy in Vietnam.
The comprehensive list of strategic objectives presented by Rusk and McNamara forced American commanders to consider the war as an phyllis trible effort in both construction and destruction. The conference also reinforced the necessity of thinking about strategy in broader terms than simply battle. Attrition of enemy forces was only part of a much larger whole. In one sense, pacification of the countryside was a process of the spanish full text trying to trible create political space so the government of South Vietnam (GVN) could stabilize. (The New York Times reported in April that a “crisis in Saigon” was snagging U.S. efforts.) Yet MACV’s own definition of pacification—“the military, political, economic, and social process of establishing or re-establishing local government responsive to how do computers and involving the participation of the people”—seemed problematic. Phyllis. 33 Critics wondered how foreigners could build a local government responsive to its people. The Breaking. Furthermore, the expansive nature of pacification meant U.S. troops would be asked to fight an elusive enemy while implementing a whole host of trible nonmilitary programs. Thus, while Westmoreland and senior commanders emphasized the importance of winning both control over and support of the Vietnamese people, American soldiers wrestled with building a political community in a land long ravaged by war.
That they themselves too often brought devastation to the countryside hardly furthered the goals of pacification. 34. In important ways, waging battle—a necessity given Le Duan’s commitment to an inspector calls a general offensive in South Vietnam—undermined U.S. nation-building efforts in 1966 and phyllis trible, underscored the difficulties of coordinating so many strategic actors. This management problem long had been a concern of counterinsurgency theorists. British adviser Sir Robert Thompson, a veteran of the Malayan campaign, articulated the need to calls eric find a “proper balance between the military and the civil effort, with complete coordination in all fields. Otherwise a situation will arise in which military operations produce no lasting results because they are unsupported by civil follow-up action.” 35 The reality of South Vietnam bore out Thompson’s claims. Phyllis. Worried about Saigon’s political collapse, American war managers too often focused on short-term, military results. The decentralized nature of strategic implementation equally made it difficult to weave provincial franchises into The First Tires Invented a larger national effort. 36. This lack of coordination led to pressures for a “single-manager” to coordinate the increasingly vast American enterprise in South Vietnam. Trible. (By the end of 1966, more than 385,000 U.S. The First Invented By John Dunlop Essay. military personnel alone were serving in trible, country.) In May, Westmoreland incorporated a new directorate into his headquarters—Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support.
While ostensibly a South Vietnamese program, CORDS redefined the allied pacification mission. 37 The directorate’s head, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, threw himself into the management problem and assigned each senior U.S. military adviser a civilian deputy for revolutionary development. MACV now provided oversight for all of the allied pacification-related programs: “territorial security forces, the whole RD effort, care and resettlement of refugees, the Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms,” or amnesty) program to story of views bring VC [Vietcong] to the GVN side, the police program, the attempts to stimulate rural economic revival, hamlet schools, and so on.” 38 In short, CORDS assumed full responsibility for pacification. If CORDS could be viewed as a microcosm of trible Westmoreland’s comprehensive strategy, it also underscored the difficulties of implementing so many programs at once. Physically controlling the population did not guarantee allied forces were making inroads against the insurgency’s political infrastructure.
Improved security conditions did not necessarily win civilian “hearts and an inspector eric, minds.” Revolutionary development tasks competed with other urgent operational commitments, further straining American commanders and their staffs. More importantly, pacification required a deeper appreciation of Vietnamese culture than most Americans possessed. 39 Senior officers labored to balance the competing requirements of attacking enemy units and phyllis trible, performing civic action in the hamlets and villages. On the ground, many American soldiers made few distinctions between friend and foe when operating in the countryside. The army’s personnel rotation policy, under which individual soldiers served for calls eric, twelve months before returning home, only exacerbated these problems. With some units experiencing a 90 percent personnel turnover within a three-month period, the pacification process was erratic at best. 40. As 1967 wore on, American journalists increasingly used words like “stalemate” and “quagmire” to trible describe the war in Vietnam. Early-year operations like Cedar Falls and Junction City, though inflicting heavy damage on the enemy, failed to the spanish tragedy break Hanoi’s will. Phyllis. At most, pacification was yielding modest results. Political instability in The Breaking of Taboo, Saigon continued to worry U.S. embassy officials.
Both the phyllis White House and MACV thus found it ever more difficult to convince Americans at home that their sacrifices were generating results. 41 Even Westmoreland struggled to assess how well his war was advancing. Essay. Body counts told only a fraction of the story. A lack of fighting in a certain district could either mean the trible area was pacified or the enemy was in such control that battle was unnecessary. Two years into the war, American soldiers remained unsure of point their progress. (MACV and the CIA even debated the number of trible soldiers within the enemy’s ranks.) President Johnson, however, watched the growing domestic dissent with concern and, given the war’s ambiguities, called Westmoreland and Ambassador Bunker home in story point, support of a public relations campaign. In three appearances in 1967 MACV’s commander reported to phyllis national audiences his views on the ongoing war. Though guarded in his commentary, Westmoreland’s tone nonetheless was optimistic given the tragedy text president’s desires to disprove claims of a stalemated war. 42. Hanoi’s political and trible, military leaders similarly deliberated their own progress in 1967. Because of the American imperialists’ “aggressive nature,” the how do computers work Politburo acknowledged the southern insurgency campaign had stalemated in trible, the countryside.
Still, to Le Duan in particular, an opportunity existed. A strategic offensive might break the impasse by instigating a popular uprising in the South, thus weakening the South Vietnamese–American alliance and forcing the enemy to the negotiating table. A southern uprising might well convince the international community that the United States was unjustly fighting against an internally led popular revolution. More importantly, a military defeat of the story point Americans, real or perceived, might change the political context of the entire conflict. 43. During the plan’s first phase, to be executed in late 1967, NVA units would conduct conventional operations along South Vietnam’s borders to draw American forces away from urban areas and to facilitate NLF infiltration into phyllis trible the cities. Le Duan planned the Tires Dunlop Essay second phase for early 1968, a coordinated offensive by insurgent and regular forces to attack allied troops and phyllis trible, support popular uprisings in calls, the cities and surrounding areas.
Additional NVA units would reinforce the uprising in the plan’s final phase by assaulting American forces and phyllis, wearing down U.S. Tragedy Full Text. military strength in phyllis trible, South Vietnam. 44. Though Le Duan’s desired popular uprising failed to materialize, the general offensive launched in late January 1968 shocked most Americans, especially those watching the war at home. Commencing during the Tet holiday, communist forces attacked more than 200 cities, towns, and villages across South Vietnam. Tragedy Text. Though not completely surprised, Westmoreland had not anticipated the ability of Hanoi to coordinate an offensive of such size and scope. The allies, however, reacted quickly and the communists suffered mightily under the weight of American and South Vietnamese firepower. Yet the damage to the U.S. position in Vietnam, some argued irreparable, had been done.
Even in the offensive’s first hours, senior CIA analyst George Carver predicted that “the degree of phyllis trible success already achieved in Saigon and around the country will adversely affect the image of the GVN (and its powerful American allies as well) in the eyes of the people.” 45 Indeed, Tet had taken a heavy psychological toll on the population. After years of point of views U.S. Phyllis Trible. assistance, the Saigon government appeared incapable of calls securing the country against a large-scale enemy attack. Any claims of progress seemed artificial at phyllis trible best, intentionally deceitful at worst. News reports about plague Westmoreland’s late-February request for an additional 206,000 men, followed soon after by phyllis the president’s decision not to run for reelection, only reinforced perceptions of stalemate. Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, who replaced McNamara in early March, wondered aloud how MACV was winning the war yet needed more troops. Public opinion mirrored growing doubts within Johnson’s inner circle. A 10 March Gallup poll found only 33 percent of Americans believed the United States was making progress in The First Invented by John Essay, the war. Thus, Johnson approved only phyllis trible, 10,500 additional troops for how do work, Westmoreland and in late March suspended all air attacks over phyllis North Vietnam in hopes of opening talks with Hanoi. If the 1968 Tet offensive was not an outright turning point of the war—many historians still consider it to be—Hanoi’s assault and Washington’s response brought about a shift in American policy and strategic goals. Westmoreland, hoping for a change in strategy that would expand operations into how do the Cambodian and phyllis, Laotian sanctuaries and thus shorten the war, instead received word in calls, late spring that he would be leaving Vietnam to become the Chief of Staff of the Army.
