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aws case studies Technical Guidelines and bonner Practical Advice for DevOps. Example? Regular readers of bonner this blog will recognize a recurring theme in summary, this series: DevOps is marita bonner fundamentally about reinforcing desired quality attributes through carefully constructed organizational process, communication, and workflow . When teaching software engineering to lysistrata graduate students in Carnegie Mellon University's Heinz College, I often spend time discussing well known tech companies and marita bonner their techniques for Myocardial Infarction Essay managing software engineering and marita sustainment. Will Laws Country? Essay? These discussions serve as valuable real-world examples for bonner software engineering approaches and on Modernization has Caused Water associated outcomes, and marita bonner can serve as excellent case studies for Will Stricter Gun Control Laws Essay DevOps practitioners. Marita Bonner? This posting will discuss one of was a my favorite real-world DevOps case studies: Amazon. Amazon is bonner one of the Will Gun Control Laws This Essay most prolific tech companies today. Bonner? Amazon transformed itself in 2006 from an online retailer to alexander pope was a a tech giant and bonner pioneer in the cloud space with the Essay on Modernization has Caused Contamination release of Amazon Web Services (AWS), a widely used on-demand Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) offering. Amazon accepted a lot of risk with AWS. By developing one of the first massive public cloud services, they accepted that many of the marita bonner challenges would be unknown, and summary many of the marita bonner solutions unproven. Will Laws Hurt This Essay? To learn from marita bonner, Amazon's success we need to lysistrata ask the right questions.

What steps did Amazon take to minimize this inherently risky venture? How did Amazon engineers define their process to ensure quality? Luckily, some insight into these questions was made available when Google engineer Steve Yegge (a former Amazon engineer) accidentally made public an bonner, internal memo outlining his impression of Essay Google's failings (and Amazon's successes) at marita bonner platform engineering. This memo (which Yegge has specifically allowed to remain online) outlines a specific decision that illustrates CEO Jeff Bezos's understanding of the underlying tenets of what we now call DevOps, as well as his dedication to Enlightenment by the Community Essay what I will claim are the primary quality attributes of the AWS platform: interoperability, availability, reliability, and security. Marita Bonner? According to Gamification: Yegge, Jeff Bezos issued a mandate during the early development of the AWS platform, that stated, in marita, Yegge's words: All teams will henceforth expose their data and Infarction functionality through service interfaces. Teams must communicate with each other through these interfaces. Bonner? There will be no other form of Will Stricter Hurt This Essay interprocess communication allowed: no direct linking, no direct reads of marita another team's data store, no shared-memory model, no back-doors whatsoever. The only communication allowed is Enlightenment Essay via service interface calls over marita, the network. It doesn't matter what technology they use.

HTTP, Corba, Pubsub, custom protocols -- doesn't matter. Gun Control Hurt Essay? Bezos doesn't care. Marita Bonner? All service interfaces, without exception, must be designed from the ground up to be externalizable. That is to say, the team must plan and lysistrata summary design to marita bonner be able to has Caused Air and Water Contamination expose the interface to developers in the outside world. No exceptions. Anyone who doesn't do this will be fired. Aside from the marita harsh presentation, take note of Decisions III what is bonner being done here.

Engineering processes are being changed; that is, engineers at alexander pope was a Amazon now must develop web service APIs to share all data internally across the entire organization. This change is bonner specifically designed to Essay on Modernization Water incentivize engineers to build for marita bonner the desired level of Established by the quality. Marita Bonner? Teams will be required to Essay Decisions Part III build usable APIs, or they will receive complaints from other teams needing to access their data. Availability and reliability will be enforced in marita, the same fashion. As more completely unrelated teams need to share data, APIs will be secured as a means of Gamification: It´s Serious Business Essay protecting data, reducing resource usage, auditing, and bonner restricting access from untrusted internal clients. Keep in alexander, mind that this mandate was to all teams, not just development teams. Marita Bonner? Marketing wants some data you have collected on has Caused Air and user statistics from the web site? Then marketing has to find a developer and bonner use your API. Essay Contamination? You can quickly see how this created a wide array of users, use cases, user types, and scenarios of use for marita bonner every team exposing any data within Amazon.

DevOps teaches us to create a process that enforces our desired quality attributes, such as requiring automated deployment of our software to succeed before the Myocardial continuous integration build can be considered successful. In effect, this scenario from Amazon is an bonner, authoritarian version of DevOps thinking. By enforcing a rigorous requirement of eating (and serving!) their own dogfood to Essay on Modernization has Caused Water all teams within Amazon, Bezos's engineering operation ensures that through constant and rigorous use, their APIs would become mature, robust, and hardened. These API improvements happened organically at Amazon, without the marita need to issue micromanaging commands such as All APIs within Amazon must introduce rate limit X and scale to Infarction Essay Y concurrent requests, because teams were incentivized to continually improve their APIs to make their own working lives easier. When AWS was released a few years later, many of these same APIs comprised the public interface of the bonner AWS platform, which was remarkably comprehensive and stable at release. This level of quality at release directly served business goals by contributing to the early adoption rates and alexander pope was a steady increase in bonner, popularity of AWS, a platform that provided users with a comprehensive suite of Decisions in Paradise, III powerful capabilities and immediate comfort and marita bonner confidence in a stable, mature service. Every two weeks, the Essay SEI will publish a new blog post offering guidelines and marita practical advice to Myocardial Infarction organizations seeking to bonner adopt DevOps in summary, practice.

We welcome your feedback on bonner this series, as well as suggestions for future content. Please leave feedback in the comments section below. Architecture-Centric Practices 147 Posts Architecture-Centric Engineering 146 Posts SATURN Conference 137 Posts Insider Threat 129 Posts Conferences and lysistrata Events 102 Posts Vulnerability Analysis 87 Posts Architecture 79 Posts DevOps 48 Posts Vulnerability Discovery 43 Posts Agile 41 Posts. Marita? Toll Free: 888-201-4479. 4500 Fifth Avenue. Policy Example? Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2612. Call for Papers: International Conference on marita Technical Debt (TechDebt 2018) Posted on Gamification: Serious Business October 3, 2017 by marita, Bill Pollak. The inaugural edition of the International Conference on on Modernization has Caused Contamination Technical Debt in marita bonner, conjunction with International Conference on policy proposal example Software Engineering (ICSE) 2018. MAY 27-28, 2018 | Gothenburg, Sweden. THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TECHNICAL DEBT will bring together leading software researchers, practitioners, and tool vendors to marita explore theoretical and policy practical approaches that manage technical debt.

Technical debt describes a universal software development phenomenon: design or implementation constructs that are expedient in bonner, the short term, but set up a technical context that can make future change more costly or impossible. Developers and policy proposal managers use the marita concept to lysistrata communicate key tradeoffs related to release and marita quality issues. Interest and engagement from the on Modernization has Caused Contamination software engineering community has steadily grown. Marita? A working conference has become essential. We invite submissions for research, industry, and position and future-trend papers on policy proposal example all topics relevant to technical debt, such as. identification, visualization, and marita bonner analysis metrics and economic models for policy proposal measuring and marita reasoning about technical debt technical debt in code, designs and architecture, and development infrastructure relationship to software lifecycle activities concrete practices and on Modernization has Caused Air and Water Contamination tools.

January 15--Abstract January 22--Full paper March 1--Notification March 15--Camera ready. For more information about submitting a paper, see the Call for Papers.

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Ossett - the history of a Yorkshire town. My grandfather was a coal miner all his life. It was a difficult and dangerous occupation, yet essential for the development of industry in the U.K. Bonner. miners were judged so important that they were given exemption from military service in WW1 and WW2. There were coal strikes at the pits in Ossett in 1893 and 1926 that I am aware of, and probably others that haven't been documented. Although my grandfather didn't work in the Ossett or Gawthorpe mines, I am intrigued by the history of Ossett's coal industry, which employed a large proportion of the men in the town around the end of the 19th century and beyond. The pits at old Roundwood, Gawthorpe and Shaw Cross were substantial and there were many more smaller undertakings dating back to the 1790s or earlier. The men who worked in these mines endured terrible working conditions and accidents were common. Much evidence of the many horrific mining accidents in Myocardial Essay the Ossett coal mines can be found in the archives of the ' Ossett Observer ' and I have reproduced just a few of the marita reported incidents in this account.

There were many more. It is Essay, said that in 1965, the NCB had records of twenty-six different coal mines in Ossett. Marita. However, first indications suggest that there were many more mines than twenty-six and there were certainly many more mineshafts within the boundaries of the town, which have all now been properly filled up. The old colliery workings at Low Laithes came to national prominence in on Modernization Contamination March 1973 when it was found that a build-up of water in the old workings at marita bonner, the abandoned 19th century pits caused the Infarction Essay terrible disaster at Lofthouse Colliery when seven men lost their lives from a huge inrush of water and sludge. It was later estimated that the old mine workings at marita, Low Laithes had become an underground reservoir containing nearly 3 ½ million gallons of water. Shortly after the disaster, which happened at 2am the 21st March, a surface visit was made to the site of the old Low Laithes Colliery and it was found the summary Bye Pit was exposed and water could be heard falling down the shaft. It was also reported that the Engine Pit and Bull Pit were exposed and marita, water could also be heard falling down them. There was little doubt that there was a direct relationship between the inrush of water into the Lofthouse workings and the water pouring down these old shafts.

It is known that a coal mine was established at Gawthorpe as long ago as 1366 during the reign of Edward III. Above: Westfield Colliery circa 1880. Originally owned by Infarction Essay, Joshua Wilby and bonner, located close to the old GNER railway, which connected Ossett with Batley and Wakefield. When Wilby died in 1881, the colliery was purchased by Henry Westwood and Company. A relatively small mine, in 1896 it employed 56 underground workers and 11 surface workers.

The manager was Mr. J. Simpkin and the under-manager, Mr. J. Wilkinson. Smithson's New Park Colliery, Low Laithes. In 1743, James Fenton leased land to extract coal belonging to Gamification: It´s the Earl of Cardigan in the area surrounding Bushy Beck, near Low Laithes in the townships of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe, Alverthorpe and West Ardsley. In the event, only a small part of the coalfield was worked and that was in the Ardsley area, because of the difficulty in transporting the coal to the Calder, which was about marita bonner, four miles away. The first recorded pits in Ossett were probably in Myocardial the Low Laithes area and date back to the 1790s. Robert Smithson (1747-1800) was a gentleman farmer and maltster who leased Low Laithes Farm from the Earl of Cardigan like his family had done for years before him. Smithson leased land nearby his home at Low Laithes to develop his New Park, Kirkhamgate or old Low Laithes Colliery (as it was variously known) from 1796. In 1798, he and his Wakefield associate, cloth merchant John Charnock (1752-1811), opened their version of marita bonner, New Park colliery and 'Smithson's Tram Road' connecting it with the Calder and Hebble Navigation at Thornes Wharfe, Wakefield.

The railway was horse powered and had L-section rails mounted on stone block sleepers. There was a parallel railway covering almost the example same route to collieries (also confusingly called 'New Park Colliery') owned by Smithson's arch rival and Yorkshire coal-king, William Fenton. Bonner. Fenton's railway crossed Smithson's on the level near Wakefield, and for several miles higher up the valley towards the pits, the two lines actually ran side-by-side. Fenton's railway was powered by bullocks rather than horses. Robert Smithson died in Essay 1800, and it is said that his early death was partly as a result of the bitter business rivalry with William Fenton, which continued after his death.

For a few years, Smithson's collieries and tramway were run by a consortium of bonner, trustees headed by Smithson's well-to-do cousin William Smithson (1750-1830) of Ledston Hall and later Heath; his own brother Joshua Smithson and Infarction Essay, his brother-in-law Thomas Preston of marita bonner, Halifax. In 1818, Robert Smithson's farm and malt business (valued then at £8,906) was bequeathed to his son, also Robert. Will Gun Control Laws Country? Essay. A three-quarter share in marita bonner Smithson's collieries and tramway (and the debts due to them) was passed to Smithson's youngest son Joshua Smithson (1791-1867) who continued with the example coal business under difficult circumstances until he failed financially in 1850. During the early years, the relatively small numbers of colliers working in Smithson's pits can be illustrated in the case of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe by the use of the poor rate assessments as a basis for rating of the number of colliery face workers. In 1820, Smithson's Gawthorpe colliery had fourteen face workers and there were five more at Paleside. By 1823, this had risen to eighteen at marita bonner, Gawthorpe and seven at Paleside. In 1833, there was a prolonged strike at Smithson's colliery in Ossett. An attempt was made to bring in 'blackleg' labour to replace the striking miners. Joshua Smithson described the plan as a complete turn-out of colliers. Lysistrata. The 'blackleg' labour force was provided with houses and even bedding. Marita. Many of the men brought their wives and families to policy example the area.

It was noted that four of the 'blacklegs' sold the bedding that they had been provided with and ended up in front of the local magistrate accused of theft. At the Bye Pit at Low Laithes, Ossett, records show that in marita bonner 1844, four coal miners, who were aged between 60 and 70 years, earned on average, a weekly wage of £1-1s-3d each. However, at Bye Pit No. Policy Proposal. 5, seventeen colliers earned up to £1-5s-6d for an eight hour day. For this, they had to fill twenty corves (coal wagons) a day with coal. By the end of the 1840s, the colliers were being paid 3s-3d for getting one dozen of coal at the face and 3s for straitwork. Straitwork is the marita work involved in Gamification: Business extending the access tunnels to marita the area of the coalface. Fatal Colliery Explosion at Low Laithes - December 3rd 1859. Smithson's colliery had a low fatality rate, although in 1859 when the Gun Control Country? Low Laithes colliery business had been bought by Benjamin Roberts, there was a fatal accident at Bull Pit and this was recorded as follows:

Mr. Taylor, Coroner for the horour of Pontefract, held an inquest on marita bonner Monday evening, at Alverthorpe, near Wakefield, respecting the Gamification: Essay death of David Beacher. Marita. On the 28th November 1859. Beacher and another man, named Brown, were working together at lysistrata, a bank in the Bull Pit of the marita Low Laithes Colliery, belonging to Mr. Benjamin Roberts, under the direction of policy proposal example, John Noble, the steward. Noble told the men to get the coal until they got to the old works ; but he gave no orders about marita, lamps, and they worked with naked candles. Both men placed their candles upon policy the edge of the bonner solid coal, when the gas from the Infarction old workings fired at bonner, that of Beacher. The two men were badly burned but Beacher most severely. A third person, a burrier, was also burned.

Beacher died from his injuries on lysistrata summary Saturday morning last. Marita. Verdict - Accidentally burned. There was no formal contract for colliers to serve for a fixed period in Smithson's mines and they could leave their employment as and when they desired. Of course, this arrangement worked both ways and coal miners could be summarily dismissed without comeback. These were the Essay days before Unions were established. Between 1834 and 1850, Smithson made profits of £4,320 in nine of the bonner years and losses of £3,690 in the other seven years. This left a net profit of only Essay Air and Water Contamination £630, or about £40 a year over the entire period. Clearly, the modest profits could not sustain the rentals and by 1850, the business had failed.

By 1850, Smithson had ten working pits in Ossett, close to where Low Laithes Golf Club is now situated. These pits all took coal from either the Haigh Moor seam or the Gawthorpe seam. The first recorded instances of marita bonner, coal workings in Ossett date back to the 13th and 14th century after woodland was cleared and coal was beginning to be used as fuel. There were several day holes and simple mines located in various parts of Ossett. These pits were recorded in the Manor Court Rolls of Gamification: It´s Essay, Wakefield and examples are Rhode Pyttes, Coolepitt Close, Runtinge Pitts, Totteringe Pitts, plus many more unnamed workings. There are several references in the Court Rolls of people mining for coal without the required licence from the Lord of the Manor. In 1332, three Ossett men were each fined 6d for not filling in pits in marita the New Park and in 1339 all the inhabitants of Ossett were required to Established by the Community back fill all coal pits in marita bonner the township that were worked out. In the 14th century the rolls record that Adam del Dene cut down trees, made waste the land, gardens and houses, which his mother held as a dower for digging coal. Clearly coal was becoming an Myocardial, important fuel not just for marita bonner heating homes but as a fuel for industrial use such as the making of Established Essay, iron. Ironstone digging and smelting was an important local industry at around this time and was first carried out in the New Park. In 1332 Adam de Gaukethorpe and William Carpenter were charged with digging an iron mine without a licence in the bond lands of the Lord of the Manor and were fined 3d each.

John Sonman paid the Lord of the Manor 12d for a licence to dig a mine in Gawthorpe for stones to be used for iron smelting. The first 1:10,560 large scale OS map of Ossett was published in 1851 and from that map, it is possible to identify most of Smithson's pits at Low Laithes. In addition there were several other coal mines in Ossett listed on the map. The following listing is an attempt to identify all the known coal mines in Ossett. There are many others, not listed here, identified only as 'old coal pit' and bonner, shown clearly within the example town boundaries of marita bonner, Ossett on historic OS Maps. Some of summary, these may have been shallow bell pits and marita, it is known that when the underground reservoir along Chidswell Lane in Gawthorpe was excavated in 1877, between 200 and 300 tons of coal were removed and sold on behalf of the Local Board. The first eight mines listed here were part of the old Joshua Smithson undertaking at Low Laithes, which had been bought out by Benjamin Roberts after Smithson failed financially. The pit shafts were geographically separated by some distance, especially those located in the area of Gawthorpe. 1. Engine Pit(No. 1), Low Laithes - 35 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 2. Bye Pit(No.

2 ), Low Laithes - 141 yards to the Haigh Moor seam and 71 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 3. Gamification: It´s Business Essay. Barron's Pit (No. 6), Low Laithes - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam and 50 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 4. Barron's Pit (No. 4 ), Low Laithes - 55 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from marita, 1850. 5. Air And Water. Bull Pit (No. 7), Low Laithes - 140 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 6. Lower Park Farm, Gawthorpe - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850.

7. Lodge Hill, Gawthorpe (Nos. 42 and 43) - 30 and 18 yards respectively to the Top Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 8. Bonner. New Lodge Colliery, Gawthorpe - owned between 1855-1889 by George and John Haigh and was most probably Lodge Hill (above). In 1874, the Infarction Essay manager of the colliery, William Haigh and two under-managers, John and Isaac Oates were prosecuted at Dewsbury Petty Sessions for marita offences brought by the government inspector of mines, Mr. Will Laws This Country? Essay. Wardell after a fatal colliery explosion in bonner the pit that led to proposal the death of Burman Lister, which could have been avoided.

FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION 1 - On Saturday evening, a hurrier, named Burman Lister, of Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, died from the effects of an explosion of firedamp at the Gawthorpe Colliery on marita bonner the previous afternoon. Deceased and Established, a miner named Samuel Waterhouse had completed their day's work and were coming down one of the main roads with corves when the gas fired and both were severely burnt. Waterhouse had on a flannel shirt and he suffered less from the scorching flames. The one Lister wore was of cotton and it was burnt off his back, which along with his arms, breast and face, was terribly scorched. The explosion caused great excitement among the miners and the injured men having been brought to the surface, the marita others were raised without delay. Lister died, as above stated, on Saturday evening. The explosion was caused by gas coming into to contact with a naked light, which was carried by the deceased as he and Waterhouse were walking down the hurrying road. GROSS CARELESSNESS AT A WEST RIDING COLLIERY 2 - Yesterday an adjourned inquest was held at Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, on Gamification: It´s Essay the body of Burman Lister, coal miner, of that village who was killed by an explosion of gas at Messrs. Haigh's colliery, Gawthorpe on the 4th inst.

Mr. Wardell, government inspector of mines, watched the proceedings, as also did Mr. Pickard, secretary of the West Riding Miners' Association. Evidence was given that on bonner the 4th inst., about half-past one, the deceased and another youth named Waterhouse came along the main air-road with lighted candles, they having ceased work for the day. On arriving at a drift or slit, the deceased went up, taking his naked light with him. Gamification: Serious Business. An explosion followed and marita bonner, both youths were severely burnt, the Myocardial Essay deceased fatally.

It transpired at the inquest that a labourer had several weeks ago received instructions to build a wall some distance up the drift, but to marita bonner leave a hole, a foot square for ventilation. This he did, but about ten days before the accident he filled up the Community Essay hole with dry bricks, not knowing, he told the bonner jury, that he was doing anything wrong. As it was stated that Waterhouse was in a very precarious state and unfit to be examined, the inquiry was further adjourned. THE LATE FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION AT GAWTHORPE 3 - Yesterday, the adjourned inquest was held on the body of Burman Lister, hurrier, who died on September 5th from injuries he received the previous day at Gawthorpe Colliery, through an explosion of fire-damp. From the evidence, it appeared that the deceased and a young man named Waterhouse were coming down the hurrying road and when opposite a disused working they both stopped and Waterhouse began to Established by the dress himself, having previously stuck a lighted candle in some clay on the corve.

Lister took the candle up and said he would go to the drift and look at the air pipes, as he could smell something. His companion told him to keep the candle down. The deceased had just entered the marita bonner drift when the explosion took place and Gamification: It´s Business Essay, they were both severely burnt. The jury recorded a verdict of Accidental Death. COLLIERY PROSECUTIONS AT DEWSBURY 4 - At the Dewsbury Petty Sessions, yesterday, William Haigh, of West Ardsley, the certified manager of the Gawthorpe Colliery was charged with neglecting to inspect the mine.

John and Isaac Oates, underviewers, were summoned for - the one for bonner neglecting to enter in a book kept for the purpose, the state of the mine and Myocardial, the other with neglecting to fence off a drift in which there was an accumulation of inflammable gas and with neglecting to exhibit a danger signal there. Through this neglect an explosion of gas took place in the pit on the 4th of September, resulting in the death of one collier and in another being frightfully burnt. Haigh was fined £5, or two months imprisonment; Isaac Oates £3, or three months and John Oates £2, or two months. Marita. In the course of the hearing it transpired that the report book had not had a single entry made in it until three days after the explosion. Burman Lister was just 16 years of age when he died.

Samuel Waterhouse lingered on a few weeks before he also died from the burns he had received in the accident. The five pound fine that William Haigh, the Laws Country? Essay colliery manager received is the equivalent of about £360 today on the basis of RPI inflation. Less than four months later, another miner would lose his life at Gawthorpe Colliery as a result of a terrifying fire in January 1875: A COLLIERY ON FIRE 8 - Fire was discovered to have broken out on Friday (8th January 1875) in the colliery at Gawthorpe, near Dewsbury, belonging to Messrs. J. and G. Bonner. Haigh, and Myocardial Infarction Essay, it is believed was caused by a hurrier boy accidentally igniting a canvas brattice by his lighted candle. Seventy men and boys were in marita the mine at summary, the time and great alarm was occasioned, as the flames spread to a quantity of wood and then set fire to the face of the coal.

The miners and hurriers rushed along the ways as the alarm spread and getting to the pit eye, were drawn up as quickly as possible. One, however, was left behind and he was subsequently found lying dead at some distance from his working place, apparently having been suffocated. His name was Richard Oldroyd, aged 39, and marita, he leaves a widow and children. One of the on Modernization has Caused Contamination miners that had got to know that a fire was raging, called to Oldroyd as he ran past his working place, but the bonner deceased was rather deaf, and it is Infarction Essay, supposed he did not hear the marita warning cry of his fellow worker, and was not made aware of the lysistrata danger until he felt the suffocating gas. The body was discovered by an exploring party and in a place where, if he could have gone four yards further, he would have had a stream of fresh air. The progress of the bonner flames was arrested in the course of the day by stoppings being built and there is reason to believe that the fire has been extinguished. In the ' Ossett Observer ' 24th November 1888, the following piece was printed concerning a colliery strike and it gives us an idea of the size of the colliery and Myocardial, the attitude of the owners to their workforce:

The miners employed at bonner, Messrs G J Haigh's Gawthorpe Colliery, about 30 in number, recently went on by the Community Essay strike for bonner a 10% advance in wages. The advance was conceded by Myocardial Infarction Essay, the Yorkshire colliery owners generally, but Messrs. Marita. Haigh did not see their way to follow the example and consequently the strike still continues. Subscriptions have been gathered and levies received from other collieries in support of the men on strike. The strike was still going on into early December 1888, but after that there was no further word, so it is policy, likely that the men returned to work, maybe in time for Christmas? 9. Wheatley's Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke. In 1831, a Wakefield barrister and land speculator, Thomas Foljambe (1775-1851) purchased land at Hagg's Lane, near to marita bonner Woollin's Roundwood mine, which he rented to another Wakefield man, Samuel Rhodes, for the purpose of proposal, mining for marita bonner coal. Summary. In 1833, Foljambe had built his grand residence Holmefield House in Wakefield. Rhodes paid Foljambe an annual rental of 6% of the original purchase price and in 1831 Rhodes was selling 10 tons of coal per day, with another 20 tons per week going to a regular customer. Rhodes also sold 2 barge loads of coal (90 tons) per week, which had to be shipped from the colliery to the nearest canal in Wakefield. Rhodes died in early 1838 and by 1839, his widow had gone bankrupt.

The colliery was then taken over by marita, Charles Locke, whose family had recently sunk a new pit at nearby Snapethorpe, Wakefield. The colliery was eventually bought by Charles Wheatley (1813-1900) who had been working a colliery at nearby Ossett Common (probably Lights Colliery) in 1836. Wheatley was a Mirfield colliery owner with significant land holdings in Ossett, some of which he had inherited from the Haigh family, who were also coal masters. In 1851, Wheatley had 110 men and 140 boys working in his coal mines. The Ossett colliery at lysistrata, Shepherd Hill was likely to be a relatively small undertaking and may even have been a day hole, which was simply a drift mine dug into marita, the side of policy proposal example, a hill. Wheatley was still working the Shepherd Hill colliery in marita 1854 with a steam engine and his rateable value was £36.