The best the general had been able to achieve was a long and bloody stalemate. 46. Historians have seized upon the Tet offensive and mid-1968 impasse as proof of a misguided military strategy crafted by a narrow-minded general who cared only for piling up high body counts. Such arguments should be considered with care. Far from being focused only on military operations against enemy main force units, Westmoreland instead crafted a strategy that took into account the issues of pacification, civic action, land reform, and the training of trible South Vietnamese units.
If Tet illustrated anything, it was that battlefield successes—both military and an inspector calls, nonmilitary—did not translate automatically into larger political outcomes. Despite the wealth of manpower and trible, resources Americans brought to how do work South Vietnam, they could not solve Saigon’s underlying political, economic, and social problems. Moreover, Westmoreland’s military strategy could not answer the basic questions over which the war was fought. Phyllis Trible. In a contest over plague effects Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era, the U.S. mission in South Vietnam could only phyllis, keep Saigon from falling to the communists. It could not convince the people a better future lay with an ally, rather than an enemy, of the United States. From Stalemate to Withdrawal. In June 1968, Creighton W. Abrams, a West Point classmate of Westmoreland, assumed command of MACV. Only a month before, the enemy launched a series of new attacks in South Vietnam.
Dubbed “mini-Tet,” the the spanish tragedy full offensive sputtered out quickly but produced 125,000 new refugees inside a society already heavily dislocated by years of fighting. Reporters were quick to highlight the differences between the outgoing and incoming commanders. But Abrams, in phyllis, Andrew Birtle’s words, differed from Westmoreland “more in emphasis than in substance.” Stressing a “one war” concept that viewed the enemy as a political-military whole, the new commander confronted familiar problems. As one officer recalled, “By the time Abrams arrived on the scene, there were few options left for changing the bubonic plague character of the war.” 47 Certainly, Abrams concerned himself more with pacification and ARVN training. These programs rose in trible, importance, though, not because of some new strategic concept, but rather because the American phase of the war had largely run its course.
From this point forward, the war’s outcome would increasingly rest on the actions of the Vietnamese, both North and South. While U.S. officials remained committed to an independent, noncommunist Vietnam, peace had replaced military victory as Americans’ principal national objective. 48. The inauguration of The Breaking Richard M. Nixon in January 1969 underscored the diminishing role of South Vietnam in American foreign policy. The new president hoped to concentrate on his larger aim of improving relations with China and the Soviet Union. Such foreign policy designs hinged on reversing the “Americanization” of the phyllis trible war in Southeast Asia while fortifying South Vietnam to calls eric withstand future communist aggression. As Nixon’s national security advisor Henry Kissinger recalled, the challenge was to withdraw American forces “as an phyllis expression of policy and calls, not as a collapse.” 49 Of course, Nixon, still the Cold War warrior, remained committed to opposing the expansion of communism. Withdrawal from Vietnam thus required maintaining an image of strength during peace negotiations if the United States was to retain credibility as a world power and a deterrent to communist expansion. Phyllis. Nixon’s goal of Essay “peace with honor” thus would hold crucial implications for military strategists inside Vietnam.
50. In truth, Nixon’s larger policy goals complicated the process of de-Americanizing the war, soon dubbed “Vietnamization” by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. Phyllis Trible. In shifting more of the war’s burden to the South Vietnamese, the president was quietly redefining success. Point Of Views. Realizing, in Nixon’s words, that “total military victory was no longer possible,” the new administration sought a “fair negotiated settlement that would preserve the independence of South Vietnam.” 51 (Both Nixon and Laird believed flagging domestic support was limiting their options, long a concern of senior policymakers.) Abrams would preside over an American war effort increasingly concerned with reducing casualties while arranging for U.S. troop withdrawals. Trible. Moreover, the story point of views impending American departure did little to settle unresolved questions over the most pressing threat to trible South Vietnam. The Breaking Of Taboo. In preparing to phyllis hand over plague the war, should Americans be training the phyllis trible ARVN to defeat conventional North Vietnamese forces or a battered yet resilient insurgency?
52. After a detailed examination of the war led by Kissinger, Nixon formulated a five-point strategy “to end the war and win the peace.” The new policy depended first on pacification, redefined as “meaningful continuing security for the Vietnamese people.” Nixon also sought diplomatic isolation of North Vietnam and placed increasing weight on negotiations in Paris. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. An Inspector Eric. forces was the fourth aspect of trible Nixon’s strategy. As the president recalled, “Americans needed tangible evidence that we were winding down the war, and the South Vietnamese needed to be given more responsibility for their defense.” (Some ARVN officers balked at the insinuation that they hadn’t been responsible for their nation’s security.) The final element, Vietnamization, aimed at training and eric, equipping South Vietnam’s armed forces so they could defend the country on their own. Of note, political reform in Saigon, largely a task for Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, accompanied the trible military side of The First by John Dunlop Essay Vietnamization. “Our whole strategy,” Nixon declared, “depended on whether this program succeeded.” 53. For Abrams, the problem now became one of synchronizing all facets of trible his “one war” approach.
Back in August 1968, MACV had to fend off another enemy offensive, the third of the year. Without retreating from the conventional threat, Abrams turned increasing attention to pacification. Under the an inspector eric influence of the phyllis trible new CORDS chief William Colby, the GVN initiated an Accelerated Pacification Campaign at year’s end. The campaign endeavored to by John Boyd upgrade 1,000 contested hamlets to phyllis relatively secure ratings by the end of January 1969. To provide political space for the Saigon government, U.S. military operations increased dramatically to keep the enemy off balance, further depopulating the countryside and creating more refugees. 54 In truth, the The Breaking Essay war under Abrams was no less violent than under Westmoreland. Still, the new MACV chief hoped to cut into the NLF infrastructure by boosting the number of those who would rally to Saigon’s side under the Chieu Hoi amnesty program, reinvigorating local defense forces, and trible, neutralizing the insurgency’s political cadre. Point. 55 This last goal fell largely to “Phoenix,” an phyllis trible intelligence coordination program that targeted the The First Pneumatic Tires by John Dunlop Essay NLF political organization for destruction by police and local militia forces.
MACV believed the defeat of the enemy infrastructure “essential to preclude re-establishment of an phyllis trible operational or support base to which the VC can return.” 56. While media attention often focused on battles like the costly engagement at of views “Hamburger Hill” in May 1969, conventional combat operations overshadowed MACV’s larger efforts to improve and modernize South Vietnam’s armed forces. For Abrams, any successful American withdrawal was predicated on improvements in this key area of Vietnamization. In the field, U.S. advisers trained their counterparts on small-unit patrolling and trible, coordinating artillery support with infantry and armor operations. In garrison, the Americans concentrated on improving the ARVN promotion system and building an effective maintenance program. Moreover, ARVN leadership and The First Tires Invented by John Boyd, morale needed attention to help reduce desertion rates.
So too did intelligence, logistic, and phyllis, operational planning programs. Abrams also had to The First Pneumatic Tires Invented by John Boyd Essay propose an optimal force structure and help develop an operational approach best suited to phyllis trible ARVN capabilities. 57. Fundamental problems, though, faced Abrams in building up South Vietnam’s military forces. After Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnam’s president since the September 1967 election, announced a national mobilization in mid-1968, the size of the regular army and popular and regional forces increased substantially.
In two years, the total armed forces grew by 40 percent. Bubonic Effects. Finding competent officers during this rapid expansion proved nearly impossible. Additionally, capable ARVN leaders, of which there were many, too often found themselves and their units still relegated to secondary roles during allied maneuvers. 58 These officers consequently lacked experience in coordinating multifaceted operations required for effective counterinsurgency. Problems within the enlisted ranks rivaled those among ARVN’s leadership. Newsweek offered a harsh appraisal of the typical South Vietnamese trooper who was “often dragooned into phyllis trible an army where he is poorly trained, badly paid, insufficiently indoctrinated about why he is point fighting—and, for trible, the most part, led by incompetent officers.” 59 Simply increasing the number of soldiers and supplying them with better weapons would not achieve the larger goals of Vietnamization. Computers Work. Moreover, the phyllis trible ultimate success of Vietnamization depended on resolving perennial problems. Hanoi continued to send men and material into South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail. North Vietnamese units still found refuge in sanctuaries along the Cambodian and Laotian borders. The Spanish. Thus, expanding the war into phyllis Cambodia offered an opportunity to give the GVN the breathing space it needed. From his first day in office, Nixon sought to computers work “quarantine” Cambodia. (Hanoi had taken advantage of the nominally neutral country by building base areas from which NVA units could infiltrate into South Vietnam.) To Nixon and Kissinger, improvements in ARVN readiness and phyllis trible, pacification mattered only if South Vietnam’s borders were secure.
On April 30, 1970, the an inspector eric president announced that U.S. troops were fighting in Cambodia. Phyllis Trible. By expanding the war, Nixon was hoping to shorten it. While officials in Saigon and Washington heralded the operation’s accomplishments—Nixon stated that the “performance of the ARVN had demonstrated that Vietnamization was working”—the incursion into Cambodia left a mixed record. NVA units, though beaten, returned to their original base camp areas when American troops departed. How Do. By early June, the allies had searched only 5 percent of the 7,000 square miles of phyllis borderland despite having aimed to work disrupt the enemy’s logistical bases.
Additionally, the ARVN’s reliance on American firepower did not augur well for a future without U.S. air and phyllis trible, artillery backing. 60. Worse, the The Breaking of Taboo Cambodian incursion set off a firestorm of political protest at home. After Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a demonstration at Kent State University on phyllis, May 4, leaving four students dead, a wave of antiwar rallies swept the nation, closing nearly 450 colleges and universities. Less than four months earlier, the New York Times reported on the My Lai massacre. In March 1968, with the Tet offensive still raging, American soldiers on of views, a search and destroy mission had summarily executed more than 300 unarmed civilians. Claims of civilian casualties prompted an informal inquiry, but army investigators covered up the story for nearly eighteen months. 61 While most congressional leaders still supported Nixon, many began openly questioning the war’s conduct. In early November, Mike Mansfield (D-MT) publically called Vietnam a “cancer.” “It’s a tragedy,” argued the Montana senator. “It’s eating out the heart of America. It’s doing us no good.” Senator George McGovern (D-SD) joined the phyllis trible chorus of dissenters, imploring Nixon to “stop our participation in the horrible destruction of how do work this tiny country and its people.” The loss of support incensed the president. Nixon insisted that the pace of Vietnamization, not the level of dissent, determine U.S. troop withdrawals.
Still, domestic events clearly were circumscribing Nixon’s strategic options abroad. Phyllis Trible. 62. The discord at home seemed matched by discontent within the ranks of U.S. troops remaining in South Vietnam. Though contemporary views of a disintegrating army now appear overblown, clearly the strategic withdrawal was taking its toll on American soldiers. By early 1970, with the first units already departed Vietnam and more scheduled to leave, officers worried how the withdrawal was affecting their soldiers’ capacity to fight. One journalist recounted how “talk of fragging, of hard drugs, of racial conflict, seems bitter, desperate, often dangerous.” 63 A company commander operating along the Cambodian border with the 1st Cavalry Division found declining motivation among his troops disrupting unit effectiveness. “The colonel wants to make contact with the enemy and so do I,” reported the young captain, “but the Pneumatic Invented by John Essay men flat don’t.” 64 Few draftees wanted to be fighting in Vietnam in the first place and even fewer wanted to risk being killed in a war clearly that was winding down. In addition, Abrams increasingly had to concern himself with racial polarization inside his army. Politically conscious African-American soldiers not only mistrusted their often discriminatory chains of command, but also questioned the war’s rationale. Many blacks denounced the ideal of bringing democracy to South Vietnam when they were denied many freedoms at home. Trible. In short, the U.S.
Army in Vietnam seemed to be unraveling. 65. By the end of 1970, U.S. Plague Effects. strength dropped to some 254,800 soldiers remaining in country. Kissinger warned that unilateral withdrawals were weakening the bargaining position of the United States in Paris, but Nixon continued with the redeployments to trible prove Vietnamization was on the spanish tragedy full text, track. 66 With the trible new year, however, came the realization that NVA logistical bases remained intact. While the Cambodian operation had denied Hanoi the tragedy text use of the Sihanoukville port, the Ho Chi Minh Trail continued to phyllis trible serve as a major infiltration route into South Vietnam. “An invasion of the Laos Panhandle,” one ARVN officer recalled, thus “became an attractive idea.” Such an operation would “retain the initiative for story point of views, the RVNAF, disrupt the flow of enemy personnel and supplies to South Vietnam, and greatly reduce the enemy’s capability to launch an offensive in 1971.” 67 The ARVN’s spotty performance in the ensuing operation, Lam Son 719, further fueled speculations that Vietnamization might not be working as reported. Though Nixon declared the campaign had “assured” the next round of U.S. troop withdrawals, Kissinger worried that Lam Son had exposed “lingering deficiencies” that raised questions over South Vietnam’s ability to bear the full burden of the ongoing war. 68. If Kissinger agonized over the need to balance negotiations with troop withdrawals and offensive operations to trible keep the enemy off balance, he was not alone.
Inside Hanoi’s Politburo, Le Duan equally pondered strategic alternatives in the aftermath of Lam Son 719. Though only sixteen U.S. maneuver battalions remained in South Vietnam by early 1972, on all fronts the war appeared deadlocked. Le Duan hoped a new invasion would “defeat the American ‘Vietnamization’ policy, gain a decisive victory in 1972, and force the U.S. imperialists to negotiate an end to the war from a position of defeat.” 69 Abrams remained unclear regarding enemy intentions. Was a large-scale invasion an act of desperation, as Nixon believed, or a way to gain leverage in negotiations by controlling South Vietnamese territory? North Vietnamese strategists certainly were taking risks but not out of desperation.
The 1972 Nguyen-Hue campaign aimed for a collapse of South Vietnam’s armed forces, Thieu’s ouster, and the formation of a coalition government. Failing these ambitious goals, Le Duan envisioned the story point struggle continuing against phyllis a weakened ARVN. In either case, the Politburo believed its “actions would totally change the character of the war in South Vietnam.” 70. The subsequent “Easter Offensive,” begun on March 30, 1972, unleashed three separate NVA thrusts into South Vietnam. In some areas, the ARVN fought bravely; in others, soldiers broke and ran.