Wheatley's colliery is likely to have closed down in the mid to late 1850s and was not working in1869. Wheatley was by then operating the Essay Water Contamination Hagg Wood and Whitley Wood day holes in Dewsbury; the Bradley and Helm coal mines in marita bonner Huddersfield and the Ledgard Bridge and Calder Day Holes at Mirfield. The latter mine, with an entrance on Myocardial Infarction the bank of the canal close to Greenwood Lock, was driven into the hillside below Sands House, Wheatley's opulent Mirfield residence. By 1871, Charles Wheatley formed the Mirfield Colliery Company with Robert Barraclough and John Nevin and his mining operation in Ossett was finished. 10. Mount Pleasant Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke was worked in the 1870s. 11. Love Lane Colliery , Love Lane, Pildacre. 12. Greaves Colliery , off Bridle Lane, Gawthorpe. Owned between 1855-1872 by Wilson and marita bonner, Co. Policy Example. but then was called Gawthorpe Colliery and was probably Greaves Colliery, which was owned by Joshua Greaves prior to marita 1855.

The pit finally closed 1872. 13. Streetside Colliery , behind the Red Lion Public House, Dewsbury Road and was owned first by Abraham Greaves until his death in 1843 and then by Ossett coal masters Joseph Greaves and Joshua Greaves. Essay. The colliery had four face workers in marita 1836. 14. Old Roundwood Colliery , was probably first known as John Woollin's Hagg's Lane Colliery and a plan exists of this site dating back to on Modernization has Caused Water Contamination 1812. The original Roundwood colliery was located close to the Ossett and Alverthorpe boundaries near to the top of marita bonner, Shepherd Hill at policy example, Flushdyke where mining had been carried on back to at least the 14th century. The Woollin family worked Low and Scale coal there until giving up the lease in approximately 1839. The colliery at Roundwood first established in 1847 by bonner, Terry, Dawson and Greaves was said by John Oldroyd Greaves to be a very small affair at the top of Flushdyke Hill about one mile to the north of the later Roundwood colliery. They had simply taken over Gamification: It´s Serious Business Essay, the workings of a smaller, older pit, partially worked some years previously.

The older pit was most likely Woollin's pit, closed in 1839. In 1847, Wakefield mining engineer, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916), the son of Ossett coal master Abraham Greaves (1794-1842) founded the Old Roundwood colliery with two other investors in the name of marita, Terry, Dawson and Greaves. On Modernization Air And Water. John Greaves had been articled to John Walker, the Wakefield based mining and civil engineer for marita five years in the 1840s and, for Essay a short time after qualifying, had been manager of a colliery in Stanley owned by marita bonner, Robert Hudson and Co. The other partners in the concern were Benjamin Terry (1818-1882), who was born in Gawthorpe, the son of Percival Terry and William Anson Smith Dawson of Essay on Modernization has Caused Air and Water Contamination, Wakefield. Benjamin Terry became a law pupil at Haigh's, a Horbury firm of solicitors. After qualifying, Terry joined the firm of Carr, Nettleton and bonner, Terry as a partner and then moved to Bradford in 1844 setting up first in business in his own right and by 1864 as Terry Watson, Solicitors. In 1846, he married Alice Cooper Dawson in Wakefield, who may have been related to his partner William Dawson. Terry entered public life and he served at one time as an Tory alderman of Bradford Council. He lived in some style at Barkhill House, Idle and when he died in 1882, he left an estate worth £40,000 (a considerable sum in those days) plus a generous £500 per year annuity for his widow.

Not much is known about William Anson Smith Dawson, the third partner in lysistrata the enterprise. In the 1851 census, Dawson is unmarried and living at Roundwood, Alverthorpe with a house servant Ann Peace. He is marita bonner, listed as a coal proprietor employing 12 miners, 12 hurriers, 2 banksmen, 1 blacksmith, 1 boy and 1 woman, which may well refer to proposal example the operation at Roundwood colliery. His secondary occupation is that of a farmer of 19 acres, employing 1 man, 1 lad and door (sic) labourers. He was aged 25 years in 1851, having been born in 1826 at nearby Stanley, a village on bonner the outskirts of Wakefield. However, by proposal example, May 1953, Dawson had dropped out of the business and he died in Bradford in bonner the summer of proposal, 1854, to be replaced by Watson Scatcherd, a Morley lawyer and squire. The three partners each putting up a sum of £500. In 1857, after Scatcherd had died in 1855, the accounts showed that Terry had advanced £1,150, Greaves the same and Scatcherd £950. When Scatcherd died, the business was carried on as Terry, Greaves and Co.

When Benjamin Terry died in marita 1882, his two daughters continued in business with Greaves until a limited company was founded until 1908. Benjamin Terry (or his daughters) and John Greaves never entered into a formal partnership since both men trusted the other implicitly and no legal agreement was ever needed. Perhaps as a result of the policy death of Scatcherd, the partners considered selling the marita bonner colliery in summary 1857. At this time, they also owned Manor Colliery, which was located on Ossett Common but was definitely not the colliery on Cross Lane in bonner Wakefield, which co-incidentally, Terry, Greaves and Co. did purchase much later. The Gawthorpe seam, which was the top portion of the well-known Barnsley seam and summary, about three feet thick was mined originally, but this didn't last long. The pit was in profit and balance sheets for Roundwood for 1857 and 1858 reveal profits of £1,702 and £2,032 respectively.

However, if they were to continue, some serious decisions had to be made. Instead of selling up, Greaves and Terry decided as early as 1853 to develop Roundwood significantly by sinking two new shafts, a mile to bonner the south of the Essay on Modernization Water Contamination original Flushdyke pit and marita bonner, close to the Wakefield - Ossett boundary. This would be the better-known location of Roundwood colliery at the top of Queen's Drive where coal would be worked for another 100 years or more. The second significant decision was to Enlightenment Established Community Essay establish a railway link to Roundwood and an agreement was made in July 1860 with the Bradford, Wakefield and marita, Leeds Railway to build a mineral railway link to Will Gun Control Essay the Ossett Branch so that coal could be transported from marita bonner, Roundwood to more distant markets. At this time, there were still tolls on the Wakefield - Halifax turnpike, which all traffic going from Roundwood downhill to Wakefield had to negotiate.

However, in 1867, the firm advertised that it had agreed for tolls on coal beyond Westgate Moor Bar on the turnpike road to be removed. Summary. The new railway link to Roundwood was opened in January 1862 and for goods and passengers to a temporary terminal station at Flushdyke in marita April 1862. In 1860, two new shafts were sunk to the levels of the top and low Haigh Moor seams at 140 and 150 yards respectively. These shafts were of the Engine Pit at 9 feet diameter and the Bye Pit at 10 feet in diameter. Both shafts were walled with brick 5 inches thick with four water conduits behind the brickwork. The Engine Pit was sunk five yards below the bottom of the coal to form a sump and the Bye shaft was widened to 13ft at the bottom. John Oldroyd Greaves continued with the management of Roundwood colliery but by March 1874, the partners agreed to sell Roundwood colliery to Thomas Stammers Webb of Myocardial Essay, London and marita bonner, Cardiff.

There had been a period of prosperity in the coal industry prior to proposal 1874, but from 1874 there was a period of continued depression. Webb agreed to take a 5-year lease on Roundwood, with power to marita take on a 31-year lease for Laws This Country? Essay £35,000, the vendors agreeing to work the colliery and pay any profits to Webb if he had first paid an initial £1,000 to them. Webb formed a new company, The Consolidated Collieries Co. Ltd. with a proposed capital of £180,000 in £10 shares. The plan was for the company to take over three collieries - the New Forest Colliery in Neath, Glamorgan and marita, the Bush Colliery, near Cardiff were the other two. In the event, the venture never got off the ground because of the lysistrata deepening depression in the coal industry during 1876.

By 1885, John Oldroyd Greaves was very ill and wasn't expected to live very long, but he eventually recovered and lived on in good health until 1916. Bonner. In the event, his 17 year-old son Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) was forced to leave school and policy, take charge of the family business, which he found in a parlous state. Percy Greaves had been born on Christmas Day 1868 and was educated at Lockers Park School, Hemel Hempstead before going firstly to Wakefield Grammar School and then to Tonbridge School in marita bonner Kent. Percy Greaves was equal to the difficult task and applied his talents energetically to the running of Roundwood colliery. In July 1892, he obtained a first-class certificate as a colliery manager under the Coal Mines Registration Act of policy proposal, 1887. At the time he was living at 69, Westgate, Wakefield with his parents. In 1889, Percy Greaves was responsible for marita the sinking of the new upcast shaft to a depth of 200 yards to the Silkstone seam.

During the sinking of this new seam, in June 1888, two men were to lose their lives. The 'Ossett Observer' dated June 23rd 1888 gives the following account: On Wednesday last a shocking fatality occurred at Roundwood Colliery, Wakefield Road on the boundary of Ossett. It´s Essay. At present the Haigh Moor seam of marita bonner, coal is being worked, at a depth of 160 yards from the surface; but the on Modernization has Caused proprietors of the bonner colliery, Messrs. Terry and Greaves, are sinking about 190 or 200 yards further, in order to reach the Silkstone seam. The new sinking is being made as a continuation of the upcast shaft, which is 12ft in diameter; it has already progressed some 40 yards downward, and is expected to be completed this year. On Wednesday morning about half a dozen sinkers were at work, and they had come up the shaft to the surface whilst some shots were being fired for blasting purposes. After the shots went off, three of the It´s Serious Business men got into the ordinary hoppet or bucket, and were lowered down the bonner shaft by the engineman.

In descending they had to proposal pass the mouth of a ventilating furnace and there is some reason to suppose that this may have induced them to change their position in bonner the hoppet. This would possibly cause some additional oscillation of the hoppet, which almost immediately struck the corner of the arch in the Haigh Moor seam. All three men were thrown out, but one of them, named Patrick O'Brien, of Wakefield, managed to clutch the Community edge of the hoppet. One foot of another was caught by O'Brien, who was, however, unable to hold it. Two men consequently fell a depth of about 40 yards to marita bonner the bottom of the lysistrata summary newly sunk portion of the shaft, and bonner, were doubtless killed instantly. Will Stricter Gun Control Hurt This Country? Essay. O'Brien, however, reached the bonner bottom in safety. The deceased men were Mathew Harrison, aged 32, married, of Ashton-under-Lyne, and lysistrata, George Geary, aged 20, single, of Wakefield. Harrison had only commenced working at the colliery the previous day.

In November 1897, John Oldroyd Greaves, who by now was no longer involved in the active management of Roundwood colliery made two of his sons, Percy Christian Greaves and John Henry Greaves (born 1871) partners in the family business of land agents, mining engineers and colliery proprietors. Greaves senior had bought the Snapethorpe Hall estate in Wakefield on behalf of the colliery partnership in marita November 1891. Meanwhile, Percy Greaves, despite his tender years, was able to take the running of the family business in his stride and he soon became one of the leading mining experts in Established by the Community Essay northern England. Percy Greaves' obituary that appeared in the The Times newspaper on Friday, 25th October 1957 says this of him: comparatively few days passed when he was not to be seen at the pit-head or down the shaft of bonner, one of his own collieries or one of those of the Will Stricter Gun Control Laws This Country? many people who readily consulted him as, perhaps, the best known mining engineer in the north. His pride in his own pits was unbounded. He knew the men and their problems personally. He was at the forefront in the introduction of new methods, making for safety and efficiency, and it was his proud boast, evoking the sincere admiration of his many friends that, from 1886 until the nationalization of the mines (1947), none of the groups of collieries under his control had ever suffered a single strike apart from the national strikes, which affected the marita whole country. By 1896, the manager of Roundwood was Mr. F. Flint, and the under-manager was Mr. H. Gamification: Business Essay. Farrant.

There were 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers. By 1945, ownership of bonner, Roundwood was still with Terry, Greaves and Co., Wakefield, but the colliery was now managed by Mr. H. H. Burton with two under-managers. Essay On Modernization Air And. Mr. Bonner. H. Newell and Gamification: It´s Serious Business, Mr. J. Morley. There were now 521 underground workers and marita, 120 surface workers. Above: Picture of Old Roundwood Colliery from the early 1900s.

The building on the right-hand side of the picture is a brickworks. The brickworks was subsequently closed, but it was proposed to reopen them to produce building bricks for Ossett's council house building programme in the 1920s and 1930s. In the event, this never happened and bricks were sourced elsewhere. In June 1895, the ' Ossett Observer ' published details of An Alarming Accident at Ossett Collieries - Two Cages in Collision - Miner fatally injured. The account, reproduced below gives a good insight into Serious Business Essay, the working conditions at Old Roundwood: On Thursday morning, an accident of a serious and unusual nature occurred at the Ossett Roundwood Collieries (Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co.) There are three seams of coal, worked by marita bonner, means of three separate shafts. One of these shafts, about 350 yards deep, passes through the Cannel seam at Gamification: Serious Essay, a depth of 240 yards, and marita bonner, goes down to by the Essay the Silkstone. About 160 men and boys are employed in the Cannel seam, and among these was Richard Renshaw (35), a married man, residing in Teal Street, Ossett.

Renshaw was a hanger-on in bonner the Silkstone seam, and about quarter past six o'clock in by the Community the morning, he was ascending in one of the cages, a two-decker, to the Silkstone landing. Marita Bonner. The cages are guided by thimbles working on wire conductors of 1.5 inches in diameter. Through some unexplained cause, the ascending cage came into contact with the brickwork at the side of the shaft, and almost immediately afterwards collided with the descending cage. Owing to the velocity with which the cages were travelling, the Essay Air and Contamination collision damaged both, and gave a terrible shock to poor Renshaw, who was in the descending cage alone. He eventually reached the bottom in a helpless and paralysed condition suffering from spinal injuries. He was taken up another shaft to the surface, and removed to marita his home, where he died the same evening. Work in the Cannel seam had to be suspended for two days.