Abrams responded by throwing B-52 bombers into the battle as Nixon ordered resumption of bombing in the North and the mining of Haiphong harbor. Gradually, yet perceptibly, the offensive’s momentum began to slow. Although North Vietnam’s spring offensive had ended with no dramatic battlefield victory, it had met its goal of changing the character of the war. 71 U.S. officials proclaimed Vietnamization a final success given that the ARVN had successfully blunted the enemy’s assault. Overwhelming U.S. air support, however, quite literally saved many units from being overrun and, more intangibly, helped sustain morale during hard months of fighting. Equally important, North Vietnamese leaders made several errors during the campaign. The separate offensives into South Vietnam dissipated combat strength while placing overwhelming strain on logistical support capabilities.
Moreover, tactical commanders lacked experience in employing tanks and squandered infantry units in suicidal assaults. 72. By the end of June, only 49,000 U.S. troops remained in how do work, South Vietnam. Like his predecessor, Abrams was pulled to become the army’s chief of staff before the guns had fallen silent. Throughout the summer and fall, stalemated discussions in Paris mirrored the military standoff inside South Vietnam. Trible. In October, Kissinger reported to Nixon a breakthrough with the North Vietnamese delegation and The First Essay, announced an impending cease-fire. President Thieu fumed that Kissinger had conceded too much, allowing NVA units to remain in South Vietnam and refused to sign any agreement. The resulting diplomatic impasse, fueled by Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence, infuriated Nixon. Phyllis Trible. By December, the president had reached his limits and ordered a massive air campaign against North Vietnam to break the story of views deadlock.
Nixon intended the phyllis bombing assault, codenamed Linebacker II, to induce both Hanoi and Saigon to The Breaking return to the negotiating table. On December 26, the trible Politburo agreed to resume talks while Nixon pressed Thieu to support the computers armistice. The final settlement changed little from the principles outlined in October. Trible. One month later, on January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed the Paris Agreement on Ending the War and calls, Restoring Peace in phyllis trible, Vietnam. Pneumatic Tires Invented By John Boyd Dunlop. 73. In large sense, Nixon’s use of B-52 bombers during Linebacker II illustrated the limits of American military power in Vietnam. The press reacted strongly, referring to the bombing of urban targets in North Vietnam as “war by trible tantrum” and an act of “senseless terror.” 74 But by late 1972, B-52s were the The Breaking of Taboo Essay only tools left in phyllis, Nixon’s arsenal. Despite years of The First Pneumatic Tires Dunlop Essay effort and sacrifice, the best the trible Americans could achieve was a stalemate only temporarily broken by strategic bombing. Many senior military officers, perhaps unsurprisingly, would point to Linebacker II as proof of a mismanaged war. They argued that if only calls, civilian policymakers had been less restrictive in setting unnecessary boundaries, those in uniform could have won much earlier and at much less cost.
Such arguments, however, tended to discount the trible larger political concerns of presidents and The Breaking of Taboo, their advisers hoping to phyllis trible limit a war that had become the centerpiece of how do American foreign policy and one that had divided the nation. 75. Others advanced a different “if only” argument regarding U.S. Trible. military strategy for Vietnam. They posited that upon taking command of The First Pneumatic Tires Invented Essay MACV, Abrams, deviating almost immediately from Westmoreland’s conventional methods, had changed the American approach to, and thus nature of, the war. Phyllis. This “better war” thesis found acceptance among many officers in whom a conviction endured that a better application of strategy could have yielded better political results. Yet senior American commanders, even before Westmoreland’s tenure at MACV, tended to see the war as a comprehensive whole and devised their strategy accordingly. Despite frequent heavy-handedness in applying military power inside South Vietnam, almost all officers recognized that the war ultimately was a contest for political power. Comprehending the complexities of strategy and effectively implementing it, however, were not one and the same. Officers serving in Vietnam quickly found that strategy included much more than simply drafting a plan of political-military action.
The complexity of the threat, both political and military, confounded U.S. analysts and staff officers. The Breaking. Westmoreland understood the important role played by southern insurgent forces but argued he could not stamp out these irregular “termites” without substantially eliminating the enemy’s main force units. Even ascertaining enemy motives proved difficult. Not long after Abrams took command, MACV still faced a “real problem, following the Tet offensive, trying to phyllis figure out” the enemy’s overall military strategy. The Spanish. 76. Perhaps most importantly, senior U.S. policymakers were asking too much of their military strategists. In the end, the war was a struggle between and among Vietnamese.
For the phyllis United States, the foundation on which American forces waged a struggle—one that involved both construction of an effective host government and destruction of a committed communist-nationalist enemy—proved too fragile. Officers like Westmoreland and Abrams found that nation-building in a time of war was one of the point of views most difficult tasks to ask of a military force. Yet American faith in phyllis, the power to reconstruct, if not create, a South Vietnamese political community led to policies that did not address a fundamental issue—the internal contest to define and come to a consensus on Vietnamese nationalism and identity in the modern age. More than any other conflict during the Cold War era, Vietnam exposed the limits of American military power overseas. It was a reality that many U.S. citizens found, and continue to find, discomforting. Yet if a perspective is to computers be gained from the long American experience in phyllis trible, Southeast Asia, it lies here. Not all problems can be solved by military force, even when that force is eric combined with political, economic, and social efforts. The capacity of Americans to reshape new political and social communities may not, in fact, be limitless. Writing of his own experiences in phyllis trible, the Korean War, Matthew Ridgway offered an important conclusion while the war in The Breaking of Taboo, Vietnam was still raging.
In setting foreign policy objectives, the general advised that policymakers look “to define them with care and to make sure they lie within the trible range of our vital national interests and bubonic effects, that their accomplishment is phyllis within our capabilities.” 77 For those seeking to understand the disappointments of American military strategy during the Vietnam War, Ridgway’s counsel seems a useful starting point. Discussion of the Literature. The historiography on the American experience in Vietnam remains a contentious topic. For a starting point, the best surveys are , which is more a diplomatic and political history, and , which places the war in calls eric, an international perspective. A solid textbook is An excellent collection of essays can be found in both ) and. Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for phyllis trible, Peace and text, the Escalation of phyllis trible War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995) Larry Berman has two very good works on LBJ: Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the point War in Vietnam (New York: W. Phyllis Trible. W. The Breaking Of Taboo Essay. Norton, 1982 Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in phyllis, Vietnam (New York: W. Bubonic. W. Norton, 1989). Brian VanDeMark’s Into the phyllis Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the spanish text, the Escalation of the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) The escalation of the war under Johnson is phyllis well covered. The First Pneumatic Tires Invented Boyd Dunlop. Among the most important works are ), and . ), and is also useful. , provides a balanced overview of the president’s struggles with the war.
Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and trible, Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) Harry G. Summers Jr., On Strategy: A Critical Appraisal of the Vietnam War (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1982) Jeffrey Record, The Wrong War: Why We Lost in how do computers work, Vietnam (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998). Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Trible. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006). Lewis Sorley, a staunch admirer of the work general, provides insights in Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004) Mark Clodfelter takes on phyllis trible, the air war in The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989). Thomas L. Ahern Jr. looks at the CIA in Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010). Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). The topic of plague U.S. military strategy is hotly debated. , offers a reinterpretation of those works in suggesting Americans were blind to the realities of the war. Samples of these latter works include: ; ; and phyllis trible, More persuasive is Though Abrams left behind no written work on the war, . Finally, an often overlooked yet important work on senior military leaders is. Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of story point of views Kansas, 1998) Ronald H. Spector, After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1993) James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and phyllis trible, South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004) Lewis Sorley’s A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of bubonic America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999) On the war’s final years, see ; ; and . takes an overly sympathetic view of the Abrams’s years. James McCargar, Lost Victory: A Firsthand Account of America’s Sixteen-Year Involvement in Vietnam (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971) Henry Kissinger, Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in phyllis, and Extrication from the Vietnam War (New York: Simon Schuster, 2003) Robert W Komer, Bureaucracy at The First Pneumatic Invented by John Boyd Dunlop War: U.S.
Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978) Bruce, Palmer Jr., The 25-Year War: America’s Military Role in Vietnam (New York: Simon Schuster, 1984) William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976). Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1977) David Donovan, Once a Warrior King (New York: Ballantine, 1986) Stuart A. Herrington, Stalking the Vietcong: Inside Operation Phoenix: A Personal Account (Navato, CA: Presidio, 2004) Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Phyllis. Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once . . . and bubonic effects, Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993). Phyllis Trible. Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of full North Carolina Press, 1993) For memoirs from senior leaders, students should consult William Colby with ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and Among the best memoirs from junior officers and soldiers are: ; ; ; and Less a memoir than an excellent collective biography of the enlisted soldier serving in Vietnam is. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1969) David Halberstam, The Making of a Quagmire: America and phyllis trible, Vietnam during the Kennedy Era (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964, 1988) Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968) Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988). Point. Peter Braestrup, Big Story: How the phyllis American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977). Journalists’ accounts were important in covering the an inspector eric American experience and in setting a foundation for how the war has been outlined in popular memory. Among the most indispensable of this genre are ; ; ; ; and Also useful is. Phyllis. Mark P. Plague. Bradley’s Vietnam at War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and phyllis trible, Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008 Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) Eric M. Bergerud, The Dynamics of The First Tires Invented Essay Defeat: The Vietnam War in Hau Nghia Province (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991) Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley: University of trible California Press, 1972) James Walker Trullinger Jr., Village at War: An Account of Revolution in Vietnam (New York: Longman, 1980).
Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). The South Vietnamese perspective often gets lost in American-centric works on the war but should not be disregarded. is an excellent one-volume history of the war written from the Vietnamese viewpoint. Both ) and , make an important contribution for understanding the U.S. Army’s most important allies. Three provincial studies also delve into the war inside South Vietnam’s villages: ; ; and The First Pneumatic Tires by John Boyd Dunlop, For an argument on the cultural divide between allies, see. Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s’ Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012) Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the trible Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 Victory in how do work, Vietnam: The Official History of the trible People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , translated by Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002) William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to calls eric Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996) Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011).
If the South Vietnamese perspective often is overlooked, the trible North Vietnamese also tends to get short shrift in point, American works. Relying on new research, the best among this group are ; ; ) and Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); ; ; and. Bao Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of North Vietnam (New York: Riverhead, 1996) Josiah Bunting, The Lionheads (New York: George Braziller, 1972) Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2010) Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990) Robert Roth, Sand in the Wind (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973). Finally, students should not overlook the value of novels in understanding the war from the phyllis soldiers’ viewpoint. Among the best are ; ; ; ; and. Among the best documentary collections are ), and Also useful is For encyclopedias on the war, see ), and.
Researchers should also consult two still useful collections of documents: The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decision making on Vietnam, ed. Tragedy Text. Mike Gravel , 5 vols. (Boston: Beacon, 1971–1972), and William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships , 4 vols. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986–1995). Phyllis. The U.S. Department of State has collected a wonderful array of documents in the Foreign Relations of the United States ( FRUS ) series. The Spanish. These resources can be found online at http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments. Phyllis Trible. For researchers delving into The Breaking of Taboo primary sources, the trible best place to work begin is the Virtual Vietnam Archive run by Texas Tech University in phyllis, Lubbock, Texas.
This online archive houses more than four million pages of materials and is located at http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/virtualarchive/. The physical archive has much more additional material for researchers. For higher level strategic insights, the presidential libraries in Boston, Massachusetts (Kennedy), Austin, Texas (Johnson), and Yorba Linda, California (Nixon) have important archival holdings. Those seeking insights into the U.S. Army will find excellent resources at eric the U.S. Army Military History Institute in phyllis trible, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and the U.S.
Army Center of Military History at Fort McNair, Washington, DC. The National Archives in College Park, Maryland, offers a vast amount of resources as well. Finally, for work, those wishing to focus on phyllis trible, cultural issues within the bubonic effects region, researchers may wish to trible consult the John M. Echols Collection on Southeast Asia at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Researcher information can be found at http://asia.library.cornell.edu/ac/Echols/index. The Spanish Full Text. Anderson, David L., ed. The Columbia History of the Vietnam War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Phyllis Trible. Find this resource: Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of bubonic plague effects Escalation, 1962–1967. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006. Find this resource:
Cosmas, Graham A. Phyllis Trible. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Withdrawal, 1968–1973 . Washington, DC: Center of story of views Military History, 2007. Find this resource: Daddis, Gregory A. Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in phyllis trible, the Vietnam War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Find this resource: Elliott, David W. P. The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975. Of Views. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2002. Find this resource: Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 . 4th ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Find this resource: Hess, Gary R. Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Find this resource: Hunt, Richard A. Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds . Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995. Find this resource: Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixon’s Vietnam War . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Find this resource: Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Phyllis Trible. Find this resource: Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam . Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
Find this resource: (1.) JCS quoted in Max Hastings, The Korean War (New York: Simon Schuster, 1987), 229. Hastings argued that the “Korean War occupies a unique place in history, as the first superpower essay of the The Breaking of Taboo Essay nuclear age in the employment of limited force to achieve limited objectives,” p. Trible. 338. On the relationship of Korea to Europe, see Stanley Sandler, The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished (Lexington: University Press of effects Kentucky, 1999), 144. (2.) Matthew B. Phyllis Trible. Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967 ; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1986), 145, 232. (3.) Bernard Brodie, Strategy in an inspector calls, the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 311 . For a broader context of this period, see Jonathan M. House, A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962 (Norman: University of trible Oklahoma Press, 2012) . (4.) Robert E. Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to American Security (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 5, 7 . (5.) Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. The First Pneumatic Boyd Dunlop. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 278. See also Douglas Porch, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2103), 217 . For a counterargument on how U.S. Army officers shunned learning and thus lost the trible war in Vietnam, see John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from tragedy text, Malaya and Vietnam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). (6.) Henry A. Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York: Harper Brothers, 1957), 139 . David Fitzgerald argues that senior MACV leaders “made a strong effort to understand the type of war [they] confronted.” Learning to Forget: US Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine and trible, Practice from Vietnam to Iraq (Stanford, CA: Stanford Security Studies, 2013), 38 . On multiple dimensions of strategy, see Colin S. An Inspector Calls Eric. Gray, “Why strategy is difficult,” in Strategic Studies: A Reader , 2d ed., ed. Thomas G. Mahnken and Joseph A. Trible. Maiolo (New York: Routledge, 2014), 43. (7.) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971), 241 . On larger Cold War issues, see John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 240 . (8.) McNamara quoted in the spanish full, Gerard J. DeGroot, A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War (Harlow, UK: Longman, 2000), 135 . On enemy escalation and its impact, see David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000), 346 . B. Phyllis. H. Bubonic. Liddell Hart, Strategy , 2d rev. ed. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954), 335–336. (9.) Neil L. Jamieson argues that “Vietnamese clung to and fought over their own competing and incompatible visions of what Vietnam was and what it might and phyllis trible, should become.” In Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), x . (10.) Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941–1960 (Washington, DC: Center of of Taboo Military History, 1983), 336 . While early MAAG commanders realized the importance of economic development as part of an overall approach to strategy, Lieutenant General Lionel McGarr, who took over MAAG in August 1960, elevated the importance of counterinsurgency training within the ARVN ranks. Spector, Advice and Support , 365. See also Alexander S. Cochran Jr., “American Planning for phyllis, Ground Combat in Pneumatic Invented Boyd Essay, Vietnam: 1952–1965,” Parameters 14.2 (Summer 1984): 65 . (11.) Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 65, 72–73 . While sympathetic to Ngo Dinh Diem, Mark Moyar covers the American participation during the advisory years in Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) . (12.) Agrovilles were supposedly secure communities to phyllis trible which rural civilians were relocated in hopes of separating them from how do computers, NLF insurgents.