At the Established Community Essay inquest, which was held at the Little Bull Inn, Teal Street, it was concluded that it had never been know for the cages to catch before, but evidently they had caught this time. It was an unforeseen event and nobody could be held responsible, although something could be done to prevent a recurrence. They returned a verdict that the unfortunate deceased was accidentally injured. An extension of the Ossett borough boundary in 1900 brought Roundwood Colliery, owned by bonner, Terry, Greaves and Company Limited into the town. Mining ceased at this pit in April 1966. Above: The biggest colliery in Ossett was Old Roundwood, so named in 1901 to avoid confusion with another Roundwood Colliery that had opened in South Yorkshire, which had suffered financial difficulties. Roundwood was opened in 1847 and finally closed in 1966. Stricter Gun Control Hurt Essay. Roundwood had 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers and attracted workers from all parts of the area surrounding Wakefield. Many miners from the Barnsley coalfields moved to Roundwood and settled in the Ossett Spa area.

Roundwood Colliery was a large concern and mined the Cannel, Haigh Moor, Lupset, and Silkstone (new Hards) seams. It was noted in the 'Ossett Observer' dated 20th March 1948 that the following accident occurred at Old Roundwood: Twelve miners at bonner, Old Roundwood Colliery were injured, including two men with broken legs, when the cage taking them down to the Silkstone Seam for the night shift got out of Essay, control for the last 40ft of the descent and crashed into the sump boards. The engine winder had fainted at the controls in the engine house. Like all other British collieries, Roundwood was nationalised in 1947 and became part of the National Coal Board empire. Old Roundwood colliery was finally closed in marita April 1966. Above: View of Roundwood Colliery from the proposal top of Queens Drive in bonner the 1960s.

After the pit was demolished, what is now the Holiday Inn was built on part of the old pit site. 15. Thorn Tree Pit , Low Laithes adjacent to the Great Northern (LNER) railway line. The 16th green of Low Laithes golf course is believed to be located on the site of Thorn Tree pit. 16. Dewsbury Lane was opened before 1856 and It´s Serious Essay, closed in 1877. Marita. Owned between 1856-1870 by W. Hallas and between 1862-1876 by W. Gartside. It was reported that in December 1871, a collier's supper was held in the George Hotel, Ossett for the miners at lysistrata, Mr.

Gartside's colliery, which is likely to have been Dewsbury Lane colliery. The meal was for members of the colliery Sick and Accident Club, which was funded by the miners themselves from bonner, weekly subscriptions to pay the members during times of sickness. In 1871, there had been no accidents at the colliery and only £134 had been paid out in Gun Control This Country? Essay sickness benefit. The managers of the colliery, Messrs. Bonner. T. Westwood and J. Wilkinson were praised by the men for their work at the colliery. Thirty-six members of the club were present at the supper, suggesting a fairly small coal mine. 17. Field Lane Colliery , Gawthorpe near to Gamification: Serious Business Essay the Flying Horse public house.

The Field Lane colliery was worked by marita bonner, Joshua Greaves and after his death, in Infarction 1861, it was offered for sale in February 1862. The advertisement in 1862 mentioned that the colliery was powered by a steam engine and that there was a 3ft seam of coal at a depth of 30 yards with three leases - two expiring in 1877 and one in 1881. It appears that when the two leases expired in 1877 that the colliery was closed down. Some more details about Field Lane Colliery following a particularly suspicious accident resulting in the death of 19 year-old Richard Broad: 5. WANTON OUTRAGE NEAR DEWSBURY - A MAN KILLED: On Thursday night last, an marita, inquest was held at the Shoulder of Mutton Inn, Gawthorpe, before Mr. Taylor, coroner, on the body of Essay on Modernization has Caused Air and Water Contamination, Richard Broad, who met with his death after falling down a pit shaft on the previous Tuesday. Mr. Morton, the Government inspector of mines, was in attendance and watched the bonner case, in consequence of the pit rope having been maliciously cut. The evidence went to show that the deceased was employed at Field-lane Colliery, Gawthorpe and Essay has Caused Air and Water, had charge of the pumping engine.

At this colliery there are two shafts, one used as a pumping and downcast and the other as as an upcast and marita, drawing shaft. The only apparatus for reaching the bottom of the Enlightenment Established Essay former is a windlass and marita, a rope an Essay, inch and a quarter in diameter, and when men wish to go to bonner the bottom, they attach a man-loop to the end of the summary rope. This man-loop consists of a piece of tough and strong wood, about thirty inches long, and marita, near the ends are two holes about an inch and a half in diameter. Policy Example. Through these holes are drawn a piece of marita bonner, hempen rope an inch and policy, a quarter in diameter, and the ends are securely fastened underneath. On the day in question the deceased used this loop, examining it before he did so, and, having placed himself astride, he was lowered by two men to the bottom with a few tools where he repaired the marita pump clack. Having finished his work, he gave the signal for ascending, and Infarction Essay, was raised to within half a yard of the platform, when the rope of the man-loop gave way at marita, once close to has Caused Air and Water both holes, and he was precipitated to the bottom.

He was alive when reached, and was removed home; but he died within a few hours. Broad sustained a fractured thigh, a fractured rib (one portion of the marita rib was driven into the lung) and a large scalp wound. Dr. Thornton, Church St,, Dewsbury and Mr Greenwood, Surgeon, Ossett attended. The broken rope was examined by the jury and was unanimously pronounced to Enlightenment Established by the Community have been cut. It ought to have borne half a ton without danger. The deceased was a small, spare youth of nineteen years of age.

An open verdict was returned. In the meantime the police are making active inquiries in the matter. No person was criminated by the evidence offered to the inquest. 18. Ossett , owned by Messrs Haigh - but as yet unidentified. 19. Crownlands Collier y, possibly the site of Northfield Colliery, which was owned by Westwood and Co. 20. West Field , owned by Joshua Wilby when it was opened in 1863. The colliery closed in marita bonner 1908.

In 1896, the owner was Westwood and Co., Ossett. Manager: J. Simpkin, Under-Manager: J. Wilkinson. In 1896 there were 56 underground workers and Essay on Modernization has Caused Water, 11 surface workers. West Field colliery mined the Beeston, Middleton and Haigh Moor seams. 21. Healey Lane , was owned by Charles Kilner and Henry Slater trading as Hinchcliffe, Kilner and Co., when the pit was first opened 1876. However, their partnership was dissolved in June 1886.

Kilner was later declared bankrupt in June 1888, by which time he was living in the Green, Ossett and was working as a colliery weighman and marita, book-keeper. By 1896 the owners were John Wilby and Essay has Caused Water, Edward Mortimer, both of Ossett. The Colliery Manager was owner John Wilby, but there was no under-manager. There were only 18 underground workers and 5 surface workers at the height of the pit's production. The Yorkshire Sheet 247.08 Ossett (SW) Combs 1905 map (O.S. reprint from 1890) by Alan Godfrey clearly shows a pit near the bottom of Healey Lane with a day hole linked by bonner, tramline to a series of buildings, which may have had pit shafts. Will Stricter Gun Control Hurt. There are other older mine workings below the house called Green Lea shown on the map suggesting extensive coal mining operations in the area over the years. The colliery closed in 1899. 22. Ox Close, was owned in bonner 1880 by the Flockton Coal Co. Limited.

Ox Close opened in 1873 and closed in 1881. It´s Serious. The pit was sunk between 1873 and 1878. Marita Bonner. The owners between 1873-1875 were Whitworth and proposal, Co. and marita bonner, then between 1876-1880, Tolson Whitworth, who formed a limited company in September 1877. The colliery had a lease on two beds of coal: the on Modernization has Caused Air and Joan Bed and the Flockton Thin Bed over an area of 48 acres. 11. The pit was not yet operational in 1877 as this excerpt taken from the Ossett Observer on the 11th August 1877 reporting an accident to marita a miner shows: On Tuesday evening last, shortly after 5 o'clock, a rather serious accident occurred at the new coal pit being opened out by Messrs.

Whitworth Co. in Runting Lane. A heavy piece of pump gearing weighing about 4 tons was being lowered down the shaft by means of a capstan and two-inch ropes. It had reached within about eighteen inches or so of the bottom when one of the ropes broke. Will Gun Control Hurt. Two men who were at the bottom fortunately got out marita bonner of the way. The half-dozen men who held the capstan bars, feeling the Myocardial Infarction jerk, and being startled, let go, with the exception of one, a miner, named John Grace, who was instantly knocked off his feet and thrown to the ground. He was found to have sustained a compound fracture of one shoulder , injuries to his arms and back, etc. On his removal to his house at Ossett Common in a cab he was attended by Mr.

J.G. Wiseman, surgeon, and is, as we hear, progressing as well as can be expected. Marita. The cause of the rope giving way is not known, as it was considered to be capable of bearing the strain of six tons. Ox Close was located in the Runtlings area of Essay on Modernization Water, Ossett and marita bonner, medieval maps show the presence of Runtinge Pitts in the Ox Close, which is bisected by Ryeroyde Lane . However, Ox Close is not shown on current maps, although it is thought it was so named at the time of the Ossett Inclosure around 1807. 23. Lights Colliery, was located north-east of the Will Laws This old Lights Bridge, which was near the location of the present Two Brewers public house and is shown on the 1851 1:10,560 OS Map. Many of the men who worked here were patrons of the Colliers Arms, later the Little Bull in Ossett Common, which dates back to at least 1830.

The Wakefield Manor Rolls for 1709 refer to a small colliery at Ossett Lights and between 1712 and bonner, 1752, the colliery was operated there by policy proposal example, Joseph Naylor. Lights or a clearing in the woods was so named because the of the way the marita woodland pasture was managed. Trees were grown on the same land that was used for rearing stock (usually pigs). The branches of the trees were cut and used for fuel, fencing or building. This process was called pollarding (and is the derivation of the English surname Pollard) so that when the tree branches were cut, sunlight would reach the forest floor through the example previously dense canopy of woodland, hence the marita bonner name The Lights . Ossett Lights covered an estimated area of 254 acres, but presumably, by the time the colliery was established, much of the woodland had been completely cleared.

24. Manor Colliery, Middle Common, was located between Manor Road and Spa Lane in the area known as Drain Close. The colliery dates back to on Modernization has Caused Air and Water the 18th century and was owned then by the Naylor family. Later, in 1857, the colliery proprietor was John Mitchell who, according to marita the 1843 Tithe Map of Gamification: Serious Essay, Ossett rented the land at bonner, Drain Close from the Ingham. At some stage, Manor Colliery was owned by Terry, Greaves and Co., owners of Roundwood Colliery, probably prior to 1857.

Manor Colliery is almost certainly the on Modernization has Caused Water site of the marita bonner Engine shown on Jeffrey's 1775 map. The symbol on the map looks like a windmill, but it seems more likely that it was a steam powered pumping engine at the coal mine. The local press 13 and 14 in lysistrata summary 1857 describes a fatal accident at the colliery, which gives us some indication of the marita bonner scale of operations: A MAN KILLED BY FALLING DOWN A COAL PIT SHAFT Mr. Taylor, coroner for the town of Pontefract, held an inquest, on Saturday last at on Modernization has Caused Water, the Weaver's Arms, Ossett, on the body of Joseph Rushworth, blacksmith, 46 years of age.

The deceased was employed in attending the engine of the Manor Colliery, Ossett during the day. (NOTE: Manor Colliery is given as located in Middle Common, Ossett and in bonner the ownership of colliery proprietor John Mitchell in the Leeds Mercury report of the same accident on 22nd December 1857). Last Tuesday evening Rushworth was relieved at the usual time by Luke Veale, the man who performed night duty. Rushworth went to Horbury and returning between ten and eleven o'clock at night, he went to the coal cabin. At that time he was tipsy. He remained there a few minutes, when, he got up saying it was too warm for him there, left the cabin and was not seen again. Stricter Hurt This Country? Essay. On Friday afternoon last, a miner named Joseph Chappel went down the pumping shaft of the pit to unloose a rope which he had made fast to the bottom a week ago, when he was assisting to change the marita buckets. It´s. When he got about forty yards down the shaft, he saw the body of marita, Rushworth suspended by a stay, his head and legs resting on the plank. The body was mutilated, the legs broken, and the jaw-bone crushed in. The shaft was only about 30 yards from the Established Community coal cabin and marita bonner, the deceased, being no doubt confused with the drink he had taken, had missed his way and fallen down the pit. Verdict -found dead with fractures.

25. Park Lane , Ossett was opened in 1862 and Stricter Gun Control Laws Hurt Country?, closed 1885. Bonner. Owners between 1862-1874 were Cliffe and Co. then between 1876-1885, G J Haigh. The colliery, which had two working shafts, was located to left of Owlers Farm, Flushdyke. 26.

Pildacre Colliery , Ossett was owned originally by Naylor and Co., and opened 1872, but closed in Infarction Essay November 1910 after an inrush of water. By 1896 owners were John Naylor and Co., Ossett. Manager: S. Broadbent and Under-Manager: J. Mann. There were 232 underground workers and 25 surface workers in 1896. Pildacre mined coal from the Flockton, Joan, Low Haigh Moor, Top Haigh Moor and Haigh Moor seams. Marita. The ' Ossett Observer ' for the 25th February 1893 carried the following report about Pildacre Colliery: Messrs. John Naylor and Co. Ltd.

The half-yearly meeting of the shareholders of this company was held at Pildacre Collieries, Ossett, on Monday afternoon last. The directors report for lysistrata summary the half year ended December 31st showed a profit of £162 3s 9d. The Chairman, Mr. Edwin Mitchell J.P. in moving the adoption of the report, said that the directors had continued the policy of marita bonner, developing and improving the efficiency of the colliery plant and workings, and were now in a position to produce about 1,500 tons of coal per policy, week from the Joan and Flockton beds. Since the beginning of August last they had incurred considerable expense in opening out the Cannel seam at Pildacre, which was of a very fine quality and satisfactory thickness; next winter they hoped to send out a respectable quantity of Cannel, the price of which was much higher than black coal. They now had over 50 wagons, the marita bonner property of the company, and another 24 partially paid for. The wages paid were now considerable (between £360 and £370 per week ) and the directors could not spare anything to secure safety in working the collieries. A man's life was of Infarction, more consequence than a dividend. The Chairman said that there had not been a serious or fatal accident at Pildacre for about seven years, which spoke well for the management. 27. New Low Laithes , owned by the Low Laithes Colliery Co.

Ltd was first opened in 1892 using existing pit shafts, which were widened in 1890 and marita bonner, were probably the old pit shafts from the defunct New Lodge (Gawthorpe) colliery, which had closed in 1889. In September 1890, two local men employed as pit sinkers at New Low Laithes: Michael Glynn (51), Manor Rd., Ossett and John Murray (40), New St., Wakefield, were to lose their lives whilst working on widening the existing pit shafts from 9ft to 13ft in diameter. 9 They were working on lysistrata a circular wooden platform 100ft down the pit shaft, which was suspended by heavy-duty iron chains. One of the four chains holding the platform was being re-attached when Glynn slipped, tilting the platform at a precarious angle. Glynn desperately tried to hold on to Murray, but only succeeded in pulling both of them to an instant death as they crashed down 150ft to the bottom of the old pit shaft.

Above: Rare picture of marita bonner, Low Laithes Colliery circa 1920 looking north. The house on the horizon is by the Community, thought to marita be Low Laithes villa. Above: Another rare picture of Low Laithes Colliery courtesy of Ian Taylor. His grandfather Ernest Hutchinson worked in a clerical capacity at Low Laithes until its closure in 1927, and this picture is from Mr. Hutchinson's photo album. Low Laithes Colliery was located to the west of Low Laithes Farm, and east of the village of Established by the Community, Gawthorpe, a few hundred yards along Gawthorpe Lane, which leads to marita Kirkhamgate and Bushy Beck. The men from lysistrata summary, Gawthorpe who worked at the colliery used the shortest route, which was a footpath, shown on the map below going almost due west towards the marita village.

Above: Map of the new Low Laithes Colliery off Gawthorpe Lane, Ossett dated 1908. The terminus of the Mineral Railway that ran to lysistrata Flushdyke can be seen to the south-east of the colliery. In 1894 the site was shared with a brickworks. In 1896, the manager was A.B. Blakeley with the under-manager at the time C Copley. There were 155 underground workers and 43 surface workers in 1896, but by 1908 this had increased significantly to 460 underground workers and 133 surface workers showing that the marita bonner pit had expanded rapidly in the preceding 12 years. Above: Miners from Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe pictured in 1905 after an underground shift.

The bottles were used for carrying water or cold tea for meal breaks underground. The colliery was affected by the Great Coal Strike of 1893 when the Gun Control Laws Hurt This Country? Coal Owners Federation tried to marita bonner impose a 25% wage cut on miners because of a fall in the price of Will Stricter Gun Control Laws Hurt This Essay, coal. Bonner. The men at Low Laithes went out on strike for several months in the summer and Laws Essay, autumn of 1893. At Low Laithes, the marita bonner management offered a 15% reduction in Stricter Laws This Country? wages rather than the 25% reduction (of the 40% advanced since 1887), but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives and a rumour that Low Laithes was to marita bonner be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager. On the Essay on Modernization Water 17th November 1893, a settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. Subsequently, the miners at Low Laithes returned to bonner work the following week.

Above: Winding Engine at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to pull the cage up the pit shaft. The man operating the controls is thought to be the manager Mr. David Arnold West. In 1908, the Essay colliery was still managed by bonner, Mr. Infarction. A.B. Blakeley, followed in 1915 by bonner, Mr.

David Arnold West, a mining engineer born in 1875 at nearby Birstall. By 1908, the output of the Essay pit was 61,250 tons per annum, all produced by marita bonner, muscle power alone. Low Laithes was served by what was called a 'mineral railway', which ran from It´s Serious Business, Flushdyke to a rail terminus just south of the colliery. The coal from Low Laithes could then be transported via the railway goods yard at Flushdyke to any part of the UK. Bonner. The coal extracted from Low Laithes was taken at various times from the Silkstone, Beeston, Haigh Moor, Flockton or Cannel seams and there was a ready market for coal of this quality. Above: The winding engine house at Low Laithes Colliery with the water softener and steam accumulator circa 1920. The New Low Laithes Colliery, now owned by W. and E.H. Middlebrook, ceased production in May 1927, and the sister colliery at nearby Wrenthorpe also closed at the same time. The effects of the 1926 General Strike were causing severe economic problems at the time and trading was difficult with many coal miners either on shortened working weeks or having already been made redundant. The Ossett Observer in December 1928 noted that the chances of the Gawthorpe pit re-opening were remote and sadly it never did, despite probably being viable. In the event, the site changed hands, re-emerging as the Doric Kerb Works producing concrete drainage ducts.

The Doric works were derelict in the 1960s and it is on Modernization Water, believed that production ceased completely in the 1950s. 28. Northfield , Ossett opened in 1896 and closed in 1917. The colliery was owned in marita bonner 1896 by C. Newsome, and in 1899 by Shaw's Linfit Lane Coal Co. Essay Has Caused Air And. By 1917, Northfield was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd. Marita. It is most likely that Northfield and lysistrata summary, Crownlands Colliery are the marita same site. In 1908, there were 61 underground workers and 10 surface workers so this was a relatively small undertaking. The manager in 1908 was Mr.

S. Broadbent. 29. Shaw Cross , Owl Lane on the Ossett - Dewsbury border, was owned by C. B. Crawshaw and Gamification: Business Essay, Warburton and first opened in 1903 and closed in 1968. Bonner. In 1896, the manager was G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was P. Winstanley. By the early 1900s, there were 228 underground workers and 45 surface workers, but the colliery expanded significantly. Above: Shaw Cross Colliery as seen from Owl Lane, Ossett.

The pit baths were on the opposite side of Owl Lane. Above: Miners leaving Shawcross Pit after completing a shift underground circa late 1960s. 30. On Modernization Contamination. Storrs Hil l, Ossett, close to the Weavers Arms, was owned by W. Wilcock and marita bonner, was opened in 1901 and closed in example 1908. The pit was not working between 1904-1908.

31. Longlands , Ossett was first opened in 1910 and abandoned in May 1923. The colliery was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co, Ossett and mined the Haigh Moor seam. 32. Greatfield Colliery , was opened in 1913 and closed September 1954.

The pit was initially sunk between 1913-1916 and was owned in 1945 by the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd., Ossett with manager: A.W. Bonner. Thompson and no under manager. Lysistrata Summary. In 1945 there were 49 underground workers and 11 surface workers. In 1947, the colliery was nationalised and marita, came under NCB ownership. Above: A group of Ossett coal miners at Greatfield Colliery in the early 1950s. Above: A group of Myocardial, miners at Greatfield Colliery, Ossett circa 1956, which was always referred to as Westwood's Pit.

My thanks to David Maddison who recently contacted me and has identified his father Jack Donald Maddison on the back row, 2nd from the left. The miner with the impressive ZZ-Top beard, second from the right on the back row is Harry Bains. 33. Whinny Moor , is listed as an marita bonner, Ossett pit, although geographically it was actually located between Lupset and Wakefield. The colliery was first opened in 1869 and abandoned in June 1913. The owners between 1869-1873 were Hargreaves, Naylor and Co. In 1896, the colliery was owned by John Naylor and Co., who was also the owner of Pildacre Colliery in Ossett. In 1896, the manager of Essay on Modernization has Caused Water, Whinny Moor Colliery was S. Broadbent with the under-manager being J. Hudson. There were 37 underground workers and 7 surface workers. Collieries adjacent to Ossett. Many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at the pits just outside the town boundaries and the nearest four pits are as follows:

1. Chickenley Heath , Dewsbury, was leased by Joshua Greaves in bonner 1854. By 1857 it was noted that the Greaves Brothers had a 40 yard shaft at Chickenley Heath colliery and one man who had worked for them for six years. In 1861, after the Will This Country? Essay death of marita bonner, Joshua Greaves, the lease of policy, coal at Chickenley Heath was assigned to Gawthorpe butcher and farmer Joseph Terry and two others, most probably the Greaves brothers. In July 1862, the local press 10 had a notice that the partnership of John Henry Greaves and Charles Howard Greaves, trading as Greaves Brothers and Co., at Chickenley Heath was being dissolved and that from the bonner 31st March 1862, the business would be carried on by John Henry Greaves alone. Chickenley Heath colliery was owned in 1880 by Essay on Modernization Contamination, the Chickenley Heath Coal Co., Dewsbury.

In 1896, the manager was Mr. A.B. Blakeley and the under-manager was Mr. M. Rayner. There were 122 underground workers and 12 surface workers at marita bonner, this time. 2. Chickenley Wood , Dewsbury, in Will Stricter Laws This Essay 1880 the owner was the Chickenley, Wood Coal Co. 3. Chidswell , Dewsbury, In 1880 and 1896, the owners were C. Crawshaw and Warburton, Dewsbury. Marita. The manager in Essay on Modernization has Caused Air and Water 1896 was Mr. G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was Mr. P. Winstanley with 248 underground workers and 17 surface workers.

Since the owners, the manager and the under-manager are the same as those who were at Shaw Cross in marita 1903, it seems likely that Chidswell Colliery was an earlier variant of Shaw Cross, with possibly new pit shafts being sunk at Shaw Cross in 1903. In March 1888, the local press 12 carried a report describing a fatal accident at the pit, which was described then as being located in Leeds Road, Ossett: FATAL EXPLOSION AT OSSETT COLLIERY. An inquest was held at Ossett yesterday by Mr. T. Enlightenment Established By The. Taylor, coroner, touching the death of George Brook (45), colliery labourer, Naylor-street, Ossett, who was killed on marita Monday at Messrs. Crawshaw and Warburton's collieries, Leeds-road. Mr.

F.N. Lysistrata Summary. Wardell, H.M. Marita Bonner. Inspector of Mines watched the proceedings. Stricter Hurt Country?. The evidence stated that three other men working with the marita deceased had a narrow escape with their lives and had been severely burnt. Isaac Kilburn, pit sinker deposed that on Monday last he and proposal, another man named Waterhouse were working in bonner a staple or ventilating shaft between two seams known as Flockton and Old Hards. They were widening the shaft and stood on a scaffolding fixed therein.

After they had been working for between two and three hours with naked candles and without noticing anything unusual, gas came up the Gamification: Serious Essay shaft, and there was a violent explosion. The scaffolding was blown away, and Waterhouse and witness, both burnt were left clinging to the ledge of bonner, brickwork at the side of the shaft. The deceased and another man, who were working a jack-roll or windlass at Myocardial, the top of the shaft were also scorched, and the planking on marita which they stood was displaced, causing the deceased to fall down the shaft. When assistance came, Brook was quite dead. James Pomfret, the Deputy in charge at the time stated that the cannel seam was chiefly worked at Community Essay, the collieries, which employed a large number of men. Bonner. Next, below this was the Flockton seam, in which the Essay Air and Water deceased was at the time of the explosion and marita bonner, lowest of all, the Old Hards, which was being newly opened out. He examined the workings in the latter seam prior to the accident and found them free from gas and when he entered them afterwards, he found the Established Community Essay ventilation in marita bonner good order still.

In answer to questions by the Inspector, he said that eastwards of the bottom of the Business staple shaft was a heading driven, the further progress of which had been checked by a fault. When he examined that part of the marita workings on Monday morning, he did not go up to the fault, because part of the header was standing nearly up to the roof in water, but he examined the the edge of the water with his safety lamp and found no trace of gas, a good current of air coming over the water. The jury returned a verdict of accidentally killed. He leaves a widow and a large family. 4. Wrenthorpe , Wakefield was first opened in 1838 and Essay Water Contamination, was closed in 1900 after the death of the owner Mr. W.T. Marriot of Sandal Grange, Wakefield. Before then and as late as 1885, the bonner colliery was in the ownership of Enlightenment by the Essay, D. Micklethwaite and Company.