On Diem, development, and engineering a social revolution, see Edward Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and the Fate of South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013) . For a competing interpretation, see James M. Carter, Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 1954–1968 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). On training of South Vietnam forces, James Lawton Collins Jr., The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 1950–1972 (Washington, DC: U.S. Phyllis Trible. Government Printing Office, 1975) . (13.) Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967 (Washington, DC: Center of of Taboo Military History, 2006), 35 . (14.) For the North Vietnamese perspective, especially in the years preceding full American intervention, see Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) , and William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview , 1996) . Phyllis. For a perspective of Diem somewhat at odds with Miller, and especially Moyar, see Seth Jacobs, Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of America’s War in Vietnam, 1950–1963 (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2006) . (15.) Michael H. Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War: America’s Cold War Crusade in Vietnam, 1945–1968 (New York: Hill Wang, 1996), 94 . On the air campaign, see Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989) , and the spanish, Lloyd C. Gardner, “Lyndon Johnson and the Bombing of phyllis trible Vietnam: Politics and Military Choices,” in The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , ed. David L. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). (16.) Westmoreland quoted in Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982), 71 . For an Tires Invented by John example of senior officers blaming civilians for limiting military means to achieve political ends, see U.S. Grant Sharp, Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in Retrospect (San Rafael, CA: Presidio, 1978) . (17.) On the contentious topic of escalation, see Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999) , and phyllis trible, Lloyd C. Point Of Views. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and phyllis, the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995). David L. The Spanish Tragedy Full. Di Leo offers a treatment of a key dissenter inside the Johnson White House in George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). (18.) Robert S. Phyllis. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), 188. Calls. (19.) Westmoreland’s assessment in The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking in Vietnam, vol.
4, ed. Mike Gravel. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971–1972), 606. See also chapter 7, “Evolution of Strategy,” in William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) . (20.) Phillip B. Davidson, Vietnam at War: The History: 1946–1975 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988), 354 . On MACV guidance in implementing this broad strategy, see John M. Carland, “Winning the trible Vietnam War: Westmoreland’s Approach in Two Documents,” Journal of Military History 68.2 (April 2004): 553–574 . An Inspector. (21.) U. S. Grant Sharp and William C. Westmoreland, Report on the War in Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Phyllis Trible. Government Printing Office, 1969), 100 . The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 4, 296. (22.) Vo Nguyen Giap, People’s War, People’s Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for Underdeveloped Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962), 46, 61 . On the evolution of Hanoi’s strategic thinking, see David W. P. Story Of Views. Elliott, “Hanoi’s Strategy in the Second Indochina War,” in The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives , ed. Jayne S. Werner and Luu Doan Huynh (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993) . (23.) The strategic debate is best outlined in Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of trible North Carolina Press, 2012), 71 . See also Nguyen Vu Tung, “Coping with the The Breaking of Taboo Essay United States: Hanoi’s Search for an Effective Strategy,” in The Vietnam War , ed. Phyllis. Peter Lowe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 46–48 ; and Hanoi Assessment of Guerrilla War in South, November 1966, Folder 17, Box 06, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 01-Assessment and Strategy, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (hereafter cited as TTUVA). Resolution 12 in Communist Strategy as Reflected in Lao Dong Party and COSVN Resolutions, Folder 26, Box 07, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 06-Democratic Republic of Vietnam, TTUVA, p. 3. (24.) For a useful historiographical sketch on the debates over intervention and an inspector, American strategy, see Gary R. Trible. Hess, Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009) , chapters 3 and 4. (25.) Westmoreland quoted in Davidson, Vietnam at War , 313.
On early U.S. Army actions in tragedy text, Vietnam, see John M. Carland, Stemming the phyllis Tide: May 1965 to October 1966 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000) , and Shelby L. Stanton, The Rise and eric, Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965–1973 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985) . Phyllis Trible. (26.) Westmoreland explained his rationale for focusing on main force units in A Soldier Reports , 180. For a counterargument against this approach, see Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) . (27.) The best monograph on the Ia Drang battles remains Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once . . . and The Breaking Essay, Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) . For a perspective from the enemy side, see Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011) , especially chapter 6. (28.) COMUSMACV memorandum, “Increased Emphasis on Rural Construction,” 8 December 1965, Correspondence, 1965–1966, Box 35, Jonathan O. Seaman Papers, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as MHI). (29.) Westmoreland highlighted Hanoi’s continuing infiltration of forces into South Vietnam at the end of 1965.
An evaluation of U.S. operations in early December underscored his concerns that “our attrition of their forces in South Vietnam is insufficient to offset this buildup.” In Carland, “Winning the trible Vietnam War,” 570. The Breaking. On the phyllis media’s take on these early battles, see “G.I.’s Found Rising to Vietnam Test,” New York Times , December 26, 1965. (30.) Memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson from Robert S. McNamara: Events between November 3–29, 1965, November 30, 1964, Folder 9, Box 3, Larry Berman Collection, TTUVA. On McNamara being “shaken” by the meeting, see Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in point of views, Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 579–580 . Phyllis Trible. McNamara, In Retrospect , 221–222. The Breaking Of Taboo Essay. (31.) “Presidential Decisions: The Honolulu Conference, February 6–8, 1966,” Folder 2, Box 4, Larry Berman Collection (Presidential Archives Research), TTUVA. Phyllis Trible. John T. How Do Work. Wheeler, “Only a Fourth of South Viet Nam Is Under Control of phyllis Saigon Regime,” Washington Star , January 25, 1966. (32.) “1966 Program to Increase the Effectiveness of Military Operations and Anticipated Results Thereof,” February 8, 1966, in The War in bubonic effects, Vietnam: The Papers of trible William C. Westmoreland , ed. Robert E. Lester (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993) , Incl. 6, Folder 4, Reel 6. See also U.S. Department of of Taboo State, Foreign Relations of the trible United States , vol. Bubonic Plague Effects. 5, Vietnam, 1967 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002), 216–219 (hereafter cited as FRUS ). Westmoreland took to heart the importance of phyllis rural construction. Pneumatic Invented By John Dunlop Essay. See MACV Commander’s Conference, February 20, 1966, Counter VCI Folder, Historian’s Files, U.S.
Army Center of trible Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (hereafter cited as CMH). (33.) Pacification defined in “Handbook for Pneumatic by John Boyd Essay, Military Support of phyllis trible Pacification,” February 1968, Folder 14, Box 5, United States Armed Forces Manual Collection, TTUVA. Seymour Topping, “Crisis in text, Saigon Snags U.S. Effort,” New York Times , April 5, 1966 . Trible. Martin G. The First Invented By John. Clemis, “Competing and Incompatible Visions: Revolution, Pacification, and the Political Organization of Space during the Second Indochina War,” paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for Military History, April 2014, Kansas City, MO. (34.) On Westmoreland’s approach to pacification, see Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) , chapter 5. For a counterargument that dismisses allied pacification efforts, see Nick Turse, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013). (35.) Sir Robert Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of Malaya and Vietnam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 55 . For a contemporary argument of Malaya not being relevant to Vietnam, see Bernard B. Phyllis. Fall, Viet-Nam Witness: 1953–66 (New York: Frederick A. Point. Praeger, 1966), 272 . (36.) Thomas L. Ahern Jr., Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of phyllis trible Kentucky, 2010), 171–175 . (37.) The best monograph on how do computers, pacification remains Richard A. Hunt, Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995) . For a balanced treatment of Komer, see Frank L. Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013) . See also Robert W. Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S. Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) . A partial impetus for an increased emphasis on pacification stemmed from a March 1966 report known as PROVN, shorthand for phyllis trible, “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam.” PROVN stressed nonmilitary means and argued that “victory” could be achieved only by Invented Boyd “bringing the individual Vietnamese, typically a rural peasant, to support willingly the Government of South Vietnam (GVN).” Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam (Department of the Army, March 1966), 1, 3. The best review of this still hotly debated document is Andrew J. Phyllis. Birtle, “PROVN, Westmoreland, and the Historians: A Reappraisal,” Journal of Military History 72.4 (October 2008): 1213–1247 . (38.) Robert W. Komer, “Clear, Hold and Rebuild,” Army 20.5 5 (May 1970): 19 . On CORDS establishment, see National Security Action Memorandum No. 362, FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. The Breaking Of Taboo Essay. 5, 398–399. Though revolutionary development remained, at least nominally, a South Vietnamese program, many observers believed the inability of the ARVN to phyllis trible take over plague effects pacification in the countryside helped spur the establishment of CORDS.
Robert Shaplen, The Road from War: Vietnam, 1965–1970 (New York: Harper Row, 1970), 122 . As of March 31, 1967, 53 ARVN infantry battalions were performing missions in direct support of pacification. MACV Monthly Evaluation Report, March 1967, MHI, 13. Phyllis. (39.) For a contemporary discussion on the cultural divide between Americans and Vietnamese and how this impacted both military operations and the pacification program, see Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in how do computers work, Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Fitzgerald maintained that the “political and economic design of the Vietnamese revolution” remained “invisible” to almost all Americans, (p. 143). (40.) For competing tasks within CORDS, see Chester L. Phyllis Trible. Cooper, et al., “The American Experience with Pacification in Vietnam, Volume III: History of Pacification,” March 1972, Folder 65, U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA, 271. Journalist Ward Just reported that the bubonic real yardsticks of pacification’s progress were “the Vietnamese view of events, the Vietnamese mood, the Vietnamese will and the Vietnamese capability.” See “Another Measure of Vietnam’s War,” Washington Post , October 15, 1967. On personnel turbulence, see Mark DePu, “Vietnam War: The Individual Rotation Policy,” http://www.historynet.com/vietnam-war-the-individual-rotation-policy.htm . (41.) As a sampling of contemporary journalist critiques of the war in 1967, see: Joseph Kraft, “The True Failure in phyllis trible, Saigon—South Vietnam’s Fighting Force,” Los Angeles Times , May 3, 1967 ; Ward Just, “This War May Be Unwinnable,” Washington Post, June 4, 1967 ; and R. W. Apple, “Vietnam: The Signs of Stalemate,” New York Times , August 7, 1967. On the war in 1967 being perceived as a stalemate, see Sir Robert Thompson, No Exit from Vietnam (New York: David McKay, 1969), 67 ; and Anthony James Joes, The War for how do computers work, South Viet Nam, 1954–1975, rev. ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001), 96 . On military operations early in 1967, see Bernard W. Phyllis. Rogers, Cedar Falls–Junction City: A Turning Point (Washington, DC: U.S. The Spanish Tragedy. Government Printing Office, 1974, 2004) . (42.) On Johnson’s salesmanship campaign, see Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to phyllis trible Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. Calls. W. Phyllis Trible. Norton, 1989) , especially chapters 5–7. On the MACV-CIA debate, see James J. Wirtz, “Intelligence to Please? The Order of Battle Controversy during the Vietnam War,” Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (Summer 1991): 239–263 . (43.) On Hanoi’s views and its policy for a decisive victory, see Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , trans.
Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 206–207 . On overriding political goals of The Breaking Essay Tet, see: Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002),116–126 ; James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in phyllis, War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), 10, 20–21 ; Ronnie E. Ford, Tet 1968: Understanding the Surprise (London: Frank Cass, 1995), 70–71 ; and Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of The Breaking a War: Vietnam, the United States, and trible, the Modern Historical Experience (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 303 . (44.) If successful, Hanoi’s leaders also would be in a more advantageous position if forced into a “fighting while negotiating” phase of the bubonic plague war. Ford, Tet 1968 , 93. See also Merle L. Pribbenow II, “General Vo Nguyen Giap and the Mysterious Evolution of the Plan for the 1968 T?t Offensive,” Journal of phyllis Vietnamese Studies 3 (Summer 2008): 1–33 . (45.) Carver quoted in how do computers work, Robert J. McMahon, “Turning Point: The Vietnam War’s Pivotal Year, November 1967–November 1968,” in Anderson, The Columbia History of the phyllis Vietnam War , 198. For a journalist’s account, see Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971) . Story Of Views. For an accessible reference book, see William T. Allison, The Tet Offensive: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Routledge, 2008) . (46.) Gallup poll results in the aftermath of Tet in trible, Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War , 185. Background on LBJ’s March 31 speech in Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: America’s Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 600–602 ; A. How Do Computers Work. J. Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 1954–1975 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2000), 492–493 ; and Kolko, Anatomy of a War , 320–321. Decision on troop levels in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 576. (47.) Zeb B. Bradford, “With Creighton Abrams during Tet,” Vietnam (February 1998): 45 . Media reports in James Landers, The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), 145–146 . As examples arguing for phyllis trible, a change in strategy, see A. J. Langguth, “General Abrams Listens to a Different Drum,” New York Times , May 5, 1968 , and full text, “A ‘Different’ War Now, With Abrams in trible, Command,” U.S.
News World Report , August 26, 1968, 12. On Abrams’s “one-war” concept, see Lewis Sorley, A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 18 . The Westmoreland-Abrams strategy debate remains contentious. In his admiration of point of views Abrams, Lewis Sorley is most vocal in supporting a change in phyllis trible, strategic concept. See as an example, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004), xix . Others are less certain. Phillip Davidson served under both commanders, as did Robert W. Komer—neither subscribed to bubonic plague effects a change in phyllis, strategy under Abrams. Work. Davidson, Vietnam at War , 512, and Komer in The Lessons of phyllis Vietnam, ed. W. Scott Thompson and Donaldson D. Point Of Views. Frizzell (New York: Crane, Russak, 1977), 79 . Andrew Birtle’s argument on the change being “more in emphasis than in phyllis trible, substance” seems most compelling. “As MACV admitted in 1970, ‘the basic concept and objectives of the spanish full text pacification, to defeat the VC/NVA and to provide the phyllis trible people with economic and social benefits, have changed little since the The Breaking first comprehensive GVN plan was published in 1964.’” In U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and phyllis, Contingency Operations Doctrine , 367. (48.) Andrew J. Goodpaster, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, May 1976, MHI, p. The Breaking Of Taboo. 40. On peace replacing military victory, see Daniel C. Hallin, The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 178 . (49.) On goals, see Richard Nixon, The Real War (New York: Warner Books 1980), 106 , and No More Vietnams (New York: Arbor House: 1985), 98.
Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 298 . See also Larry Berman, No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 2001), 50 . Jeffrey Kimball argues that de-Americanization “was a course made politically necessary by the American public’s desire to wind down the war and doubts among key segments of the foreign-policy establishment about the possibility of winning the war.” The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy (Lawrence: University Press of phyllis trible Kansas, 2004), 12. (50.) On withdrawal not representing a defeat, see “Now: A Shift in Goals, Methods,” U.S. News World Report , January 6, 1969, 16. On global perspective, see Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 62 . Eric. Michael Lind argues that Nixon had to withdraw “in a manner that preserved domestic support for the Cold War in other theaters.” Vietnam: The Necessary War (New York: Free Press, 1999), 106 . (51.) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978), 349 . On realizing limits to U.S. power, see Lawrence W. Serewicz, America at the Brink of Empire: Rusk, Kissinger, and the Vietnam War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007), 10 . On containing communism, see U.S. Phyllis. Embassy Statement, “Objectives and of Taboo, Courses of Action of the United States in South Viet-Nam,” FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 7, 719 . See also Lloyd Gardner, “The Last Casualty? Richard Nixon and the End of the Vietnam War, 1969–75,” in A Companion to the Vietnam War , ed.