In 1896 the manager was Mr. T.W. Embleton and the under-manager was Mr. W. Wood. There were 103 underground workers and 35 surface workers. In 1905, the marita bonner colliery was bought by the Low Laithes Colliery Co. Ltd, who were operating their pit at Gawthorpe. Stricter Hurt Country?. It was re-opened in 1907, and was used as part of the principal Low Laithes colliery with the same manager, but Mr. D.A. West was the under-manager at Wrenthorpe. In 1908, there were 80 underground workers and 31 surface workers, suggesting a slight decline from ten years previously.

Wrenthorpe colliery had a branch line to the nearby main Leeds-London railway to marita transport coal to distribution centres and larger customers. Wrenthorpe colliery closed in 1927 at the same time as New Low Laithes Colliery as a result of the proposal example strike. Above: Wrenthorpe Colliery complete with an Upholsters Shop. Marita. The date of the photograph is not known but this section of the colliery opened in 1857. As an example of the prevailing conditions, there was a report in the ' Ossett Observer ' in June 1912 of a pit deputy being killed at Wrenthorpe pit, part of the Low Laithes Colliery: William Henry Hayes (56), colliery deputy of Dewsbury Road, Ossett met his death as a result of an accident in the Wrenthorpe part of Low Laithes colliery. Myocardial. The deceased was well-known in bonner both Earlsheaton and Chickenley Heath, in which places he had lived for a good many years. Ezra Ramsden, of 11 East Parade, Eastborough, Dewsbury, coal miner, said that the accident happened on Friday at 12.30 p.m. In a few more minutes he would have finished the Stricter Gun Control Laws Hurt job of filling up a gob. There had been a fall of roof three or four days before in the Silkstone seam, and deceased, who was assisting to remove the dirt, was working about half a yard from the witness.

Suddenly, a stone fell down on the deceased, who was sitting on marita bonner his right foot and leg and policy proposal example, was in the act of using his shovel. The end of the stone struck him on the head, and marita, knocked him against a prop which was behind him. Stricter Essay. He was still upright when witness pulled him out. The stone was not on him. Marita. He said Pull me out Ezra and he (witness) said Tha is out. There was no bleeding, but deceased appeared helpless.

He asked him (witness) to policy proposal example lean him against a prop, but he said he was not easy after after that had been done, so he was laid on his back. Deceased asked witness to take him to the gate, but witness told him that he could not do that by himself. Marita. He would not let witness go for help for some time, and he could not call for help because there was no one near to Will Gun Control Laws Hurt This Country? hear. Eventually witness got the help of several men, and together they got him out marita of the pit on a stretcher. He was quite helpless all the time. The stone that fell would be about Infarction, three feet six inches long, twenty inches broad, and bonner, would not fill a tub. One end hardly fell fourteen inches, because it reared. The roof was a yard high. Tamar Hayes, of Pickersgill Street, Dewsbury Road, Ossett, widow of the deceased said that her husband was an old servant of the company and policy example, had worked at Wrenthorpe for bonner about five years. On Modernization Has Caused Air And Water Contamination. He left home at about 4.15 a.m. on marita Friday morning and she heard that he had been hurt at about three in the afternoon.

She was able to see him at Clayton Hospital, Wakefield and although conscious, he could not talk much. She was there when he died on Saturday afternoon. Dr. Hugh Walker Moir, assistant house surgeon at the Clayton Hospital, said that deceased was admitted on Gamification: Serious Business Essay the 21st June, and was suffering from paralysis of the legs, arms and body, and from shock. He was quite conscious and quite helpless. The case was hopeless from the commencement. He rallied from the shock, but gradually sank and died at 12.15 on the following day. The cause of death was fracture of the fourth vertebra of the spine. Mr. D.A. West, the manager of Wrenthorpe colliery, said that the deceased had been at Wrenthorpe for three years and had worked for the company for forty-five years.

He had never worked anywhere else. The Coroner remarked that the deceased was a thoroughly experienced man and not a man likely to work in a reckless way. The evidence pointed to it having been a pure accident, and he suggested a verdict to the effect That deceased was killed by having his spine accidentally fractured by a fall of stone whilst at work. The jury agreed. The 1893 Ossett Coal Strike 6. In 1893, the price that mine owners could get for their coal dropped significantly.

Since 1887, coal miners' wages had increased by 40% above the standard rate and now, because profits were being affected, the Coal-owners' Federation called for a reduction in wages from August 1893. The mine owners wanted to bonner pay only Essay has Caused Air and 15% above the marita bonner standard rate, i.e. an effective reduction in wages of 25%. When the Coal-owners' Federation presented their revised pay offer to Gun Control Laws This Country? Essay the Miners' Federation of bonner, Great Britain, not surprisingly, the proposal was turned down flat and the Miners' Federation then asked its members to withdraw their labour from the end of July 1893. All of the English Coalfields were affected, with the Essay exception of Durham and Northumberland, where wages had already been reduced under sliding scale agreements. In 1893, there were four working collieries inside the town boundaries: Low Laithes (Gawthorpe), Pildacre, Westfield and Healey Lane. Just outside the bonner Ossett boundary, but always regarded as an Ossett coal mine, was Roundwood Colliery, which was easily the Stricter Gun Control Hurt Essay biggest of the local pits, and on bonner record as employing 619 underground workers, with another 129 surface workers (1896 figures).

The next two largest local collieries were Pildacre with a workforce of 232 underground and 25 surface workers (1896 figures), then Low Laithes, which had about 120 miners in Gamification: Serious 1893. Westfield and Healey Lane Collieries were relatively small by comparison with Westfield having thirty underground workers and Healey Lane only about twelve. Also, many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at Shaw Cross colliery, on Owl Lane, just over the town boundary in Dewsbury and employing about 232 underground workers and 45 surface workers (1896 figures.) Nearby Chickenley Heath and Chidswell collieries employed about another 350 local men, some of whom must have lived in Ossett. Those miners that were union members were organised by the Yorkshire Miners Association, based in Barnsley. Within the Ossett collieries, Union membership was strongest in the larger collieries, Roundwood, Pildacre and Low Laithes. Work had ceased at Low Laithes and Roundwood by the end of July in line with the marita bonner recommendation made by the Miners Federation, and at Pildacre soon afterwards. At the two smaller Ossett pits, Westfield and Healey Lane, the miners worked on and this was to cause trouble in the following weeks. The strike had a serious effect on Community Essay the local economy, which was based on the use of marita bonner, coal as a fuel for industry and transport. On Saturday, 12th August, the Great Northern Railway cancelled the majority of its passenger trains, from the following Monday, which ran between Ossett, Leeds, Wakefield and Bradford. The Ossett Observer noted that the lysistrata short notice that was given had caused the maximum inconvenience to travellers.

Worse was to come, and further cancellations followed in September. Before the end of marita bonner, August, the lack of coal had forced some of Ossett's textile mills to introduce part-time working. In September, the mills of J T Brook at Town End and Flushdyke; Swallow's Mill on Dewsbury Road, and Giggal Clay's Mill at Healey all had to close. The Ossett Gas Company was also affected by Enlightenment Established, the lack of coal and in November, it increased the price of gas from 2s 9d to marita 3s 0d per 1,000 cubic feet because of the rise in coal prices. Local mill owners tried to keep their businesses going by buying coal from the Enlightenment by the Community Durham coalfield and some paid up to triple the normal price. Unfortunately, the coal deliveries were delayed because the North-Eastern Railway was unable to cope with the bonner increase in demand for coal from the Serious Business Essay still operational Durham and Northumberland coalfields. A by-product of making gas from coal is coke and a few enterprising Ossett mill owners used coke purchased from the Ossett Gas Company instead of coal. Unfortunately, by the end of August all the coke stocks had been used up.

Pildacre Colliery was a wet pit and needed constant pumping to prevent the bonner underground workings from It´s Serious Business Essay, flooding. Pildacre's manager, Mr. Marita. S. Broadbent applied to the Yorkshire Miners Association for permission for Established Community his men to get coal from the pit to keep the marita bonner pump engines running. The owners of Pildacre Colliery were not among those trying to impose a wage reduction on their workers, but nevertheless, showing a certain amount of insensitivity, the Miners Association refused the request and Broadbent had to purchase 100 tons of coal from the Durham mines. Infarction. Pildacre was potentially the marita worst affected of lysistrata, all the Ossett mines because of the marita bonner flooding, but conditions deteriorated in all the other local collieries during the strike. Ossett's two small collieries, Healey Lane and Westfield tried to work on through the dispute.

This caused a certain amount of anger among the striking miners and there were several attempts to intimidate the men working at these mines, who in any case, were not members of the mineworker's union. At Healey Lane, the police were called on Saturday the Essay on Modernization has Caused Air and Water 12th and Monday the marita 14th August in order to prevent a likely breach of the peace by a group of pickets. This intimidation had some effect, since on the Monday, only Will Gun Control Laws Country? part of the workforce turned up for work. Marita. When the men came out of the pit, the had to be escorted home by the police amid hooting and cries of 'Baa' and other unfriendly demonstrations by a crowd of men and women . As a result, the men did not return to work on the Tuesday. On Saturday, 2nd September, some of the miners at Healey Road had returned to work, but were once again the subject of a rather hostile demonstration by a crowd of pickets. On Monday 4th September, a group of forty or fifty miners from outside the town gathered at Westfield Colliery, Ossett owned by Henry Westwood and where only a few miners were at work. Two or three of the Stricter Hurt This pickets went to see Henry Westwood to ask him to close the bonner pit. Westwood was not imposing any wage reduction on his men and in fact, he was opposed to the wage reduction proposals. Westwood refused to close the pit on the grounds that depriving Ossett's textile mills of coal would not help the miners, but would inflict hardship on the textile workers, who were unconnected with the strike and would be put out of work.

This did not meet the It´s Business approval of the pickets and one of them suggested that they should fetch the blacklegs out of the pit and throw the corves down the shaft. Sensibly, this proposal was not carried out, but when Westwood's men came up from the bonner shaft and were leaving the pit-yard to go home, some of the proposal pickets started shouting 'Baa' and one of the ringleaders grabbed a pit deputy and hustled him. Any further disturbance was prevented by the timely appearance of two policemen. On Thursday 7th September 1893 at the height of the marita bonner coal miners strike, it was reported in the Ossett Observer that a serious encounter took place at Chidswell on the Ossett boundary a mob of between 2 and Enlightenment Established Essay, 3,000 men was marching in the direction of Ossett. About forty-five police charged the mob, and dispersed it using truncheons. There was a good deal of stone-throwing, and some of the rioters were armed with formidable bludgeons, but they did not make very much of a stand against the police staves ( it was noted that some of the crowd were rather severely punished by the officers' truncheons.) The constables were also armed with cutlasses, but did not resort to the use of them.

Westfield Colliery in bonner Ossett was the It´s Serious true objective of the Chidswell rioters, but Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery had learned of the planned attack earlier in the day and marita bonner, had withdrawn his men from the pit. Only two men were arrested at Chidswell; one was a miner and It´s Business Essay, the other a cloth fuller. Marita. They were both sentenced to one-month's imprisonment by the West Riding Court in Dewsbury. Unfortunately, for policy proposal the local police, the disturbances coincided with the St. Leger races at Doncaster, which annually took some 200 men away from their usual duties in the West Riding.

When Ossett came under threat, there was only one policeman in the town. Following the disturbances, Ossett's police force was strengthened by the addition of a sergeant and three constables, to the usual force of six officers. All of the police were armed with cutlasses and officers were stationed at the town's collieries. At the beginning of the week of disturbances, there was the first of three mass meetings by bonner, the town's miners. All three were organised by the local branches of the Yorkshire Miners Association. The first two meetings were held at the football field near Ossett railway station, and the final meeting took place in the Temperance Hall in Illingworth Street. At the first meeting, which was held on the evening of Monday 4th September, a resolution expressing continued support for the strike was passed by the 800 to Stricter Laws This 1,000 men present. Marita. Although one of the speakers, Mr G.R. Simpson, a check-weighman at Roundwood Colliery condemned the Established rowdyism that had recently taken place at Westfield Colliery and said that some of the marita bonner unionists were very sorry that there had been an element in Ossett that day which was no credit to the working class . Another of the speakers, the Reverend B. Haddon, a Primitive Methodist minister, hailing from Durham was more forthright. In his opinion this was not a strike but a lock-out and Air and Contamination, that a terrible day of retribution would come for men who out of the blood of the working class were selfishly amassing huge fortunes . The miners next meeting took place on the morning of Thursday 14th September. A large number walked to the meeting behind a brass band and the banner of the Chickenley Heath branch of the Yorkshire Miners Association.

At the meeting, which was attended by 2,000 people, a resolution to resist the marita wage reduction was unanimously passed. The final meeting was held on Wednesday 18th October and the principal speaker, the President of the Yorkshire Miners Association, Edward Cowey (1839-1903), received an enthusiastic reception from the audience. The Ossett Observer noted Cowey's effectiveness as an orator a big man, with a deep voice, and a North-country accent, Mr. Cowey has a rugged eloquence of his own, which evidently exercises a powerful effect on its hearers - exhibiting as it does, deep earnestness and an absence of affectation. By the time that Cowey visited Ossett, some of the miners' families were suffering hardship. When the dispute began, the Yorkshire Miners Association was able to pay 9 shillings a week to each man. The funds were distributed in the local public houses and one collier wrote to the Ossett Observer protesting about receiving his pay in a public house and suggested instead that a schoolroom in the Temperance Hall would be more suitable. In the third week of September 1893, the Enlightenment Established by the Association's fund ran out.

The last strike pay, amounting to 7 shillings a week for each man, was issued on Thursday 21st and Friday 22nd September. The non-union miners who were forced out of work by marita bonner, the strike received no strike pay at all. For example, of the 30 'coal getters' at Westfield Colliery, five were non-unionists. In Ossett, the local leaders of the Enlightenment Yorkshire Miners' Association began organising relief for non-unionists in September. A Relief Committee, headed by Thomas Webster of Roundwood Colliery was set up and collections taken.

In the week ending Saturday 9th September, almost £20 worth of 'necessaries' were distributed to non-unionists. A number of individuals also tried to help the families of miners who were suffering from hardship. Among them was the Mayor, Councillor Francis Lumb Fothergill, who visited over 200 such families and also Alderman Wilson. Some help came also from the Ossett Industrial Co-operative Society, which received £10 from the Co-operative Wholesale Society and distributed it in bonner the form of groceries. The congregation at the Primitive Methodist Chapel in Dewsbury Road raised £5 9s 8d in a collection, while the parishioners in North Ossett raised enough funds to provide thirty boys with breakfast at Gamification: It´s Serious Essay, Gawthorpe Church School. A meeting for those groups interested in bonner helping provide relief for summary the miners was called in the Temperance Hall on Wednesday 11th October 1893 and this resulted in the formation of a Relief Sub-Committee of the Borough Council and the opening of a subscription list. The Sub-Committee consisted of eight men representing between them the marita Borough Council, the lysistrata town's Anglicans, the town's non-Conformists and the miners. By Saturday, 14th October, the marita bonner Sub-Committee had raised £48 1s 6d.

The largest donation of Gamification: Serious Essay, £10 came from the Leeds Mercury Fund, whist Westwood and Company were among four donors of £5 each. The Sub-Committee distributed some 180 relief tickets weekly until Friday 3rd November, when the marita bonner funds ran out. During the same period, the Will Stricter Laws Hurt This Country? Sub-Committee also provided two teas for 600 children in the town's schoolrooms, whilst two Leeds gentlemen provided tea for 200 children. Marita Bonner. A dance and Myocardial Infarction Essay, then a concert, both held in the Temperance Hall provided the Sub-Committee with fresh funds and there was a further distribution of relief in the weeks ending Saturday 18th November and bonner, Saturday 25th November. Two more free teas for 600 children were provided and Walter Scott, a butcher in policy Station Road provided tea for 200 children. By the 25th November, the strike had finally come to an end.

It lasted so long because neither side was willing to compromise. The Coal-owners Federation insisted on a wage reduction whilst the Miners' Federation was firm that no reduction of wages was acceptable. A ballot, held by the Yorkshire Miners' Association in early September, indicated that most of its members supported the strike. A wage reduction, arbitration and a return to work on the old rate of wages were all rejected by large majorities. However, in Ossett, the marita bonner feeling was rather different and the Ossett Observer noted that the overwhelming majority of miners in the town wanted to return to Gun Control Laws Hurt This Country? Essay work at the old rate of wages.

The attitude of the Yorkshire miners changed as their strike fund ran out later in the month. Marita. In a second ballot later in September, they accepted a recommendation from the leaders of the on Modernization Air and Yorkshire Miners' Association to return to work at those collieries where the old rate of marita bonner, pay was offered. The Miners' Federation endorsed a return to Enlightenment Community work on these terms, but also imposed a levy of one shilling a day on returning miners in order to support those still in dispute. Most of the Yorkshire miners found that their employers were still insisting on a wage reduction and so only a minority returned to work. In Ossett, Healey Lane and marita, Pildacre Collieries were working double shifts at summary, the beginning of bonner, October, while Low Laithes and Roundwood remained closed. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction of the 40% advanced since 1887, but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives. In mid-November, a rumour that Low Laithes was to Infarction Essay be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager.

The dispute was finally brought to an end by the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, who appointed the bonner Foreign Secretary, Lord Rosebery as a mediator between the two sides. On the 17th November 1893, a joint conference was held at the Foreign Office, under the presidency of Lord Rosebery between representatives of the policy proposal Federated Coal-owners and marita bonner, the Miners' Federation. A settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at lysistrata, least one year. Marita Bonner. In Ossett, the miners at Low Laithes and has Caused Water Contamination, Roundwood returned to marita work the following week. With the end of the strike, the town's mills were able to return to full production and cancelled rail services were gradually restored. Gun Control Hurt This Country? Essay. Unfortunately, the bonner Ossett Observer did not comment on how long it took the miners' families to lysistrata summary recover from the financial strain of the marita bonner dispute. Bradford Observer, Monday, 7th September 1874. Water. Bradford Observer, Tuesday, 15th September 1874. Marita. Bradford Observer, Friday, 25th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday October 13th 1874.

Leeds Mercury , Saturday January 17th 1863. 1893 Ossett Coal Strike - adapted from an essay by David Scriven. Relative value of has Caused Air and Water Contamination, UK pound in RPI terms, taken from the web site: http://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/ppoweruk/ York Herald , Monday, January 11th 1875. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, September 25th 1890. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, July 19th 1862. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, September 8th 1877. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, 29th March 1888.

Leeds Mercury , Tuesday, 22nd December 1857. Lancaster Gazette , Saturday, 26th December 1857. My maternal grandfather, Joseph John Smith worked nearly all his life as a coal hewer in the Yorkshire pits. He was born in Beaufort, Ebbw Vale in 1897, but moved to Yorkshire in the 1920s to work at Sharlston Colliery. Marita. Here, Joe Smith met and married local Horbury girl, Frances Margrave and proposal example, then lost her to cancer in bonner 1936. For a while, in the 1960s, he came to live with his only daughter, Margaret Wilson and family in Kingsway, Ossett. I wish I had talked with him more about his life, but it didn't seem important at the time. My grandfather was a great talker, but he never talked about his experiences in the Welsh and Yorkshire coal mines, where he had worked from the age of 14. His back and upper arms were mottled with bluish-grey tattoo-like markings, which were the scars from cuts and abrasions sustained working bareback, hewing coal in the narrow seams under Wakefield.

The bloody, exposed tissue had then filled with black dust, just like ink from a tattooist's needle, leaving him with a permanent reminder of the decades of underground toil. His lungs were shot from years of inhaling the Enlightenment Established by the Essay coal dust, muck and bad air down the marita bonner mines. I can hear his hacking, wheezing cough now. Joe died aged 68 from by the Community, diseases and marita bonner, complications brought on by his years of working in that subterranean hell-hole. Miner's Death 1869 - Inquest at the Little Bull, Ossett Common. Mr Taylor, honor and county coroner held an inquest at the Little Bull Inn, Ossett Common over the body of a coal miner, Joseph Crabtree, aged 30. His widow stated that he had his back hurt about two years ago and was laid up for a week. On Friday 27th August 1869 he had left home at 5 o'clock in the morning to go to his work at Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co., Roundwood Colliery, Soon after 1pm the same day, he was brought home with his left leg broken. Mr. Kemp from Wakefield attended him and Mr.

Lawson Tait also acted to Gamification: Serious Business set his leg. Deceased began to marita bonner complain of pain in his left side a day or two afterwards, but he seemed to mend until last Thursday when the lysistrata pain in his side commenced again. He died on Wednesday morning about half past two. Mr. Lawson Tait, Wakefield surgeon said that he visited the deceased about a fortnight ago and marita, found that he had fractured his left leg and thigh. The leg was in position and appeared to be going on well. On Thursday witness made a post mortem examination of the body and found the fractures in process of a cure and in lysistrata a very satisfactory state. Bonner. The organs were in a normal condition, except the right side of the heart, which was very much distended with dark, fluid blood. The pulmonary artery was entirely stopped with a hard clot of blood. The clot would cause death by suffocation. It had no direct communication with his injury.

It must have been in existence for several days or possibly weeks. Weakness from injury or illness would be likely to cause disease. Jacob Page of Alverthorpe, coal miner, a fellow worker of the deceased's said that about 11 o'clock in the morning of the 27th August, the deceased's hurrier fetched him and he went to his bank, He found the deceased sitting about two feet from the policy proposal example face with about 3 or 4 hundredweight of coal and rock on his left leg and helped free the deceased by moving the marita coal. A row of Enlightenment by the Community Essay, props were set to marita within four feet of the face. The seam of coal is the Haigh Moor, which is It´s Business Essay, about a yard thick, but in three seams. The deceased told him that he had got the two lower seams and tried to get down the top seam and failed, and he had therefore determined to let it stop up until he had got ready for another fall.

Verdict: Died from a clot of blood, accelerated by the accidental fracture of the left leg. From the ' Ossett Observer' 18th September 1869. Fatal Accident to a Hurrier at Roundwood Colliery - 1877. On Tuesday the 2nd inst., a Horbury lad named Wilson Baines was at his work as a hurrier at the Roundwood Colliery, when a mass of marita bonner, stone from the pit roof fell on him inflicting various injuries to his head. The poor boy was taken home unconscious, in which state he remained till half-past one on Sunday afternoon, when he died. Last Tuesday morning, an inquest was held at the King's Arms, the Stricter Gun Control Hurt Country? Essay house of marita bonner, Mr. S. Hall, before Mr. T. Taylor and a respectable jury of whom Mr.

Thomas Mitchell was foreman. The following evidence was adduced:- Charles White, joiner of Northgate said the deceased was his step son and was 15 years old on Friday. He was a hurrier and the son of the late Mr. T. Baines, rag dealer.

He went out to his work at a quarter after five o'clock, a week since that morning. He had worked in a pit going on for four years. He was brought back soon after twelve o'clock, unable to speak, and remained unconscious till he died on Sunday afternoon. He received frequent attention, both from Essay Water Contamination, Messrs. Kemp and Son, surgeons of Wakefield and from Mr.

B. Kemp from Horbury. William Peace, hurrier of Flushdyke, Ossett said he was working at Messrs. Marita Bonner. Terry, Greaves Co.'s Roundwood Colliery, and Established by the, knew Wilson Baines who hurried on the same road with him. Marita. On Tuesday morning deceased was standing in the middle of the horse road, which is about 5ft 6 in high, when a piece of the roof came in suddenly. Only one piece came out; it was a lump of blue bind and seemed to catch the deceased on the head, knocking him down. He raised an alarm, and his father came to the spot. Joseph Peace, coal miner, of Flushdyke, said he was getting coal from the face of a bank, when he heard something fall and his lad scream out O father, do come, and away he ran and found the deceased on the floor bleeding, with knees drawn up and insensible. Myocardial Essay. He was in marita a new road which he (witness) helped to drive. He had always considered the road good; his own boys passed up and down the way 70 or 80 times a day, and he had to go that way himself.

If he had not, he should not have used the Essay road himself or have allowed his boys. Marita. Where the accident occurred, the road was about 8 or 9ft wide. Deceased was bleeding about the head. The piece of Will Laws Country?, stone which came down would weigh about 5 or 6 stones, and it knocked a prop down in falling. Witness went up to the pit bank immediately to marita bonner send for Infarction a doctor, and marita, the deceased was taken to his home. A verdict of accidental death was returned. From the ' Ossett Observer ' October 13th 1877. Sep 18th 1880: A Chidswell collier with the nickname “Wild Jack” had made a bet that he would “worry a live hedgehog with his teeth, his hands being tied behind him” , also that he would go through other similar performances, in a field behind the Royal Oak, Owl Lane. On Saturday afternoon a crowd of It´s, about 200 had gathered, including a number from Batley and other places. A man was also in attendance with a bag containing the hedgehog. The police had heard of the affair however, and at 5:00pm a sergeant and two plain clothed constables arrived and were greeted with hooting.

No attempt was made to proceed with the exhibition, but it was rumoured that the encounter between the man and the hedgehog came off the same evening at a place called “Dog Loitch”. Above: Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) long time principal of bonner, Roundwood Colliery, Ossett. Greaves took control of the colliery in 1885 at the tender age of 17 years when his father, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916) suffered a heart attack. Percy Greaves was destined for a place at lysistrata, Cambridge University, but his father's ill health forced him to marita bonner take over the family business. By 1892, he had qualified with a first-class colliery manager's certificate and he went on to become one of the most eminent mining engineers in Myocardial Infarction the UK. He was respected and very well-liked by the men at bonner, Roundwood where there were no strikes (excluding National Strikes) during his ownership. Greaves always strove to provide the most up-to-date methods for Air and Water Contamination safety and efficiency for his men.

It was noted in his obituary (The Times of October 25th 1957) that few days passed when he was not seen at the pit-head or down the shaft of bonner, one of his collieries. Percy Greaves lived with his wife and family of four children at Woolgreaves, near Wakefield; a large eleven bedroomed house built in the 1830s and set in 30 acres of grounds. Miners summoned for leaving work - 1888. At the West Riding Court, Dewsbury, George Cawthorne, Richard Foy and John Richardson were summoned for unlawfully absenting themselves from their employment at Will Stricter Gun Control Country? Essay, Pildacre Colliery, Ossett early in July 1888. Foy did not appear. Mr. T.L. Chadwick appearing for Messrs. John Naylor and Co.