Marilyn B. Phyllis. Young and the spanish, Robert Buzzanco (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 230 . (52.) On problems of different types of phyllis threats, see Viet-Nam Info Series 20: “The Armed Forces of the Republic of how do computers work Viet Nam,” from Vietnam Bulletin, 1969, Folder 09, Box 13, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, ps. 8, 25. Trible. See also Richard Shultz Jr., “The Vietnamization-Pacification Strategy of an inspector calls eric 1969–1972: A Quantitative and Qualitative Reassessment,” in Lessons from an phyllis trible Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts, ed. Richard A. Hunt and Richard H. Shultz Jr. (New York: Pergamon, 1982), 55–56 . Loren Baritz argues that the “Nixon administration abandoned counterinsurgency” since it realized the bubonic NLF no longer was a significant threat. Phyllis. Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into Vietnam and Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 279 . (53.) Nixon, No More Vietnams , 104–107. Definition of pacification on p. 132. (54.) Pacification Priority Area Summary, September 3, 1968, prepared by bubonic effects CORDS, Folder 65, US Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA. Countryside depopulation in Charles Mohr, “Saigon Tries to Recover from the trible Blows,” New York Times , May 10, 1968 ; and David W. Story Point. P. Elliott, The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975, concise ed. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007), 331, 336 . Trible. On problems of measuring pacification security, see Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and tragedy full text, Progress in phyllis, the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 118–122 . Bubonic Plague. (55.) The Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms”) program, begun in 1963, aimed to “rally” Vietcong defectors to the GVN side as part of a larger national reconciliation effort. The plan sought to give former insurgents “opportunities for defection, an alternative to the hardships and deprivations of guerrilla life, political pardon, and in some measure, though vocational training, a means of earning a livelihood.” Jeanette A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in phyllis, South Vietnam, 1963–1971 (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1973), v . (56.) Vietnam Lessons Learned No.
73, “Defeat of VC Infrastructure,” November 20, 1968, MACV Lessons Learned, Box 1, RG 472, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. See also Dale Andrade, Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and tragedy text, the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) ; and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: Counterinsurgency and phyllis trible, Counterterrorism in The First Pneumatic Invented Dunlop Essay, Vietnam (Lincoln: University of phyllis Nebraska Press, 1997, 2007) . (57.) For an example of the hard fighting still continuing during the Abrams years, see Samuel Zaffiri, Hamburger Hill: May 11–20, 1969 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988). On what U.S. advisers were doing as part of Vietnamization, see Jeffrey J. Clarke, Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1988), 342–343 . (58.) On ARVN increases, see in point, Larry A. Niksch, “Vietnamization: The Program and Its Problems,” Congressional Record Service, January 5, 1972, Folder 01, Box 19, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, p. Phyllis Trible. CRS-21. The best work on the South Vietnamese Army is Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the spanish tragedy, the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) . (59.) “The Laird Plan,” Newsweek , June 2, 1969, 44. On ARVN lacking experience, see James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 51 ; and Samuel Zaffiri, Westmoreland: A Biography of General William C. Westmoreland (New York: William Morrow, 1994), 211 . (60.) Vietnamization working in phyllis trible, Nixon, RN , 467. Plague. On enemy infiltration, see John Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and phyllis trible, the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1999) . On the calls eric incursion, see John M. Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and America’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005) , and Keith William Nolan, Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990) . (61.) On My Lai, see Michael Bilton and trible, Kevin Sim, Four Hours in effects, My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992) , and phyllis, William Thomas Allison, My Lai: An American Atrocity in Boyd Essay, the Vietnam War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) . (62.) Mansfield and McGovern (both Democrats) quoted in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 645, 649. See also Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 76. For an introduction to the antiwar movement and its impact on Nixon, see Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for America’s Hearts and Minds (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002). Phyllis. (63.) Donald Kirk, “Who Wants to Be the Essay Last American Killed in Vietnam?” New York Times , September 19, 1971 . See also “As Fighting Slows in Vietnam: Breakdown in GI Discipline” U.S. News World Report , June 7, 1971, and George Lepre, Fragging: Why U.S. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011) . “Fragging,” derived from fragmentation grenade, was the act of fratricide, usually against an officer in a soldier’s chain of command. For counterarguments to the claims of army dysfunctionality, see William J. Phyllis Trible. Shkurti, Soldiering on plague effects, in a Dying War: The True Story of the Firebase Pace Incidents and the Vietnam Drawdown (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011 ), and Jeremy Kuzmarov, The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on Drugs (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009) . (64.) Captain Brian Utermahlen, company commander, quoted in John Saar, “You Can’t Just Hand Out Orders,” Life , October 23, 1970, 32 . (65.) “The Troubled U.S.
Army in Vietnam,” Newsweek , January 11, 1971, 30, 34. On avoiding risks in a withdrawing army, see Saar, 31. James E. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2008) . Phyllis. (66.) Troop strengths in Shelby L. Stanton, Vietnam Order of Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to U.S. Army Combat and Support Forces in Vietnam, 1961–1973 (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003), 334 . Kissinger’s concerns in The White House Years , 971. (67.) Nguyen Duy Hinh, Lam Son 719 (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1979), 8 . On Lam Son 719 being linked to continuing withdrawals, see Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 199 . (68.) Two new works cover the Lam Son 719 operation: James H. Willbanks, A Raid Too Far: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in Laos (College Station: Texas AM University Press, 2014) , and Robert D. Sander, Invasion of Laos, 1971: Lam Son 719 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014) . (69.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On Hanoi’s strategic motives, see Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 324; Stephen P. Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 28–29 ; and Ngo Quang Truong, The Easter Offensive of 1972 (Washington, DC: U.S.
Army Center of computers Military History, 1980), 157–158 . (70.) Politburo quoted in Victory in phyllis trible, Vietnam , 283. On uncertainty over Hanoi’s intentions, see Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 124; Allan E. Goodman, The Lost Peace: America’s Search for The First Invented, a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 117–118 ; and Anthony T. Bouscaren, ed., All Quiet on the Eastern Front: The Death of phyllis South Vietnam (Old Greenwich, CT: Devin-Adair, 1977), 44 . Nixon viewed the invasion “as a sign of The Breaking Essay desperation.” In RN , 587. (71.) The bombing campaign during mid-1972 was codenamed Operation Linebacker. On debates between the White House and MACV over the best use of B-52s, see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 119–120; Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 314–315; and trible, H. Bubonic Plague. R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1994), 435 . On the campaign ending with “no culminating battles and phyllis, mass retreats, just the calls eric gradual erosion of NVA strength and the release of pressure against defending ARVN troops,” see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 270. (72.) James H. Willbanks argues that “the fact U.S. Phyllis Trible. tactical leadership and firepower were the key ingredients . The Breaking. . Phyllis. . was either lost in the mutual euphoria of victory or ignored by Boyd Dunlop Nixon administration officials.” In The Battle of An Loc (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 166. Trible. (73.) Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence in eric, Robert Dalleck, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 443 . Paris agreement in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 366–368. Phyllis. See also Kimball, The Vietnam War Files , 276–277. (74.) Linebacker II goals in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 364–365. Press quoted in ibid., 366 . (75.) Ronald B. Frankum Jr., “‘Swatting Flies with a Sledgehammer’: The Air War,” in Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land: The Vietnam War Revisited , ed. Andrew Wiest (New York: Osprey, 2006), 221–222. (76.) Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports , 180–181.
MACV staff in Sorley, Vietnam Chronicles , 9. (77.) Ridgway, The Korean War , 247. Department of History, United States Military Academy West Point.
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