Ltd., the marita bonner colliery proprietors stated that the defendants on entering their employment signed the usual printed form of contract to give or take 14 days notice on leaving. On the dates named, however, they had abstained themselves and were written to by Mr. William Noble, the colliery manager, but appeared to have obtained work elsewhere. Compensation was claimed from each, being 2 shillings per day, a proportion of the Enlightenment Established Essay standing expenses of the colliery during their absence. Foy was asked to pay £2, Richardson £1 14s and Cawthorne £1 12s. Richardson was allowed two weeks to marita bonner pay and Established Community, the others two months. From the ' Ossett Observer' 12th August 1880.

Aug 16th 1890: A day hole is to marita bonner be opened from the Runtlings Lane colliery of Messrs Westwood Co. to Healey. It will be fitted with an engine plane, so that coal can be sent out that way for the mills at Healey, instead of being drawn up that shaft. The object is to save the expense of carting coal down into the valley. During the coal strike in Ossett in Gamification: It´s Business 1893, the textile mills in the town were starved of marita, coal and many had to close. Lysistrata. Temperance Mill in Church Street, Ossett was owned by Francis Lumb Fothergill and he came up with a novel approach to bonner keep his mill open. By running the mill boilers on dried sewage sludge, he was able to keep Temperance Mill operating. By the middle of September 1893, Fothergill had used 150 tons of sewage sludge and several other mills in the town followed his example. The sludge was available free-of-charge from the borough sewage works and the only cost was transporting it, which must have been an unpleasant job. Another approach was to burn rag dust saturated with old engine oil and John William Smith, the Laws Hurt Country? Essay owner of Healey Old Mill, Ossett managed to keep his mill operating through the marita bonner strike using this method.

Fire at Roundwood Pit - 1893. The 'Ossett Observer ' noted in March 1893 that a fire had occurred earlier in has Caused Air and Water Contamination the year in the Silkstone pit at Roundwood colliery. The owners of the colliery, Terry, Greaves and Co. had not seen fit to contribute the one guinea a year for the services of the Wakefield Fire Brigade, which would have attended the fire earlier so that the disaster would not have been so great. Also on the 7th September 1893, on the same day as as the riot at Chidswell, at nearby Ackton Hall colliery in Featherstone, two men lost their lives, after soldiers opened fire on a large crowd of marita bonner, people. There had been some destruction of property at the colliery by a group of rioters and flying pickets intent on by the causing trouble. Marita. By the late afternoon 3 officers and 26 men from the 1st Battalion of the South Staffordshire Regiment had been called in, and the local magistrate read the Riot Act. Has Caused Contamination. Because the crowd didn't disperse quickly enough, the soldiers were ordered to bonner open fire.

Tragically, by on Modernization Air and Contamination, then, the crowd had been swollen with many innocent local bystanders. Marita Bonner. James Gibbs (22) and James Arthur Duggan (25) were to die of gunshot wounds and six other people were injured. Neither Gibbs or Duggan had been involved in the rioting and the unfortunate sequence of events came to policy proposal example be known as the marita Featherstone Massacre. Alarming Explosion at Ossett Colliery - 1895. A serious accident occurred in one of the coal seams worked by the Low Laithes Colliery Company Limited, at Gawthorpe, Ossett.

The seam in question, the Cannel is regarded as sufficiently safe to be worked with naked lights at neighbouring collieries, but safety lamps are used in it at Low Laithes. There were considerably fewer persons employed there on Saturday than on other days of the week. Operations proceeded in on Modernization Water Contamination the usual fashion until about eleven o'clock, when an bonner, explosion occurred. It appears that ripping was done in the main road, to summary make the latter high enough for the passage of bonner, corves to the coal face. A shot had been fired to blow down a portion of the Enlightenment Established by the Community roof, and this left a cavity, in which it is supposed some gas may have collected. At all events, when the Deputy in charge Asa Dransfield, of Gawthorpe, fired another shot, gas exploded.

Dransfield and five other miners who were working in that part of the mine were unfortunately burnt. As soon as possible they were drawn to the surface. Dr. Mill (Messrs. Wiseman and Mill) happened to marita be in the locality, and was quickly summoned. The colliery surgeon, Mr. Oates, of Dewsbury arrived later. Oil and Essay, limewater were applied to the burns of the marita bonner injured men, which were also bandaged with cotton wool. Assistance in this was rendered by Police-sergeant Wilcock and Police-constable Groves, who are members of the Gun Control This Country? Essay St. John Ambulance Association. Under the direction of bonner, Dr.

Mill, five men were removed in example cabs to bonner the Dewsbury and District Infirmary, their names being: Joseph Peaker (39), married, no children, of Bennett's Buildings, Gawthorpe, Ossett; burnt on right side, back, and arms. John Robinson (33), married, two children, of Commercial Street, Earlsheaton.; burnt on back, shoulder, face, and arms. Fred Squires (27), single, living with his parents at Chickenley Heath, Soothill; burnt on the neck face, and head. Thomas Coulter (20), single, lodging at Sunderland's Buildings, Soothill Lane; burnt on arms, back, and face. Peter Kenney (about 45 or 50), single, of Cobden Street, Batley; burnt on back, arms, and lysistrata, face. Asa Dransfield, the deputy, who was badly burnt on his arms, etc. did not go to the Infirmary, but was able to go down the pit upon the arrival of the managing director, Mr. A.B. Blakeley of Dewsbury, and explain how the accident had occurred. It is understood that the explosion was not of sufficient violence to do any material damage to the pit workings. Robinson was able to leave the infirmary on Wednesday, and Peaker yesterday.

The other three men are still lying in the Andrew Pickard ward of the institution, but it is thought that Kenny will be ready to marita bonner go out Serious Essay next Tuesday or Wednesday. Squires and Coulter, who were both terribly scorched are not yet out of danger. Squires has his face and head entirely enveloped in bandages, with the bonner exception of small orifices for his eyes, nose and mouth. From the ' Ossett Observer ' July 13th 1895. Above: The engine in the Power House at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to generate electricity. Fatal Accident at Established by the, Shaw Cross Colliery - 1897. A lad named Joseph Jennings, 14 years of age, son of Allen Jennings, coal miner, Chidswell was fatally injured at Shaw Cross Colliery belonging to Messrs. Crawshaw and Warburton.

The deceased's mother, Mrs. Emma Jennings, said he was a strong active lad and employed as a pony driver. Marita. He left home at Essay on Modernization has Caused Water Contamination, 5.30 on bonner Wednesday morning to go to the pit, along with his brother Israel, a hurrier at the same pit. He was brought home at about quarter to eight the same morning in an injured condition, but he died at 10.30 that night. When the body was laid out, the left side had the skin grazed and Infarction Essay, one of bonner, his hands was crushed. Stuart Hartley of Hanging Heaton said he was employed along with the policy proposal example deceased as a pony driver at Shaw Cross Colliery. Bonner. He saw the deceased at policy proposal, the pit bottom at about half past six on Wednesday morning. They both travelled on the main horse road to the junction, the road being 6 feet high and 12 feet wide. About seven o'clock, he was coming from the coal face when he saw deceased's pony standing still in bonner the road, attached to ten loaded corves, the first being overturned, with the proposal deceased lying under it. Five of the marita corves were off the rails, and five on, but they were all coupled.

The road appeared all right, and he could not tell how the accident had happened unless some coal had fallen into the points and prevented them from working properly. He and another driver named Joseph Henry Wade liberated the deceased, who only said Take me home. Witness had worked on the same road and had found nothing out of order. They found the deceased about five yards from the points. Air And Water. The jury returned a verdict that the deceased was accidentally injured by the corves. From the ' Ossett Observer ' September 4th 1897. After the coal strike in 1893, Ossett artist Mark Senior received a commission from a group of local mill owners to paint a portrait of Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery in Ossett. Above: 1893 portrait of Ossett mine owner Henry Westwood, J.P. painted by Mark Senior. Westwood had tried hard to bonner keep his pit open to supply coal to power the local textile mills in Gun Control Laws This Country? Essay Ossett. During the bonner dispute, not only It´s Serious Essay had Westwood not tried to impose the 25% pay cut on marita bonner his workers that the Gamification: Serious Coal-owners' Federation was calling for in response to lower coal prices, but also he had not drastically increased his coal prices to take advantage of the coal famine.

In recognition of his services, local mill owners subscribed for his portrait to be painted and marita bonner, it was presented to him in January 1894. The painting was described in the Ossett Observer as an admirable likeness and was inscribed Presented to Mr. Henry Westwood J.P. by a few friends, as a mark of respect and in grateful recognition of the generous assistance rendered by his firm to the trade of Ossett during the Myocardial Infarction Essay memorable coal strike of 1893. Westwood's business partner, in bonner Westwood and Co. at Westfield Colliery, William Wray, was presented with an inscribed gold watch. Oct 2nd 1909: An interesting discovery was made in the Low Laithes pit at Gawthorpe on Sunday when a bye-worker named Joe Edwards discovered a bottle, containing tea, in a worked-out part of the Essay on Modernization has Caused Contamination mine. Edwards, along with four other men, was making his way up No.2 rise towards the “73 gate” when they stopped for a rest in what is known as “Ned Littlewood’s Place“. It was while resting that Joe noticed the bottle, covered with dust, lying on one side of the road. He picked it up and it immediately occurred to him that it was the bottle taken down by a miner named Horace Moorhouse, who had his back broken in that spot nearly two years ago. Near at hand they also found Moorehouse’s “snap“. Although it is two years ago since the bonner accident occurred, the policy example bottle was intact.

Shale had fallen from the roof around the bottle but had not touched it. The man to whom it belonged, though helpless, is stated to be in marita bonner excellent health and spirits, apart from lysistrata, his injured back. Colliery Death at Low Laithes 1921. Alexander Isaacs (40), a colliery contractor was severely injured in an explosion following a misfired shot whilst working in the Low Laithes Colliery Co Ltd at Wrenthorpe (Wakefield). The accident happened on bonner the 9th February 1921 and Isaacs was taken to Clayton Hospital in Wakefield where he later died from his injuries on the 21st February 1921. Redfern Kaye, the underground manager at Whitwood Colliery, near Castleford agreed to allow a group of students from Leeds University to go underground on February 16th 1926. Summary. His daughters Gladys and marita, Mary went with him. The shaft was inspected in the afternoon and Myocardial Infarction, the group went down the marita Speedwell shaft at lysistrata summary, 6pm, Redfern Kaye leading the way and marita, Bill Hughes at the back of the group. Mary was in front of him.

The roof caved in and Mary was trapped under a huge timber roof support. She was killed outright. This led to a ban on women going underground at policy, West Yorkshire collieries for many years. Aug 14th 1926: While searching for marita coal during the strike, workers have unearthed in Gamification: Serious fields near the boundary beck, near Tufty Farm, what appears to be old coal stores. In field after field on the bottom side it was found that underneath about marita, a foot of soil was a layer of small coal, varying in depth from Contamination, one to two feet, and marita bonner, partitioned off every four or so by a narrow barrier of solid clay. At some time or other beyond the memory of the oldest inhabitant, the turf and subsoil have been removed, clay walls constructed at intervals of four feet, the Serious Business Essay intervening space filled with coal, and the soil turf then restored. The theory put forward is that long ago well over 100 years ago, it is thought coal was worked extensively in this locality, and as it was used mostly for domestic purposes, the marita bonner small coal, or slack, was practically valueless, and was disposed of in this way, either to level up undulating land, or to avoid the creation of Myocardial, unsightly spoil heaps.

This would entail much labour, but labour was cheap in those days. The clay partitions could serve to either stop the small coal being washed away, or to prevent the spread of fire in the case of marita, spontaneous combustion. In some places intersecting clay barriers are found, giving the appearance of a huge honeycomb. Similar operations are being carried out at Low Park Farm, where the formation of the dumps is the same. Here the coal is Gamification: It´s Essay, being got between two and marita bonner, two and It´s Serious Essay, a half feet thick. An 18th century coin has been found here amongst the coal, and may give some indication of the age of the dumps. May 25 1946: Opencast coal workings between Storrs Hill and Healey, in six months, have transformed 52 acres of agricultural land into a region of quarries and huge mounds. Marita. Producing 700 tons of coal per Will Stricter This Country?, week, over 20,000 tons have been taken since work commenced last October. It is estimated that 400,000 tons will have been taken before work finishes, probably at the end of the year. The site is marita bonner, between Storrs Hill Road and Healey gasworks.

Two coal seams, each 3 feet thick, are being worked. They outcrop about 100 feet from each other, on the Ossett side of the LMS railway. Excavations have been made a short distance inwards, where coal is twenty to Enlightenment by the Essay thirty feet below the surface. During the marita bonner last six months the Upper Haigh seam has been almost exhausted, and policy, Lower Haigh has been started on from the Storrs Hill end. Between thirty and forty men are employed there by Messrs Otty Brothers of marita, Leeds.

Old underground pit workings have been exposed by the work. A field on lysistrata summary the Horbury side of Storrs Hill has already been worked, and marita bonner, is ready to be restored.

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